ITALIAN & LATIN TRANSLATIONS



LUCIANO NARDONE
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Select Word-List from Manorial Records (Revised with additions, August 2004)

All c.1700 words and phrases in this word-list have been found in a manorial record. Of course, any one court will have a much more limited vocabulary. The words recorded here illustrate both the diversity of business within an apparent uniformity of manorial procedures and regional and temporal variations of farming practices and tenurial arrangements. This word-list, although it does include material from extents and manorial accounts, is not complete nor does it include all the numerous variations in spelling common in post classical Latin for which one should consult R.E. Latham The Revised Medieval Latin Word-List (1965). The compiler would welcome authenticated additions to this list. Readers are welcome to download and/or print this list for their personal research. All intellectual property-rights in this material reserved to the compiler.

Christopher Harrison
Department of History
School of Humanities
University of Keele
Staffordshire
ST5 5BG

email: hia04@keele.ac.uk


a; ab (prep. with abl.) -- from; by
abbas, -atis (m) -- abbot
abbatia, -ie (f) -- abbey
abbuttare (1) -- to adjoin, border on, abut
abcariare (1) -- to carry away
abduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum (3) -- to remove, drive off, lead away [often used of `rescuing' animals]
adiacens, -entis (adj.) -- adjacent to
abjurare (1) -- to abjure, renounce by oath (leg.)
abradicare (1) -- to tear out
absque (prep. with abl.) -- without
ac (conj.) -- and
acer also ascer -- steeling [of iron tools, by welding steel to cutting edge]
accido, -ere, accidi (3) -- to occur, happen, fall due
accio, -ionis (f) -- action (leg.)
vel fiat accio -- or let action be brought
accipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum (3) -- to take possesion of; to receive
acra, -e (f) -- an acre [There were four roods (rode) to an acre]
ad (prep. with acc.) -- towards, at, for, to
adhuc (adv. of time) -- still, thus far, yet, besides, in addition
adducere (3) -- to lead to
adiacens, -entis (adj.) -- bordering on, adjacent to
adiaceo, -ere, -ui, -itum -- to adjoin
adjudicare (1) -- to adjudge
admerciare (1) -- to amerce [Rare]
admissio, -ionis (f.) -- admission [to a holding]
admitto, -ere, -misi, -missum (3) -- to admit [to a holding]; to acknowledge
adventus, -us (m) -- Advent; court appearance
adversus (adv. & prep.) -- opposite, against, towards
afferator, -oris (m) also affirmator -- affeerer, assessor (leg.)
affero, affere attuli, allatum (3) -- to affeer; to bring
affraia, -e (f) -- an affray or assault
affraiam fecit leviter -- he slightly assaulted; he made a little affray on
affrus, -i (m) -- farm horse; ox
agistamentum, -i (n) -- agistment of pastuage; dues paid for pasturage
agistatus, -a, -um (adj.) -- put out to pasture
agreamentum, -i (n) -- agreement
agnus, -i (m) -- a lamb
albanarius, -i (m) also albanus -- servile tenant of one lord who has taken up abode on land of another lord [Durham]
ago, -ere, egi, actum -- to do
alias (adv.) -- at another time; elsewhere; otherwise; alias
alienare (1) -- to alienate; to transfer [land]
alienatio, -ionis (f) -- transfer, alienation (of land)
aliquando (adv.) -- at some time; at any time
aliquis, aliquid (pron.) -- anyone, anything
aliter (adv.) -- otherwise
alius, alia, aliud (pron. & adj.) -- another; other
allecia, -ie (f) also alleca and allecium -- herring
alter, altera, alterum (adj.) -- one of two; the other (of two)
ex altera parte -- on the other side
alternatim (adv.) -- alternately, interchangeably
altus, -a -um (adj.) -- high
ambo (adv.) -- both
ambulatorium, -i (n) -- covered walk; bowling alley
amerciamentum, -i (n.) -- amercement [i.e. financial penalty established by the court (leg.)]
amerciare (1) -- to amerce (leg.) [Rare]
amplius (adj. & adv.) -- besides; further; more
amputare (1) -- to lop, cut off
anatula, -e (f) also anaticula -- young duck, duckling
Anglia -e (f) -- England
Anglicanus, -a, um (adj.) -- English
Anglice (adv.) -- in English [Often used when the scribe didn't know the Latin equivalent of an English word or to translate a rare Latin word]
animal, -e (n) -- animal
annalis, -e -- yearling (beast)
annexare (1) -- to annex; to attach to (as of a seal)
annualis, -e (adj.) -- annual
annuatim (adv.) -- annually
annus, -i (m) -- a year
Annunciatio, -ionis (f) -- The Annunciation
Annunciatio beatis virginis Marie -- Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary
annuus, -a, -um (adj.) -- annually
anquilla, -e (f) -- eel
anser, -eris (m) -- gander or goose
ante (prep. with acc.) -- before
ante manum -- beforehand
antea (adv.) -- formerly
in antea -- henceforth; for the future
antedictus, -a, -um (adj.) -- aforesaid
antiquus, -a, -um (adj.) -- ancient; old
ab antiquo tempore -- from ancient times
anulus, -i (m) -- pig-ring
anulatus, -a, um (adj.) -- ringed (of pigs)
aper, apri (m) -- a boar
aperio, -ire, -ui, -tum -- to open up
apparentia, -ie (f) -- appearance in court (leg.)
appareo, -ere, -ui (2) -- to appear in court (leg.)
appellare (1) -- to appeal; to accuse (leg.)
appendo, -ere, -pendi, -pensum -- to append
appreciare (1) -- to appraise, to value
appunctare (1) -- to appoint; prescribe
apud (prep. with acc) -- at, near, by, to, towards
aqua, -e (f) -- water
aquare (1) -- to soak
aquavit canabum -- he soaked hemp
arabilis, -e (also arrabalis) (adj.) -- arable
arare (1) also arrare -- to plough
aratrum, -i (n) -- plough; plough-land
arbor, -oris (f) -- tree
arbor spinalis -- hawthorn
arcus, -us (m) -- a bow
aretro (adv.) -- in arrears
armiger, -eri (m) -- armiger; esquire [One entitled to bear arms]
arreragium, -ii (n) -- arrears (of rent)
articulus, -i (m) -- article, clause
asportare (1) -- to carry away
assartum, -i (n) also essartum -- an assart [a clearing in a forest or other `waste']
assensus, -us (m) -- agreement; assent
ex eorum assensu -- by their agreement
assignare (1) -- to appoint; to assign
assignatus, -i (m) -- an assign or assignee
assisa, -e (f) -- assize; action or claim
assisa panis et cervisie -- assize of bread and ale
assisus, -a, -um (pat. part.) -- fixed
Assumpcio, -ionis (f) -- the Assumption
astrum, -i (n) -- hearth
atque (conj.) -- and
attachiare (1) -- to attach (leg.)
attachiamentum, -i (n) -ญญ- an attachment (leg.)
attornare (1) -- to attorn; to depute someone to act as an attorney (leg.)
attornatus, -i (m); also attornator, -oris (m) -- an attorney [Someone, not necessarily a lawyer, who stands in for someone else in a legal transaction]
auca, -e (f) -- goose
aucarius, -i (m) -- gooseherd
aucerola, -e (f) also aucula -- gosling
audio, audire, audivi, auditum (4) -- to hear
aula, -e (f) -- hall; house; room
aula placitorum -- court-house
australis, -e (adj.) -- southern
aut (conj.) -- or
aut ... aut -- either ... or
autem (conj.) -- but; however; therefore
autumpnus, -i (m) -- autumn [sometimes used as a synonym for harvest time]
ava, -e (f) -- grandmother
avalatio, -ionis (f) -- migration of eels
avantagium, -ii (n) -- profit
avena, -e (f) -- oats
averagium, -ii (n) -- carriage service
averare (1) -- to perform carrying service
averium, -ii (n) -- cattle [Usually found in the plural e.g. averia]
avrus, -i (m) also averus, -i (m) -- farmhorse or ox
avus, -i (m) -- grandfather

bacium, -ii (n) also basium -- harness or horse trappings; pack-saddle
baco, -onis -- flitch of bacon
baculum, -i (m) also baculus, -i (m) -- stick
ballivus, -i (m) also baillivus; ballius -- a bailiff
curia ballivis -- bailiff's court [Not known legally yet existed at Wotton in 1380]
baro, -onis (m) -- baron
curia baronis -- court baron
barrator, -oris (m); barratrix, -ices (f) -- one who brings vexatious actions in court (leg.)
barrator, -oris (m) also barretor -- a disturbance
bassus, -a, -um (adj.) -- low
bator, -oris (m) -- thresher
batura, -e (f) -- assault; battery
beatus, -a, -um (adj.) -- blessed
bene (adv.) -- rightly, well, truly
bera, -e (f) -- beer
bercaria, -ie (f) -- a sheepfold
bercarius, -ii (m) -- shepherd; sheepfold
bidens, -entis (f.) -- sheep
biga, -e -- cart
bigarius, -ii (m) -- carter
bini et bini (adv.) -- two and two
bis (adv.) -- twice
bladum, -i (n) -- corn or cornfield
bona, -orum (n.pl.) --goods, income, revenue
bonus, -a, -um (adj.) -- good
bordarius, -ii (m) also but more rarely bondarius and bondus -- borderer, bordar, servile tenant
borealis, -e, (adj.) also borialis -- northern, north
borialiter (adv.) -- on the north
bos, bovis (m) -- a bull; an ox
domus bovili -- cattleshed
bosca, -e (f) -- a wood; firewood
boscus, -i (m) also boccus & boccum -- a wood; woodland
botha, -e (f) -- booth, stall
bovaria, -e (f) -- a bovate [a measure of land]
boverium, -ii (n) -- cattle-shed
bovettus, -i (m) -- bullock
boviculla, -e (f) -- heiffer
boviculus, -i (m) -- bullock
braciare (1) also brasiare -- to brew
braciata, -us -um -- malted
brasiator, -oris (m) -- brewer
braseum, -ei (n) & brassium, -ii (n) -- malt
breve, -is (n) -- writ (leg.)
brevis, -e (adj.) -- short
infra breve -- in a short while
bruera, -e (f); brueria, -ie (f); bruerium, -ii (n); -- heath, heathland
bulla, -e (f) -- seal
bunda, -e (f) -- boundary
burgagium, -ii (n) -- burgage tenement [i.e. a tenement in a town]
burgensis, -is (m) -- burgess
burgus, -i (m) -- borough, town
bussellus, -i (m) -- bushell [a cubic measure]
butta, -e (f) -- butt of land
buttyrum, -i (n) -- butter

cadaverator, -oris (m) - man engaged to collect and bury corpses of animals dead of the murrain
calabs, -is (m) -- steel
calebius, -a, -um (adj.) -- made of steel
calumniare (1) also calumpniare (1) -- to challenge (in a court of law); to claim land (leg.)
camera, -e (f) -- room, chamber
campus, -i (m) -- field
campus communis -- common field
campus in blado -- cornfield
campus seminatus -- sown field
canillum, i (n) -- dog-kennel
canis, -is (m) -- a dog
cannabum, -i (n) also canabum and canabis -- hemp
capellanus, -i (m) -- chantry priest; chaplain
capio, -ere, cepi, captum (3) -- to take, to hold (a court), to seize etc.
capistra, -e (f) also capistrum, -i (n) -- halter
capitalis, -e (adj) -- chief
capo, -onis (m) -- capon
caput, capitis (n) -- head
prout patet in capite -- as appears above his name
carbo, -onis (m) -- coal, sea-coal [Note: in C16 English `coal' means `charcoal'.]
carbonarius, -i (m) -- charcoal-maker
carca, -e (f) also carcum -- load, cargo
carcacio, -ionis -- carriage; freight
carcer, -eris (m) -- prison
carcosium, -ii (n) -- hide [animal skin]
carecta, -e (f) also carrata; carectata -- a cart; a cartload
carectarius, -ii (m) -- carter
cariagium, -ii (n) -- carriage
cariare (1) -- to carry
carnaliter (adv.) -- carnally
carnifex, -icis (m) -- butcher
carniprivium, -ii (n) also carnis privium -- the beginning of Lent
carpentarius, -ii (m) -- carpenter
caro, carnis (f) -- flesh, meat
carruca, -e (f) also caruca -- plough; ploughman; carrucate [a unit of land-tax assessment]
carruca juncta -- plough-team;
carta, -e (f) -- charter, deed (leg.)
caseus, -i (m) -- cheese
casus, -us (m) -- case, suit (leg.)
catellum, -i (n) -- cattle; chattel
causa, -e (f) -- cause (leg.)
cecta, -e (f) also secta -- suit of court (leg.)
celdra, -e (f) also caldarium -- chalder (dry measure of grain usually)
cementarius, -i (m) -- mason
cena, -e (f) -- dinner
centum (indecl.) -- hundred
centum majus -- greater hundred, long hundred i.e. 120
centum minus -- lesser hundred i.e. 100
cepes, -is (f) -- hedge or fence
cera, -e (f) -- wax
certiorare (1) to inform, notify, show (leg.)
certus, -a, -um (adj.) -- fixed, certain
certum, -i (n) -- `head-silver' [payment in lieu of reading roll of suitors at view of frankpledge]
cervisia, -e (f) -- beer
ceteri, -e, -a (pl.) -- the others, the rest
chevagium, -ii (n) -- capitation payment, poll-tax (due annually)
cibum, -i (n) -- food
cippus, -i (m) -- tree-stump; in the plural it meant a set of stocks
circa (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- about, around, near to, nearly
circiter (adv.) -- about; not far from
circumquaque (adv.) -- on all sides
cissera, -e (f) also sicera -- cider
citare (1) -- to cite or summon (leg.)
citra (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- since; on this side; apart from, except; before
claia, -e (f) also cleia & clata -- hurdle
clamare (1) -- to claim (leg.)
clamare quietum -- to quitclaim (leg.)
clameum, -ei (n) -- claim (leg.)
clamor, -oris (n) -- claim (leg.); complaint; clamour
clarus, -a, -um (adj.) -- clear, net [of accounts]
claudo, -ere, clausi, clausum (3) -- to enclose; to close
claudere diem extremum -- to die
clausum, -i (n) -- close, enclosure
clausura, -e (f) -- enclosure; enclosed field
clava, -e (f), clavis, -is (f) -- key
clavus, -i (m) -- nail
clericus, -i (m) -- clerk [used of someone in holy orders but not necessarily a priest]
cluttum, -i (n) -- iron `clout'
cognomen, -inis (n) -- name; nickname
cognosco, -ere, -gnovi, cognitum (3) -- to know, acknowledge, admit
cohabitare (1) -- to live with
collector, -oris (m) -- collector
colligo, -ere, -legi, -lectum (3) -- to collect, gather
collistrigium, -ii (n) -- pillory; tumbrel; cuckingstool [when applied to women]
columbare, -is (n) also columbarium, -i (n) -- dove-cot
columbella, -e (f) columbellus, -i (m) -- dove; pigeon
comburo, -ere, bussi, -bustum (3) -- to burn; to burn lime
comes, -itis (m) -- earl
comitatus, -us (m) -- county; earldom; county court
commodum, -i (n) -- profit
communarius, -i (m) -- commoner [one having rights of common]
commune, -is (n) -- common land; common rights
de communis -- of common [suit]
communis, -e (adj) -- common
communis objurgatrix -- common scold
communis parva latruncula -- petty larcener; petty thief
communiter (adv.) -- commonly
comparatio, -ionis (f) -- appearance (in court) (leg.)
compareo, -ere, -parui -- to be present; to appear in court (leg.)
compertum est -- it was (is) found (by the court)
compos, -otis (adj.) -- in the possession of
compositio, -ionis (f); composicio -- composition; payment in lieu of obligation
pro compositone -- by way of composition
compotus -i (m); computus -- account; audit
concedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum (3) -- to grant, allow (leg.); to go from; to withdraw
ideo cessit processus -- therefore the law-suit has ceased
concelamentum, -i (n) --concealment (leg.)
concelare (1) also concellare -- to conceal
concernare (1) -- to concern, have regard to; to consider, perceive
concordor, -ari, -atus sum (dep.) -- to come to terms; to agree with (leg.)
pro licencia concordandi -- for licence to agree
per licentiam concordati sunt -- they have agreed by permission [of the court]
concubina, -e (f) -- concubine
conculare (1) -- to tramble. to tread upon
condonare (1) -- to grant; to remit, excuse, pardon
conducere (3) -- to assemble, gather; to hire
conductio, -ionis (f) -- a meeting
confessor, -oris (m) -- confessor
confirmare (1) -- to confirm (leg.)
congrue (adv.) -- fitly, agreeably
conjunctim (adv.) -- jointly
conlibet -- it pleases; it is agreeable
conquerens, -entis (m,f) -- plaintiff (leg.)
consanquinia, -ie (f) -- kinswoman
consensus, -us (m) -- agreement
considare (1) -- to give judgement (leg.)
consideratum est -- it is (was) decided
constabularius, -ii (m) -- constable
consuetudo, -inis (f) -- custom; usage
secundum consuetudinem manerii -- according to the custom of the manor
de consuetudine -- in accordance with custom
consuetus, -a, -um (adj.) -- accustomed
de iure consueta -- lawfully accustomed
contingo, -ere, -tigi, -tactum (3) -- to border on; to abutt
contra (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- against; contrary to; before (of time)
contra plebicitum vicinorum -- contrary to the byelaw of [made by] neighbours
contra consuetudinem manerij -- contrary to the custom of the manor
contra proximam -- by the next [court]
contraversia, -e (f) -- controversy; dispute
conventionare (1) -- to agree
conventio, -ionis (f) -- agreement
ex conventione -- by agreement
conversatio, -ionis (f) -- `conversation'; manner of living; mode of behaviour
de male conversacionis -- of evil behaviour [usually used of (single) women and implying sexual misbehaviour]
cooperio, -eri, -perui, -pertum -- to cover; to roof
coopertorium, -ii (n) -- roof; roofing
cooptura, -e (f) -- roofing; covering
copia, -e (f) -- copy (leg.)
copia rotulorum curie -- copy of the court rolls
per copiam -- by copy [of court roll]
coquina -e (f) -- kitchen
coram (adv. & prep. with abl. or acc.) -- in the presence of; before
cornagium, -ii (n) -- cornage (rent paid for grazing rights in Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland & Westmoreland)
corredium, -ii (n) also corrodium -- in manorial records usually means food and/or drink allowance given to peasants performing certain services.
corrigo, -ere, -rexi, -rectum (3) -- to correct, amend
corrium, -ii (n) also correum -- hide
corvus, -i (m) -- a crow or raven
cotagium, -ii (n) -- cottage
crastinum, -i (n) -- the morrow
in crastino (+ gen.) -- on the morrow (of)
crescens, -entis (adj) -- growing
crofta, -e (f) also croftum, -i (n) -- a croft
crofta, -e (f) -- croft
crux, crucis (f) -- cross
culpabilis, -e (adj.) -- guilty (leg.)
cultellus, -i (m) -- a knife
cultura, -e (f) -- a furlong; a strip of cultivated i.e. ploughed land
cum (conj.) -- when; since; whereas
cum (prep. with abl.) -- with
cumulus, -i (m) -- measure of grain, cheese or plaster
cunstabularius, -e (m) -- constable [annually elected officer]
curia, -e (f) -- court
curia ballivis -- bailiff's court [Not known legally yet existed at Wotton in 1380]
curia baronis -- court baron
curia customaria -- customary court
curia Christianitatis -- church court
curia generalis -- court general [usually meaning a court leet]
curia legalis -- manor court; law-day court
curia leta -- court leet
curia magna -- great court [usually meaning a court leet]
curia prima -- first court [usually the first court of a new lord]
parva curia -- small court
curro, -ere, cucurri, cursum (3) -- to flow, run
curtilagium, -ii (n) -- curtilage, yard or enclosure next to a dwelling
custos, -odis (m) -- keeper
apium custos -- bee-keeper
custos averiorum -- keeper of the stock
custos camporum -- keeper of the fields
custumarius, -a, -um (adj.) -- customary
custumarius tenens -- customary tenant
custumarius, -ii (m) -- customary tenant
cuva, -e (f) -- tub, vat, bowl

daeria, -e (f) -- dairy
dama, -e (f) -- a doe
damnum, -i (n) also dampnum -- loss; damage
damus, -i (m) -- a buck
datus, -a, -um (past part.) -- given; dated
de (prep. with abl.) -- of, from, as, regards, concerning
de cetero -- in the future
de consuetudine -- in accordance with custom
de consensu -- with the consent of
de dono or ex dono -- as a gift
de jure -- lawfully
de iure consueta -- lawfully accustomed
de novo -- newly
de plano -- summarily
de prope -- near
debeo (2) -- to owe
debiter (adv.) -- duly
debitus, -a, -um (past. part.) -- owed, due
debitum, -i (n) -- a debt
decem (indeclinable) -- ten
decenna, -e (f); dicena; disena; dissena -- tithing (leg.)
decennarius, -ii (m) also decenarius -- tithingman (leg.)
decima, -e (f) -- tithe
decimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- tenth
decollare (1) -- to lop (the tops of trees)
decollatio, -onis (f) -- beheading
defalta, -e (f) -- default (leg.)
defamare (1) -- to defame; to accuse (leg.)
defamatio, -ionis (f) -- defamation (leg.)
defectus, -us (m) -- default (leg.)
defendens, -entis (m,f) -- defendant (leg.)
defensor, -oris (m) -- defendant (leg.)
deficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum -- to default (leg.)
deforciare (1) -- to deforce (leg.)
deforciator, -oris (m) -- deforciant, illegal occupant (leg.)
defunctus, -a, -um (past part.) -- deceased, dead
deinceps (adv.) -- next
deinde (adv) -- then, next, thereafter
deliberare (1) -- to deliver
demandare (1) -- to claim, demand
demitto, -ere, -misi, -missum (3) -- to demise [i.e. pass land to]
denarius, -ii (m) -- a penny
cum denariis suis -- with his own money, [i.e. at his own cost]
deparcacio, -ionis (f) -- pound-breaking (leg.)
deparcare (1) -- to break pound [i.e. to take animals out of the pound]
depono, -ere, -posui, -positum (3) -- to depose, to state as evidence (leg.)
deputare (1) -- to appoint; to depute
descendo, -ere, -di, -sum (3) -- to descend (of property); to go down
destruo, -ere, -struxi, -structum (3) -- to destroy
detinere (2) -- to detain
deus, -i (m) -- God
dexter, -tra, -trum (adj.) -- right (as opposed to left)
dico, -ere, dixi, dictum (3) -- to say; to declare formally
dictus, -a, -um (adj.) -- said; called
dies, diei (m) -- (1) day for appearance in court (leg.) [see habere below]
(2) day [Whilst dies changes case according to its position in a sentence, the qualifying word retains its genitive form at all times.]
dies dominica -- Sunday
dies paschalis -- Easter Sunday
dies lune -- Monday
dies Martis -- Tuesday
dies Mercurij -- Wednesday
dies Iovis -- Thursday
dies Iovis absolutionis -- Maundy Thursday
dies Veneris -- Friday
dies veneris sanctus -- Good Friday
dies Sabbati -- Saturday
quo die -- on which day
dieta, -e (f) -- a diet i.e. a measure of land; a day's work on the land
difficilis, -e (adj.) -- difficult
dilectus, -a, -um (adj.) -- beloved
dimidia, -e (f) -- half
dimidius, -a, -um (adj) -- half
dimissio, -ionis (f) -- a demise; a handing over [usually of land] (leg.)
dimitto, -ere, -misi, -missum (3) -- to demise (leg.)
discedere also descedere -- to leave, depart
dispergo, -ere, -si, -sus -- to disperse, scatter
disseisare (1) -- to lease, disseise (leg.)
disseisina, -e (f) -- disseisin (leg.)
districtio, -ionis (f) -- a distraint (leg.)
distringere (3) -- to distrain (leg.)
distringatur -- he should be distrained
distructio, -ionis (f) -- damage, destruction
diu (adv.) -- for a long time, long since
diutissime (adv.) -- longest
diutius (adv.) -- longer
diversus, -a, -um (adj.) -- various
divisa, -e (f) -- boundary; boundary mark
divisim (adv.) -- separately
do, dare, dedi, datum (1) -- to give or grant
dare in manu -- to pledge (leg.)
dola, -e (f) -- dole or share
domina, -e (f) -- lady
dominica, -e (f) -- Sunday
dominicalis, -e (adj.) -- demesne
dominium, -i (n) also dominicum, -i (n) -- demesne (land)
dominus, -i (m) -- lord
domus, -us (f) -- house
donarium, -ii (n) -- gift or grant
donum, -i (n) -- gift
de dono -- as a gift
ex dono -- as a gift
dorsum, -i (n) also dorsus, -i (m) -- the back (of a beast of burden); also used to describe the back or rough side of parchment.
dos, dotis (f) -- dowry; widow's dower
dotare (1) -- to dower; to endow
dotarium, -ii (n) -widow's dower
dragium, -ii (n) -- dredge [mixture of barley and oats]
drengus, -i (m) -- dreng (servile tenant of old kingdom of Northumbria) (leg.)
dringagium, -ii (n) -- drengage-tenure (see above) (leg.)
duco, -ere, duxi, ductum (3) -- to lead
ducens -- leading (to)
duodecimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- twelfth
duodecimi -- the Twelve [i.e. the jury] (leg.)
dum (conj.) -- whilst, until; provided that (with subj.)
dumus, -i (m) -- thorn-bush, bramble
durare (1) -- to last, extend
durante minore etate -- during [their] minority
durus, -a, -um (adj.) -- hard
dux, ducis (m) -- duke

ecclesia, -e (f) -- church
eciam -- also (see etiam)
ed (for et) -- and
edificare (1) -- to build
edificium, -ii (n) -- building
ebdomada, -e (f) also hebdomoda -- week; weekly duty
effodio, -ire, -fodi, -fossum -- to dig
effusio, -ionis (f) -- shedding
effusio sanquinis -- blood shedding
elapsus, -a, -um (adj.) -- past, elapsed
eligo, -ere, -legi, -lectum (3) -- to elect; to choose
emendare (1) -- to pay a fine; to compensate; to repair
emitto, -ere, -misi, -misum (3) -- to publish an order (leg.)
emo, emere, emi, emptum (3) -- to buy
enim (conj.) for; in fact
eo, ire, ivi, itum (4) -- to go
episcopus, -i (m) -- bishop
equa, -e (f) -- mare
equalis, -e (adj.) equal
equaliter (adv.) -- equally, in equal parts
equus, -i (m) -- horse
equus scabiosus -- mangey horse
eradicare (1) -- to dig-up, uproot
erga (prep. with acc.) -- towards
erigo, -ere, erexi, erectum -- to erect or build
erronice (adv.) -- in error; wrongly
escaeta, -e (f) also escheta -- escheat (leg.)
escambiare (1) -- to exchange
escambium. -ii (n) also excambium -- exchange
escurare (1) excurare (1) -- to scour out [usually of a ditch or drain]
escuratio, -ionis (f) -- scouring out [of a ditch]
esperverium, -ii (n); espervarius, -ii (m) -- sparrow
esse -- to be
essiamentum, -i (n) -- easement
essonia, -ie (f) -- essoin (leg.)
essoniare (1) -- to essoin (leg.)
estas, -atis (f) -- summer; the summer season
estavalis, -e (adj.) -- summer
estovarium, -ii (n) -- an estover [an allowance of wood not timber]
et (conj.) -- and
et ... et -- both ... and
etas, -atis (f) also aetas -- age; summer, summer season
etiam also eciam (conj.) -- also, furthermore, even
evellere (2) -- to pluck or take [wood from hedges]
ex (prep. with abl.) -- from; out of; as a result of; according to
ex antiquo -- of old
ex dono -- as a gift
ex nunc -- hereafter
ex quo -- since, insomuch as
ex tunc -- thereafter
exactio, -ionis (f) -- charge, accusation (leg.)
excavare (1) -- to dig out, excavate
excessive -- excessivley; over-priced
exellentissimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- most excellent
exeo, -ire, -ivi, -itum -- to issue from
exiens, exuentis -- issuing from (pres. part. of exire)
exigo, -ere, exegi, exactum -- to demand
exitus, -us (m) -- profits; revenue; issues
exoneratio, -ionis (f) -- discharge (leg.)
explorare (1) -- to snoop
explorans -- snooping [into]
extendens, -entis (adj.) -- extending
extenta, -e (f) -- an extent or survey
extra (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- without, on the outside, beyond, besides
extracta, -e -- estreat (leg.)
extraho, -ere, extraxi, extractum (3) -- to copy
extrahere sanquinem -- to draw blood; to wound
extrahura, -e (f) -- a stray or estray [Only used of domestic and farm animals.]
extraneus, -a, -um (adj.) -- stranger, foreign
extraneus, -i (m) -- a stranger
ewangelista, -e (m) -- evangelist

faber, fabri (m) -- smith
fabrateria, -e (f) -- smithy
fabrica, -e (f) -- forge
facio, -ere, feci, factum (3) -- to do, make, act
facere affraiam -- to make an affray on; to assualt
facere forstallum super -- to take cattle (from the pound)
facere pro -- to give a verdict in favour of (leg.)
facilis, -e (adj.) -- easy
falcabilis, -e (adj.) -- fit to mow
falcare (1) -- to mow
falcatio, -ionis (f) -- mowing; scything
falso (adv.) -- falsly
falda. -e (f) -- foldyard
falx, falcis (f) -- a scythe
famare (1) -- to defame
familia, -e (f) -- household
famulus, -i (m) -- (household) servant; farm-servant
faragina, -e (f) -- straw
farina, -e (f) -- flour
femina, -e (f) -- woman; wife
fensura, -e (f) -- fence
fenum, -i (n) -- hay
feodotalis, -is (f) -- fealty, feudal service (leg.)
feodum, -i (n) -- fee (leg.)
feoffare (1) -- to enfeoff (leg.)
fera, -e (f) -- beast of the chase
ferculum, -i (n) -- a dish or course in a meal; barrow
fero, feronis (f) -- ferret [Invented word found in Bandon court roll, 1511]
ferrum, -i (n) -- iron
festum, -i (n) -- feast or festival
fidelis, -e (adj.) -- faithful
fidelitas, -atis (f) -- fealty (leg.)
et fecit domino fidelitatem -- and did fealty to the lord
fideliter (adv.) -- faithfully
fides, fidei (f) -- faith; fealty
fidei defensoris -- defender of the faith [in the genitive]
figere (3) -- to drive (cattle)
filia, -a (f) -- daughter
fimum, -i (n) -- dung, manure
filius, -ii (m) -- son
finalis, -e (adj.) -- final
finis, -is (m) -- fine; entry fine (leg.)
de fine pro ingressu -- as entry fine
cum finibus et amerciamentis -- with fines and amercements
finum, -i (n) -- hay
firma, -e (f) -- farm (leg.); fixed payment; rent
firmarius, -ii (m) -- farmer (leg.)
fodio, -ere, fodi, fossum (3) -- to dig
fons, fontis (m) -- spring; fountain
foragium, -ii (m) -- fodder; forage
forinsecus (adv.) -- foreign, external, on the outside
forinsecus, -a, -um (adj.) -- forinsec, external, foreign, additional (leg.)
foris (adv.) -- in public; out of doors
forisfacere (3) -- to forfeit (leg.)
forisfactum, -i (n) also forisfactura, -e (f) -- forfeiture; penalty (leg.)
forstallum, i (n) --
(1) forestalling the market
(2) recovering impounded cattle (see facere)
fossa, -e (f) -- dike; embankment; ditch
fossare (1) -- to trench
fossator, -oris (m) -- ditcher
fossatus, -i (m) also fossatum, -i (n) -- a ditch
fovea, -e (f) -- a ditch or dyke; small pit
fovere -- to nourish; to keep warm; to warm by sexual activity
fractio sepes -- hedge-breaking i.e. taking wood from hedges
Francia, -e (f) -- France
franciplegius, -ii (m) -- frankpledge
francus, -a, -um (adj) -- free
frango, -ere, fregi, fractum (3) -- to break
frater, fratris (m) -- brother
fraxcinus, -i (m) -- ash-tree
friscus, i (m) also fruscus, frissus -- fallow (land)
frumentum, -i (n) -- corn
fugare (1) -- to drive cattle; to hunt
fugator, -oris (m) -- drover
fundare (1) -- to lay the bottom [of a road]
furor, -atus, -ari (dep.) -- to steal; pilfer
furca, -e (f) -- fork
furce judiciales -- gallows
furnacium, -i (n) -- furnace; oven
fusillus, -i (m) -- spindle
fusus, -i (m) spindle

gabella, -e (f) -- (customary) rent
galerus, -i (m) -- hat
gallina, -e (f) -- hen
gallinarium, -ii (n) -- hen-house
garba, -e (f) -- sheaf of corn
gardianus, -i; gardianus ecclesie (m) -- churchwarden
gardinum, -i (n) -- garden
garrulator, -oris (m); -- a contentious person; a scold
garrulatrix, -ices (f) -- chatterer; scold
gaudeo, -eri, -gavisus sum (2 semi-depon.) -- to possess, use, enjoy the use of
generalis, -e (adj.) -- general
generosus, -i (m) -- gentleman [not quite an armiger q.v.]
gercia, -e (f) -- yearling ewe
gersuma, -e (f) -- a gersum or gressum [a customary payment] (leg.)
gersumare (1) -- to pay a gersum
gestrum, -i (n) -- dagger
glandia, -arum (f & pl.) -- acorns
globus, -i (m) -- globe [in the plural `bowls']
gramen, -inis (n) -- pasture, pasturage
graminellus, -i (m) -- little meadow
granarium, -ii (n) -- granary
grangia, -e (f) -- grange
grangia decimalis -- tithe-barn
granum, -i (n) -- grain
gratia, -e (f) -- grace; favour
dei gratia -- by the grace of god
ex gratia -- by grace
grator (1, depon.) -- to acknowledge (leg.)
gravamen, -inis (n) -- accusation, grievance (leg.)
gravis, -e (adj.) -- grievous
grecia, -us, um (adj.) -- grey
grex, gregis (m) -- flock; herd, drove; swarm
grossus, -a, -um (adj.) -- large
gubanatrix, -ices (f) -- scold; bossy woman
guilda, -e (f) -- gild
gula, -e (f) -- throat; gulley; water-course
gula Augusti -- Lammas Day (1 August)
gurges, -itis (m) -- weir

habere (2) -- to have
habere diem -- to have day; to have notice (leg.)
habendum et tenendum (+ dat.) -- to have and to hold (leg.)
haia, -e (f) also haya-- a hay [legal division of a forest or clearing in a forest]; a hedge [term used in the west of England]
halmotus, i (m) -- halmote; manor court
hebdomada, -e (f) also ebdomoda -- week; weekly duty
herbagium, -ii (n) -- pasture; right to pasture
hercia, -e (f) -- a harrow
herciare (1) -- to harrow
herciator, -oris (m) -- harrower
hereditamentum, -i (n) -- hereditament i.e. both the land and rights in that land (leg.)
hereditarius, -a, -um (adj.) -- hereditary
hereditario, -ionis (f) -- inheritance
heres, heredis (m,f) -- heir, heiress
herietum, -i (n) also harietum, -i (n) -- heriot [A death duty usually in the form of best beast or chattell.] (leg.)
Hibernia, -e (f) -- Ireland
hida, -e (f) -- a hide (of land) (leg.)
hiemalis, -e (adj.) -- winter
hiems, hiemis (f) -- winter
hinc (adv.) -- hence
hinc inde -- hereupon
hogasterus, -i (m) also hoggus & hogrus -- hog or hogget
homagium, -ii (n) -- homage; jury (leg.)
homo, hominis (m) -- man
honestus, -a, -um (adj.) -- honest
honor, -oris (m) -- honour [feudal estate]
hora, -e (f) -- hour
horreum, -ei (n) also orreum -- granary; barn
hospitere (3) -- to entertain or give hospitality to; to keep a whorehouse; to keep an alehouse
hospitium, -ii (n) -- hospital; guest-house; lodging-house
hostilamenta (n. pl.) -- household goods
humitorium, -i (n) -- tanning yard
hundredum, -i (n) -- the Hundred or Hundred court (leg.)
hussus, -i (m) -- holly
hurtardus, -i (m) -- ram
hutesium, -ii (n) -- hue-and-cry (leg.)
levare hutesium -- to raise the hue and cry

iaceo, -ere, -ui, -itum -- to lie
ianua, -e (f) -- entrance, gateway [into a field]
ibi (adv.) -- there
ibidem (adv.) -- at or in the same place; there
idem, eadem, idem (pron.) -- the same
ideo (adv.) -- therefore
ignis, -is (m) -- fire; fireplace
ignorare (1) -- to not to know; to be unaquainted with
ignotus, -a, -um (adj.) -- unknown
ille, illa, illud -- that
illicitus, -a, -um (adj.) -- unlawful; morally wrong
impedio, -ivi, -itus, -ire (4) -- to hinder, to prevent
imperpetuum (adv.) -- for ever, in perpetuity
impono, -ere, -posui, -positum -- to impose; to impute; to charge with
imposterium (adv.) -- hereafter; for the future; forever
imprimis (adv.) -- firstly, first
in (prep. with abl.) -- in, on
in (prep. with acc.) -- into, towards
in antea -- beforehand, henceforth
in capite -- in chief (leg.)
in principali -- in chief
in proximo -- soon
in quantum -- as far as
in solidum -- wholly, completely
inclausura, -e (f), inclausuratum, -i (n) -- enclosure
includo, -ere, -clusi, -clusum (3) -- to enclose (land)
inclusator, -oris (m) -- pinder
incrementum, -i (n) -- land recently brought under cultivation
incrochiamentum, -i (n) -- encroachment (of land)
incrochiare (1) -- to encroach upon
incurro, -ere, -curri, -cursum (3) -- to run into; to incur
ideo incurrit penam -- therefore he incurs the penalty [i.e. the `pain' is to be imposed]
inde (adv.) -- thence
indentura, -e (f) -- indenture (leg.)
indigeo, -ere, -ui -- to need, want, demand
inferius (adv.) -- below; later
infirmus, -a, -um (adj.) -- infirm, weak, ill
infra (adv.) -- within; below; overleaf
ingredior, -gredi, -gressus sum (3) -- to enter into property or rights
ingressus, -us (m) -- entry fine; right of entry into property; dues paid on entry into a possession (leg.)
iniuria, -e (f) -- injury
iniuste (adv.) -- unjustly; wrongfully;
iniustifacatus, -a, -um (adj.) -- unlawfully; unlicensed
inquisitio, -ionis (f) -- inquest; jury of inquest
insalubris, -e (adj.) -- unhealthy
insolutus, -a, um (past part.) -- unpaid
instancia, -ie (f) -- instance
instans, -antis (adj.) -- present, immediate, current
instauratio, -ionis (f) also instaurum; instauramentum -- stock (of a manor)
insuper (adv. & prep.) -- above, moreover, as mentioned above
insultare (1) -- to attack, assault
inter (with acc.) -- between; among
interficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum -- to kill
intrare (1) -- to enter
invenire (4) -- to furnish, provide, find, come upon
ita (adv.) -- thus, so
iter, itineris (n) itineratio -- eyre, circuit of judges; journey; a (right of) way
iugatus, -a. -um (adj.) -- yoked
iugum, -i (n) -- a yoke
iurare (1) -- to swear (an oath)
iurator, oris (m); jurator (m) -- juror (leg.)

jana, -e (f) -- field "gate"
jus, juris (n) -- law; right (leg.); privilege (leg.)
de jure -- lawfully; by rights
justicarius, -ii (m) -- judge; justice
justicarius in itinere also justicarius de itinere-- justice in eyre
justificare (1) -- to justify, set right; to bring to justice; to licence
habent diem justificandos porcos suos -- they have a day for the licensing of their pigs
jure (adv.) -- justly
juvenca, -e (f) also juvencula -- heifer
juxta (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- next to, beside, according
juxta quod -- according to

kidda, -e (f) -- faggot
kidellus, -i (m) -- fish-trap; stake-net

lacerare (1) -- to break; mutilate
lactagium, -ii (n) -- (profits of) dairy produce
lada, -e (f) -- load; cartload; measure of ore
lagena, -e(f) -- gallon
lana, -e (f) -- wool
lanatus, -a, -um (adj.) also lanuta -- woollen
pellis lanuta -- wool-fell
landa, -e (f) also londa -- `lawn', forest glade, untilled land
lanius, -i (m) also laniator -- a butcher
lapis, -idis (m) -- stone; ore
latitudo, -inis (f) -- width; breadth
latomus, -i, latamus, -i (m) -- mason
latro, -onis (m) -- thief
latruncula, -e (f) -- thief
latta, -e (f) -- lath
latum, -i (n) -- a width (of cloth)
latus, -a -um (adj) -- wide
latus, eris (n) -- side of flank of animal or man
lavare (1) -- to wash
ledo, -ere, lesi, lesum -- to injure
legalis, -e (adj.) -- lawful
legare (1) -- to depute
legare (1) ligare -- to tie up, to bind, to tether
legitime (adv.) -- lawfully
legitimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- law-worthy; lawful
legius, -i (m) -- liege man (leg.)
lego, ere, legi, lectum (3) -- to read
lepa, -e (f) -- leap (dry measure) [half a bushell]
leporarius, -ii (2) -- greyhound
lepus, -oris (m) -- a hare
leta, -e (f) -- leet
curia leta -- court leet (leg.)
levare (1) -- to raise
ad levandum fenum -- for making hay
levare hutesium -- to raise the hue and cry
leviter (adv.) -- slightly, a little, not much
lex, legis (f) -- law (leg.)
liber, libera, liberum (adj.) -- free
liberalis, -e (adj.) -- free-born; free
liberaliter (adv.) -- freely; without compulsion or force
liberatio, -ionis (f) -- payment; handing over; livery
liberare (1) -- to hand over; to set free; to pay
liberi, -orum (m.plural) -- children
libertas, -atis (f) -- liberty; franchise (leg.)
libra, -e (f) -- a pound (weight or money)
liceat -- let it be authorized
licentia, -e (f) -- licence; permission
licet -- it is allowed
liciviosus, -a, -um (adj.) -- lascivious
ligare (1) -- to tie up, to bind, to tether
ligatio, -ionis -- binding (of sheaves)
ligeantia, e (f) -- allegiance
lignum, -i (n) -- wood; firwoood
lingincula, -e (f) -- small wood
linteum, -ii (n) lintheum -- linen sheet
linum, i (n) -- flax; linen
litigator, -oris (m); litigatrix, -ices (f) -- a contentious person; a scold
locare (1) -- to place
locus, -i (m) -- place
longitudo, -inis (f) -- length
loquela, -e (f) -- suit; action
loquelor (1, depon.) -- to plead; to implead (leg.)
loquori (3) -- to speak
lucrare (1) -- to make a profit
lucrum, -i (n) -- interest on money; profit
ludere (3)-- to play
ludimagister, -stri (m) -- school master
ludus, -i (m) -- a game
lupanar, -aris (n) & lupanis, -e -- brothel; house of ill-repute
lupanatrix, -ices (f) -- harlot, whore
luxuriose (adv.) -- lecherously

mactare (1) -- to slaughter
mactatio, -ionis -- slaughter
magister, -tri (m) -- master
magnus, -a -um (adj.) -- great, large
magna curia -- great court (leg.)
male (adv.) -- badly
maletotare (1) -- to ill-treat
mandare (1) -- to enjoin; order; command
mandra, -e (f) -- hovel; cattle-pen
maneo, -ere, mansi, mansum (2) -- to remain, stay
manerium, -ii (n) -- manor (leg.)
manucapio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum (3) -- to undertake; to go bail for (leg.)
manucaptio, -ionis (f) -- bail or mainprize (leg.)
manucaptor, -oris (m) -- surety; mainprize (leg.)
manupastus, -i (m) -- household; member of a household
manus, -us (f) -- hand
in manus domini -- into the hands of the lord
sexto manu -- six-handed [with six supporting witnesses]
manutergium, -ii (n) -- towel
marca, -e (f) also marcella, -e (f) -- mark; a weight; sum of money (13s. 4d.
maresium, -ii (n); mariscus, -i (m) -- marsh
maritagium, -ii (n) -- marriage-portion; dowry; customary payment on marriage of villein-daughter
maritare (1) -- to marry
maritus, -i (m) -- husband
marlaria,-e (f) -- marl-pit
Martius, -ii (m) -- March (month)
mater, matris (f) -- mother
matutinalis, -e (adj.) -- of or for the morning; of or for mattins
medietas, -atis (f) -- half; moiety
melius (adv.) -- better
mensis, -is (m) -- month
mensura, -e (f) -- measure
mensura cumulata -- where the bushel was heaped up
mensura rasa -- where the bushel was straked so as to fill it but no more
mensurare (1) -- to measure
merchetum, -i (n) -- merchet (leg.)
meremium, -ii (n) -- timber; timbering
meretrix, -ices (f) -- whore, prostitute; loose-woman;
merlengus, -i (m) -- whiting
messor, -oris (m); messarius, -ii (m) -- hayward
messuagium, -ii (n) -- messuage [farmhouse or the whole holding]
meta, -e (f) -- boundary; boundary mark
metebene, -is (f) -- boon reaping
meto, -ere, messui, messum -- to reap
miles, militis (m) -- knight
minare (1) -- to drive beasts
minare aratrum -- to plough
minime (adv.) -- least
minimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- least, smallest
minor, minus (adj.) -- lesser; smaller
durante minore etate -- during [his] minority
miseracio, -ionis (f) -- mercy; amercement (leg.)
miserandus, -a, -um (adj.) -- lamenatble, pitiable
misericordia, -e (f) -- mercy; amercement (leg.)
mitto, -ere, misi, missum (3) -- to send; to place
mixstellio, -ionis (f) -- maslin, mixed grain
mixtilio, -ionis (f) also mastillio -- maslin [mixed grain, usually rye and wheat]
moderatus, -a. -um (adj.) -- moderated; restrained
modo (adv.) -- now; only; lately
molendarius, -ii (m) -- miller
molendinum, -i (n) -- a mill
m. ad ventum -- wind-mill
m. ventricule -- wind-mill
m. aquaticum -- water-mill
m. equinum -- horse-mill
molta, -e (f) also multura -- dues for milling at the lord's mill
monere (2) -- to summon; to warn
non monitus -- not warned; not informed
monitio, -ionis (f) -- a warning
super monitionem -- upon warning
mora, -e (f) -- moor; marsh
mordeo, -ere, momordi, morsum -- to bite
morina, -e (f) also murina -- murrain, animal-plague
mors, mortis (f) -- death
mortuus, -a, -um (adj.) -- dead; deceased
moveo, -ere, movi, motum -- to institute (a plea)
mulier, -ieris (f) -- wife; woman
mullus, -i (m) also muluellus -- mullet
multiloquor -- to "blab"; to be talkative
multimodo (adv.) -- in many ways
multo, -onis (m) -- sheep; wether
mutare (1) -- to exchange; change; lend

nare (1) -- to swim
natale, -is (n) -- birthday
nativitas, -atis (f) -- birth
nativus, -i (m.) -- villein; serf
nativus, -a, -um (adj.) -- born
terra nativa -- land held by villein tenure
native tenentes -- serfs; sokemen [at Forncet]
natus, -a, -um (adj.) -- born
nec (conj.) also neque -- and not, nor
nec ... nec -- neither ... nor
necessarius, -a, -um (adj.) -- needful
necne (adv.) -- or not
necnon -- and also, in fact, and besides
negare (1) -- to deny
nemo, neminis (m,f) -- no one, nobody [ne + homo]
nescio, -ire, -scivi, -scitum (4) -- to be ignorant of, not to know
nihil also nichil -- nothing
nimis (adv.) -- too much, excessively
nimius, -a, -um (adj.) -- excessive
nix, nivis (f) -- snow
noctivagator, -oris (m) -- a night-wanderer
nocumentum, -i (n) -- nuisance; damage; harm
ad nocumentum vicinorum suorum -- to the nuisance of his neighbours
nominare (1) -- to name
nomen, -inis (n) -- name
nomine (plus gen.) -- in the name of
non -- not
nondum (adv) -- not yet [often written non dum]
nonus, -a, -um -- ninth
noster, -tra, -trum (adj.) -- our
notitia, -e (f) -- knowledge
novem (indeclinable) -- nine
novus, -a, -um (adj.) -- new
nox, noctis (f) -- night
nulligare (1) -- to neglect
nullus -a -um (adj.) -- nothing; no; not any
numquam also nunquam (adv.) -- never
nunc (adv. & adj.) -- now; present
nundine, -arum (f and pl.) -- fair
nuper (adv. & adj.) -- recently, lately; the late
nutritus, -a, -um (adj) -- weaned

ob (prep. plus acc.) -- on account of
obeo, -ire, -ii, obitum (4) -- to die
obitus, -us (m) -- death
objugare (1) -- to scold
objurgator, -oris (m); objurgatrix, -ices (f) -- contentious person; scold; shrew
oblatio, -ionis (f) -- offering; payment
obolus -i (m) -- half-penny
obscurare (1) -- to scour
obstupare (1) -- to stop up, to block [a road, watercourse etc.]
obtruncare (1) -- to cut down; to behead
obtruncavit arbores in Netchwood -- he topped the trees in Netchwood
occidentalis, -e (adj) -- western
occido, -ere, -cidi, -cisum (3) -- to kill
occupare (1) -- to seize or occupy [land or property] (leg.)
occupatio, -ionis (f) -- occupation
octavus, -a -um (adj.) -- eighth
octo (indeclinable) -- eight
officiarius, -ii (m) -- official, officer
officium, -ii (n) -- office
olla, -e (f) -- pot, jar
omnis, -e (adj.) -- all, every
omnia bene -- all [is] well
onerare (1) -- to charge; to make answerable for; to overburden [pasture with more animals than allowed]
onus, -eris (n) -- burden
operablis, -e (adj.) -- working
operatio, -ionis (f) -- daywork
operare (1) -- to work
optimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- best
opus, operis (n) --work; customary service; day-work
ad opus et usum -- to the use and behoof of (leg.)
ordeum, -ii (n) -- barley
ordinacio, -ionis (f) -- ordinance; bye-law (leg.)
ordinare (1) -- to ordain; to order (leg.)
ordinatum est quod -- it is ordained that
orientalis, -e (adj.) -- eastern
orreum, -ei (n) also horreum -- granary; barn
ostendo, -ere, -di, -sum (3) -- to show
ostendere evidenciam -- to show (his) evidence
ostium, ii (n) -- door; field "gate"
ovile, -is (n) -- sheepfold
ovis, -is (f) -- sheep

palmare (1) -- to grasp, to stun
pandoxare (1) -- to brew
pandoxator, -oris (m) -- brewer, ale-house keeper
pandoxatrix, -icis (f) -- brewer, ale-wife
panetarius, -i (m) -- baker
panis, -is (m) -- bread
pannagiare (1) -- to pasture pigs in woodland
pannagium, -ii (n) -- pannage; right of pannage (leg.)
pannus, -i (m) -- cloth
parcare (1) -- to impound
parcella, -e (f) -- parcel [of land]
parcus, -i (m) -- park; pound
parare (1) -- to prepare
pars, partis (f) -- part; party (leg.)
ex parte -- on behalf of
ex una parte -- on one side
in hac parte -- in this matter
parvus, -a, -um (adj.) -- small; little
curia parva -- small court (leg.)
Pascha, -e (f) -- Easter Sunday
pascalis, -e (adj.) -- of or for Easter
dies paschalis -- Easter Sunday
pasco, -ere, pavi, pastum (3) -- to pasture
pascua, -e (f) -- pasture; grazing land
passagium, -ii (n) -- right of way; passage (leg.)
pastor, -oris (m) -- shepherd; herdsman
pastura, -e (f) -- pasture land; right of pasture
pater, patris (m) -- father
pateo, -ere, -patui (2) -- to manifest, show
patet -- it is manifest
pateat -- let it be known
prout patet -- as appears
pauper, -eris (adj.) -- poor
valde pauper -- exceedingly poor
pavo, -onis (m) peacock
pavenna, -e (f) peahen
pax, pacis (f) -- peace; agreement (leg.)
pacis perturbatrix -- disturber of the peace
pecunia, -e (f) -- cattle; cash
pedale, -is (n) -- plough-iron [- plate protecting underside of the plough]
pediale ferreum -- plough-iron
peior, peius also pejor, pejus (adj.) -- worse
pejorare (1) -- to injure
pejoratio, -ionis (f) -- injury
pellis, -is (f) -- a skin; hide
pellis lanuta -- wool-fell
pena, -e (f) -- pain; bye-law; penalty (leg.)
sub pena -- under a pain of (leg.)
pendere (3) -- to weigh; to hang up (as in a gate)
per (prep. with acc.) -- by, through,
per facetum Anglie -- by the courtesy of England [Widower's land rights] (leg.)
per quod -- whereby
per virgam -- by the yard or rod (leg.)
perdere -- to lose
perditio, -ionis (f) -- loss, injury
perditus, -a, -um (past part.) -- lost, ruined
peregrina, -e (f) perigrina -- female wanderer or vagrant
peregrinus, -i (m) -- male wanderer or vagrant
periculum, -i (n) -- danger, peril
periculosus, -a, -um (adj.) -- dangerous; hazardous
perquisitio, -ionis (f) perquisitum, -i (n) -- perquisite, benefit
perquisitum curie -- perquisite of the (manorial) court
personaliter (adv.) -- personally
pertica, -e (f) also perticata; partica; parcata; percha -- a perch [measure of land]
pertinens, -entis (pres. part.) -- pertaining (to)
pertinentia, -e (f) -- appurtenance
pertineo, -etre, -tinui (2) -- to belong to, pertain to
pertranseo, -ire, -ii, -itum (irreg.) -- to wander
perturbatio, -ionis (f) -- disturbance
perturbatrix, -ices (f) -- disturber [of the peace]
perquisitum, -i (n) -- profit
pes, pedis (m) -- foot
petens, -entis (m. f.) -- plaintiff (leg.)
peto, -ere, petivi, -itum (3) -- to claim, petition, seek
petit legem -- he seeks judgment
petivit admitti tenens -- he petitoned to be admitted tenant
pila, palmaria -- handball
pileus, -e (m) pilius -- a (felt) cap
piper, -eris (n) -- pepper
piscare (1) -- to fish
piscaria, -ie (f) also piscarium, -ii (n) -- right to fish (leg.); fish-pond
piscis, -is (m) -- fish
pistor, -oris (m) -- baker
pistor panis -- baker of bread
pistorium, -ii (n) also pistrina -- bakery
pisum, -i (n) also pisa and pisus -- pea; peas
placitare (1) -- to plead (leg.)
placitum, -i (n) -- a plea [in court] (leg.)
de placito debiti -- in a plea of debt
de placito defamationis -- in a plea of slander
de placito dotis -- in a plea of dowry
in placito transgressione -- in a plea of trespass
intrare placitum -- to enter a plea
plana, -e (f) -- open ground; feeding ground; field
planum, -i (n) -- open country
plaustrum, -i (n) -- wagon; wagon-load
plebicitum, -i; plebiscitum (n) -- byelaw (leg.)
plegius, -ii (m) -- pledge, one who goes surety for another (leg.)
plegius de lego -- pledge at law
plene (adv.) -- fully
plenus, -a, -um (adj.) -- full
in plena curia -- in open court
plurimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- most
plus, pluris (adj.) -- more
pomarium, -ii (n) -- orchard
pombregium, -ii (n) -- pound-breach
pomum, -i (n) -- apple
pono, -ere, posui, positum (3) -- to place, appoint, produce in court (leg.)
ponere in respectum -- to adjourn or respite (leg.)
ponere se in -- to put oneself on (leg.)
ponere se super -- to submit to (leg.)
ponit se -- he submits to [judgement] (leg.)
porcaria, -e (f) -- pigsty
porcarius, -ii (m) -- swineherd
porcus, -i (m) -- pig
porta, -e (f) -- gate [usually used of a field gate]
portare (1) -- to carry
portio, -ionis (f) -- share, part, portion
possessio, -ionis (f) -- property; occupation
possum, posse, potui (irreg.) - to be able
post (adv. & prep with acc.) -- after, afterwards, according to
posta, -e (f) -- post
postea (adv.) -- hereafter, thereafter, afterwards
postmodo (adv.) -- afterwards
postquam (conj.) -- after
potagium, -ii (n) also patagium -- drink-money
potagium, -ii (n) also patagium -- broth or porridge
pratum, -i (n) -- meadowland
pre (adv. & prep with abl.) -- before
precaria, -e (f) also precarium; precatio -- boon-work i.e. labour service additional to week-service
precedens, -entis (adj.) -- preceeding
preceptor, -oris (m) -- preceptor [head of Templar or Hospitaller house]
precium, -ii (n) also pretium -- price
predictus, -a, -um (past part.) -- aforesaid
predilectus, -a, -um (adj.) -- well-beloved
prefatus, -a, -um (adj.) -- aforesaid
prefectus, -i (m) -- reeve
premanibus -- in advance; in cash; cash down
premonere (2) -- to advise; oversee
premunire (4) -- to give notice of, cite, summon (leg.)
prenominatus, -a, -um (adj.) -- aforenamed
prepositura, -e (f) -- reeveship, office of reeve, `grave'
prepositus, -i (m) -- reeve
prepotentissimus -- most powerful
presens, -entis (adj.) -- present
presentare (1) - to present (leg.)
presentant -- they present i.e. charge
presentat se ipsum -- he presents himself
prestare (1) -- to lend
pretendo, -ere, -i, -tentum -- to claim, allege
preter (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- past, beyond, besides, except
pretera (adv.) -- besides, moreover, henceforth
preteritus, -a, -um (past. part.) -- past
pretium, -ii (n) -- price, value
primus, -a, -um (adj.) -- first
prior, prius (adj.) -- first, former
prius (adv.) -- before, first
pro (prep. with abl.) -- for; during; in; as far as; in accordance with; in return for
pro certo -- certainly
pro eo quod -- because
pro nunc -- at the present; for the present
pro parte -- on behalf of
pro placito -- at will, at pleasure
pro tunc -- then, at that time
probare (1) -- to prove [usually but not exclusively of a will]
processus, -us (m) -- process (leg.); proceedings
proclamatio, -ionis (f) -- proclamation; formal announcment
prohibere (2) -- to forbid
projectio sepes -- throwing down (newly-planted) hedges
prolocutor, -oris -- spokesman
propars, propartis (f) -- a share or portion (leg.)
prope (adv.) -- near
propinquarius, -ii (m) -- relation, kinsman
propinquior, -ioris (adj. & noun) -- nearest, next [of kin]
propinquus, -a, -um (adj.) -- near, neigbouring
propius, -a, -um (adj.) -- ones own, special, proper
in propria persona sua -- in his own person
propter (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- near, close to, on account of, because of
propterea (adv.) -- therefore
prosequor, -sequi, -setus sum (3 dep.) -- to prosecute (leg.)
prosterno, -ere, -stravi, -stratum -- to fell, pull down; to level, fill up
prout (adv.) -- according as; in proportion; just as
provenire (4) -- to come forth; to issue from (of revenue or profits)
proventus -us (m) -- income; proceeds
proxime (adv.) -- next, nearest, lastly
proximus, -a, -um (adj.) -- next
pudor, -oris (m) -- shame, affront
puella, -e (f) -- girl
puer, -eri (m) -- boy
pullanus, -i (m) -- colt
pullus, -i (m) -- chicken; colt or foal
punctus, -i (m) also punctum -- point (of sword)
super punctum falcis sue -- upon the point of his scythe
punda, -e (f) -- pound, pinfold
punderus, -i (m) -- pounder; keeper of the pinfold
punior, -itis, -iri (dep.) -- to punish
Purificatio, -ionis (f) -- Purification
purpars, -partis (f) -- share, part
purprestura, -e (f) -- encroachment [of land] (leg.)
putare (1) -- to think, to suppose
puteus, -i (m) -- well

Quadragesima, -e (f) -- Lent
quadrans, quadrantis (m) -- farthing
quadriga, -e (f) -- wagon
quadrigare (1) -- to cart; to carry in a wagon
qualis, -e (adj. & pron.) -- of what kind, what kind of a; of such a kind, of such
qualiscumque, qualecumque -- whatever kind
qualiter (adv.) -- in what way or manner
qualitercumque (adv.) -- in whatsoever way
quam (adv.) -- how; how much; in what manner
quamdiu (adv.) -- as long as
quamquam (adv.) -- though, although
quando (adv. & conj.) -- when
quandoque (adv.) -- whenever
quandocumque (adv.) -- whensoever
quandoquidem (adv.) -- since, seeing that
quare (adv.) -- wherefore
quarta, -e (f) -- farthing
quartium, -ii (n) -- quarter [dry measure usually of grain]
quasi (adv.) -- as if; just as
quartus, -a, -um (adj.) -- fourth
quattuor (indeclinable) -- four
-que [added to end of word] -- and
quercus, -us (f) -- an oak
querela, -e (f) -- plaint, suit or action (leg.)
querelare (1) -- to bring an action; to implead (leg.)
querens, -entis (m,f) -- plaintiff (leg.)
quero, -ere, quesivi, quesitum (dep.) -- to bring an action (leg.)
quia (conj.) -- whereas; because
quidam, quedam, quoddam (pron,) -- certain person or thing
quietclamare (1) -- to quitclaim (leg.)
quiete (adv.) -- peacefully, quietly
quilibet, quelibet, quidlibet (pron.) -- anyone you like
quietus, -a, -um (adj.) -- quit; free (leg.)
quindina, -e (f) -- period of 15 days
quinque (indeclinable) -- five
quintus, -a, -um -- fifth
quittus, -a, -um (adj.) -- quit, free (leg.)
quoad (adv.) -- as long as, as far as, regards
quod (conj.) -- (1) because (2) that [after verbs of knowing, saying etc.]
quomodo (adv.) -- in what manner
quoquomodo (adv.) -- in whatever place
quondam (adv.) -- formerly, the late
quoniam (adv.) -- whereas, since
quoque (conj.) -- also
quotiens (adv.) -- as often as
totiens ... quotiens -- as often ... as
quousque (adv.) -- until

radix, -icis (f) -- a root
radix arboris -- tree-root
ramus, -i (m) -- branch; bough
rastrum, -i (n) -- hoe, rake; mattock
raticare (1) -- to ratify
rationabilis, -e (adv) -- reasonable, rational; regular, in due form
rationabiliter (adv.) -- regularly, in due form
realis, -e (adj.) -- real (as in `real estate')
realiter (adv.) -- really, actually, with regard to real property
recepta, -e (f.) also receptum, -i (n) -- receipt; money received
recipio, -ere, cepi, -ceptum -- to receive
recompensare (1) -- to recompense, compensate for
recte (adv.) -- rightly
rectus, -a, -um (adj.) -- right; direct (of heirs)
recupare (1) -- to recover
recuperet -- he should recover; he should be awarded
redditus, -us (m) -- rent, revenue
redditus assise -- fixed rent paid by free tenants
redditus certus -- fixed rent
redditus mobilis -- rent in kind
reddo, -ere, -didi, -ditum (3) -- to give back, to pay, to surrender or hand over
reddere computum de -- to render account of
regina, -e (f) -- the Queen
regnum, -i (n) -- reign
relaxare (1) -- to release, remit, discharge
relevium, -ii (n) -- relief [payment]
relicta, -e (f) -- widow
remaneo, -ere, remansi -- to remain
remittere (3) -- to remit; to remise; to surrender a claim (leg.)
renovare (1) -- to renew
reparatio, -ionis (f) -- repairs; reparation
reparare (1) -- to repair
reprisa -- reprise, deduction
rescessus, -us (m) -- rescue (leg.) [Illegal recovery of goods, animals or persons from custody]
residens, -entis (m, f) -- resident tenant
respectare (1) -- to respite, adjourn (leg.)
fidelitas respectatur -- fealty adjourned i.e. postponed to a later court (leg.)
respectus, -us (m) also respectum, -i (n) -- respite; adjournment; postponement (leg.)
respondere (2) -- to reply; to answer; with de or pro to be answerable for
responsalis, -e (adj.) -- answerable for or to
responsum, -i (n) -- answer; reply
restitere (3) -- to restore; to set up again
rete, retis (n) -- a net [Non-standard 3rd declension noun but also found as a regular 1st declension noun. i.e. reta]
reversio, -ionis (f) also revertio -- reversion (of land) (leg.)
rex, regis (m) -- king
ripa, -e (f) -- river bank
riparia, -e (f) -- river or river bank
rixator (m) rixatrix (f) -- a contentious person; a scold
roda, -e (f) -- rood [measure of land]
rogare (1) -- to ask
rosa, -e -- rose
rota, -e (f) -- wheel
rotulus, -i (m) -- roll; record (leg.)
ruber, bra, -brum (adj.) -- red
ruinosus, -a, um (adj.) -- ruined; impassable

Sabbati dies -- Saturday
saccus, -i (m) -- sack; dry measure
sacer, -r, rum (adj.) -- sacred
sacramentum, -i (n) -- an oath (formal)
sagitta, -e (f) -- arrow
sagittare (1) also sagitare -- to practice archery; to shoot arrows
sal, salis (m) -- salt
salvare (1) -- to save
salvus, -a, -um (adj) -- safe; in abl.absol. -- excepting only, saving, without violation of
salvo jure -- reserving (legal) rights
sanare (1) -- to heal, to make sound
sanare defaltam -- to remedy default (leg.)
sanctus, -a, -um (adj.) -- holy
sanguis, sanguinis (m) -- blood
sanitas, -atis (f) -- health
sarclare (1) also sarcliare -- to hoe; to weed
sarclatio, -ionis (f) -- weeding
sarclator, -oris (m) sarculatrix (f) -- hoer; weeder
satis (adv.) -- enough
scilcet (adv.) -- namely
scindere -- to cut; split
scio, scire, scivim, scitum (4) -- to know
sciatus, -a, -um (adj.) -- situated
scitus, -us (m) -- site
scitus manerii -- curtilage of the manor house
Scotia, -e (f) -- Scotland
seco, -are, ui, -tum (1) -- to cut
secta, -e (f) -- suit of court (leg.)
secta multure -- service by which tenants were required to grind their corn at the lord's mill
sectator, -ores (m) -- suitor; one owing suit of court (leg.)
secundum (adv., prep + acc.) -- according to
secundus, -a, -um (adj.) -- second
sed also set (conj.) -- but
seisare (1) -- to take possession of (leg.)
seisatus, -a, -um (adj.) -- seised (leg.)
seisina, -e (f) -- seisin (of land)
selio, -ionis (f) also sullo, -onis -- selion, strip in open field
semel (adv.) -- once
semen, -inis (n) -- seed; sowing time
seminare (1) -- to sow (a field)
semita, -e (f) -- lane; footpath
senescallus, -i (m) -- steward
subsenescallus -- sub-steward
senior, -ioris (adj.) -- elder; senior
separabilis, -e (adj.) -- `several'; land held separately i.e. inseveralty
pastura separabilis -- land not in the common fields
separatim (adv.) -- separately
sepe (adv.) -- often
sepes, -is; cepes, -is (f) -- hedge or fence
fractio sepes -- hedge-breaking [i.e. taking wood from hedges]
projectio sepes -- throwing down (newly-planted) hedges
septem (indeclinable) -- seven
septimana, -e (f) -- a week
septimus, -a, -um -- seventh
sequela, -e (f) -- suit of court (leg.)
sequens, -entis (pres. part.) -- following
sequens, -entis (m, f) -- suitor (leg.)
sequentia, -e (f) -- suit (leg.)
servicium, -ii (n) -- service (leg.)
per servicium militare - by military service (leg.)
serviens, -ientis (m, f) - servant; tenant holding by military service
servilis, -e (adj.) -- pertaining to the services or status of a villien
servisia, -e (f) -- beer
servus, -i (m) also serva, -e -- serf, villein; slave; servant
set (conj.) -- but
seu ... seu; sive ... sive -- whether ... or
sex (indeclinable) -- six
sextus, -a, -um -- sixth
shopa, -e (f) also schopa -- a shop or workshop. [Sometimes used of an alehouse.]
si (conj.) -- if; whether
sic (adv.) -- thus; so
sicare (1) -- to dry
sicut (adv.) -- just as
sicut pluries -- like several others
sigillare (1) -- to seal [a document]
siligo, -ionis (f) -- rye
silva, -e (f) -- a wood
similis, -e (adj.) -- like, similar
similiter (adv.) -- similarly
simul (adv.) -- together; at the same time;; also; likewise
sine (prep. + abl.) -- without
sine die -- without a day [i.e. no need to return] (leg.)
sinister, -tra, -trum (adj.) -- left
socmannus, -i (m) also sokmannus -- sokeman [one who holds by privileged tenure as the heir of the Danes]
solemniter (adv.) -- solemnly
soliata, -us, -um; solidata, -us, -um (adj.) -- `soiled' (see terra)
solidus, -i (m) -- shilling
soleo, -ere, solitus sum (semi dep.) -- to be accustomed
solum, -i (n) -- soil; ground; land
solutio, -ionis (f) -- payment
solvo, -ere, solvi, solutum (3) -- to pay
soror, -oris (f) -- sister; nun
spado, -onis (m) -- gelding
spargo, -ere, -si, -sum -- to spread or turn hay
spectare (1) -- to belong to; to look to, to face
spina, -e (f) -- thorn-bush
arbor spinalis -- hawthorn
spoliatio, -onis (f) -- spoliation
stabula -e (f) -- stable
stagnum, -i (n) -- pond; damn (of a mill)
stallagium, -ii (n) -- stallage; charge for setting up a market-stall
stallum, -i (n) -- market-stall; hive
unum stallium apium -- one stall or hive of bees
staurum, -i (n) -- stock [In the plural it can mean stores]
statim (adv.) -- at once, immediately
sterilis, -e (adj.) -- barren
sterquilinium, -ii (n) -- a dung-heap
stipendium, -ii (n) -- wages, fee, stipend [usually a year's wages]
stotta, -e (f) -- heifer
stottus, -i (m) -- steer
stramen, -inis (n) -- straw
strata, -e (f) -- way, road
strata alta -- highway
strata regis -- king's highway
sub (prep. with abl. and acc.) -- under, below; towards; shortly before, just after; during
sub pena - under the pain of; on pain of
subboscus, -i (m) -- underwood
subito (adv.) -- suddenly, immediately
subscriptus, -a, -um (past part.) -- underwritten, written below
subtus also suptus (prep. with acc.) -- under
subventio, -ionis (f) -- aid, assistance, financial aid
subvertere (3) -- to divert; to overthow
subvertit aquam a -- he diverts water from
succido, -ere, -cidi, -citum (3) -- to fell or cut down [usually of trees]
sufficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum -- to be sufficient, suffice, be adequate
summa, -e (f) -- sum; total
summa totalis -- sum of the total
summonere (2) -- to summon (leg.)
summonitus est -- he was summoned
sumptus, -us (m) -- expense, charge
sulcus, -i (m) -- furlong; baulk
super (adv. & prep. with acc.) -- above, upon; on, at, against, in
et super hoc --hereupon
super quo -- whereon
superannutus, -a, -um (adj.) -- having outrun a year's time limit; time expired (leg.)
superonerare (1) -- to overstock or overburden [pasture or common land]
superstes. -stitis (adj.) -- surviving
supervisor, -oris (m) -- surveyor; overseer
supervisus, -us (m); supervisio, -ionis (f) -- a survey (of land)
supervivo, -ere, vixi (3) -- to survive
supra (adv. with acc.) -- above, beyond, before, over
supra etatem xij annorum -- over the age of 12 years
supradico, -ere, -dixi, -dictum (3) -- to mention above
supradictus, -a, -um (adj.) -- above-mentioned
suprascriptus, -a, -um (past part.) -- above-written
suptus -- see subtus
sursumreddio, -ere, -reddidi, -reditum (3) -- to surrender or give up land (leg.)
sursumredditio, -ionis (f) -- a surrender (of land) (leg.)
sus, suis (m or f) -- pig or sow

tabernare (1) -- to lease or let out land [Latinisation of a dialect word from Durham]
et habet licentiam tabernandi -- and has a licence to lease or let out
talis, -e (adj.) -- such
tallagium, -ii (n) -- customary tax, tallage
tallia, -e (f) -- tally
tam ... quam -- both ... and; so ... as; as ... as
tamdiu (adv.) -- so long; for so long a time
tamen (adv.) -- nevertheless; however; yet; though
tamquam (adv.) -- as much as; as it were; so to speak
tandiu (adv.) -- so long, for so long a time
tango, tangere, tetigi, tactum (3) -- to touch, concern
tarde (adv.) -- slowly
tardus, -a, -um (adj.) -- late; slow
tascare (1) also taxare -- to assess
tassa, -e (m); tassus, -i (m) -- hay-rick
tassare (1) -- to stack
tastator, -oris (m) -- aletaster
taurus, -i (m) -- a bull
taxare (1) -- to assess (damages)
taxatio, -ionis (f) -- assessment
tectura, -e (f) -- roof; roofing
tegula, -e (f) - tile
tegulator, -oris (m) - tiler
tempus, -oris (n) -- time
tempore seisone frumenti -- in the time for sowing wheat i.e. autumn
tenator, -oris (m) -- ploughman; plough-holder
tenementum, -i (n) -- tenement; holding (leg.)
tenementum liberum -- free-holding (leg.)
tenens, tenentis (m, f) -- tenant
extratenens -- stranger; non-tenant
libere tenentes -- freeholders
native tenentes -- serfs; [sokemen at Forncet, Norf.]
subtenens -- sub-tenant
teneo, -ere, tenui, tentum (2) -- to hold [in particular to hold land]
tenere per virgam -- to hold by the rod (leg.)
tenere debitum -- to owe
tenere rectum -- to do right
tentus, -a, -um (past part.) -- held
tenura -e (f) -- tenure; holding
tenura antiqua -- ancient demesne land [i.e. land once held by the Crown] (leg.)
tenura, -e (f) -- tenure (leg.)
tercius -a, -um; tertius (adj.) -- third
terminus, -i (m) -- term; fixed period of time (leg.)
pro termino vite sue -- for the term of his life (leg.)
terra, -e (f) -- land; a plot of land; strip of land in a common field
terra communis -- common land
terra frisca -- waste land
terra forinseca -- land outside of the manor or borough
terra mensuranda -- land surveyed using a measuring pole
terra nativa -- land held by villein tenure
terra soliata; terra solidata -- `soiled' land [former freehold land purchased by bondmen (Norf. & Suff.)]
territorium, -i (n) -- territory; townfield; `terrier' or land book
timor, -oris (m) -- fear, dread
tinctor, -oris (m) -- dyer
tingnum, -i (n) -- a beam; timber
tipulator, -oris (m) -- tippler; seller of ale
titulus, -i (m) -- title
tofta, -e (f) -- toft or house-site
tolnetum, -i (n) -- toll
tonsio, -ionis (f) -- sheep-shearing
tonsura, -e (f) -- shorn sheep; shearing
ante tonsuram -- before shearing
tot ... quot -- so many ... as
totaliter (adv.) -- entirely
totius, -a, -um (adj.) -- the whole, all, entire
toties quoties -- on every occasion
totiens ... quotiens -- as often ... as
traciare (1) -- to track (animals)
traditio, -ionis (f) -- surrender; demise; conveyance; inheritance (leg.)
trado, -ere, tradidi, traditum (3) -- to handover; to demise or lease
tradere ad firmam -- to let at farm (leg.)
traho, -ere, traxi, tractum (3) -- to draw
trahere sanquinem -- to draw blood
transeo, -ere, -ivi, -itus -- to run over (with a vehicle)
transgressio, -ionis (f) also trangressus, -us (m) -- trespass; offense (leg.)
in placito transgressione -- in a plea of trespass
trava, -e (f) also thrava -- measure of corn
traventarius, -ii (m) -- itinerant vendor, tranter; tapster
traventria, -e (f) -- hawking goods; custom levied on tranters
in traventria -- by hawking
tricesimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- thirtieth
trituracio, -ionis (f) -- threshing
triturare (1) -- to thresh
trituratio, -ionis (f) -- threshing
triturator, -oris (m) -- thresher
tunc (adv.) -- then
tuthinga, -e (f) -- a tithing
turba, -e (f) -- turf; turvery
turbarium, -ii (n) also turbaria, -e (f) -- turf-pit, turbary

ubi (adv.) -- where; when
ubicumque (adv.) -- wheresoever
ubique (adv.) -- wheresoever; everywhere
ulmus, -i (f) also ulmellus and elmus -- elm tree
ulna, -e (f) -- ell; elbow
ulterius (adv.) -- furthermore
ultra (adv., prep. with acc.) beyond
ultimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- last
ultima curia -- the last court; the previous court
unctum, -i (n) also unctus -- fat, grease
unde (adv.) -- whence; concerning which
universus, -a, -um (adj.) --the whole, all
usitare (1) -- to use
usque (adv.) -- until, as far as, up to
ussetus, -i (m) -- holly
ussus, -i (m) -- holly
usualis, -e (adj.) -- usual
usus, -us (m) -- use; enjoyment or right of possession (leg.)
uva, -e (f) -- grape
ut (adv. and conj.) -- in order that; as; that
uterque, utraque, utrumque (pron.) -- each
uxor, -oris (f) -- wife

vacca, -e (f) -- cow
vacca de metride -- cow in milk (Durham)
vaccaria, -e (m) -- cow-close
vadiare (1) -- to give security for; to wage (leg.)
vadiavit ad legem -- he produced compurgators
vadium, -ii (n) -- pledge, security
vagabundus, -i (m) -- vagabond
persone vagentes -- vagrants
vagare, vagari (dep.) -- to wander abroad at night without lawful cause
valde (adv.) -- strongly, intensely, exceedingly
valde pauper -- exceedingly poor
valens, -entis (n) also valentia -- value
ad valens; ad valentium -- to the value of
valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum (3) --to be worth; to have power to; to be capable of
vanga, -e (f) -- spade, shovel
vannare (1) -- to winnow
vannatio, -ionis (f) -- winnowing
vannatarius, -ii (m) also vannator, -oris -- winnower
vastum, -i (n) -- waste
vel (conj.) -- or
vel ... vel (conj.) -- either ... or
vellus, -eris (n) -- fleece
vendicare (1) -- to claim
vendere (3) -- to sell
venditio, -ionis (f) -- sale; right of sale
venditio stauri -- sale of stock
venella, -e (f) -- a lane
venemose (adv.) -- in poisonous fashion; venemously
venire (4) -- to come
venit -- he came
veniunt -- they came
ventilacio, -ionis (f) -- winnowing
ventilare (1) -- to winnow
verberare (1) -- to beat, to thrash
verbum, -i (n) -- word
vere (adv.) -- truthfully
veredarius, -ii (m) also viridarius -- verderer, forest-official
veredictum, -i (n) -- verdict
veritas, -atis (f) -- truth
versus (adv., prep. with acc.) -- against; towards
verus, -a, -um (adj.) -- true
vervexius, -ii (m) -- tup; wether
vesca, -e (f) also vicia -- vetch
vescallum, -i (n) -- container
vetus, -eris (adj.) -- old
via, -e (f) -- the way; the road
via alta -- the highway
via regia -- king's highway
via veridia -- green lane
viaticus, -i (m) -- tramp, wayfarer
vicarius, -ii (m) -- vicar
vicesimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- twentieth
vicinetum, -i (n) -- venue, place, neighbourhood
vicinus, -a, -um (adj.) -- neighbouring; close to
vicinus, -i (m) -- neighbour
vicinum, -i (m) also visinetum and visnetum -- neighbourhood
vicus, -i (m) -- a street; a place
videlicet (adv.) -- clearly; namely; that is
video, -ere, -vidi, -visum (2) -- to see, to view, to inspect
videtur dictis iuratis -- it seems to the said jurors
vidua, -e (f) -- widow
vigilatio, -ionis (f) -- the night-patrol; the watch; religious vigil [eve of a festival]
vigilator, -oris (m) -- one who wanders abroad at night without lawful cause
villa, -e; villata, -e (f) -- vill, village, township
villanus, -i (m) -- villein
villenagium, -ii (n) -- villein land; land held by villein tenure
vinarium, -ii (n) also vinea also vinetum -- vineyard
vinculum, -i (n) -- chain
violentia, -e (f) -- violence
vir, viri (m) -- man; husband
virga, -e (f) also virgata, -e (f) -- virgate or yardland [measure of land]; a yard or stick; a yard i.e. 3 feet
per virgam -- by the rod (leg.)
virgo, -inis (f) -- virgin
virgultum, -i (n) -- wood of small trees or brushwood; a copse
viridis, -e (adj) -- green
viridarius, -i (m) also veredarius -- verderer, forest-official
vis, viris (f) -- force
visus, -us (m) -- view (leg.)
visus franciplegii -- view of frankpledge (leg.)
vita, -e (f) -- life
vitula, -e (f) also vitulus, i (m) -- calf
vltimus, -a, -um (adj.) -- last
vocare (1) also vocavere -- to call; to vouch, call as evidence (leg.)
vocatus, -a, -um (past. part.) -- called
volo, velle, volui -- to wish, intend
voluntas, -atis (f) -- wish, will
vomer (m) -- plough-share
warantia, -e (f) -- warranty (leg.)
warecta, -e (f) -- fallow land
wastum, -i (n) -- waste; waste land [often land over which copyholders had pasture and other rights]
wodemotum, -i; woodmotum, -i (n) -- wood-mote, court of attachment in forest
woedwardus, -i; woodwardus, -i (m) -- woodward [a forest official]