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Latin Dictionary

Bible History Online

abacus -i, m. (a square board); hence (sideboard, counting board, gaming board, ceiling, panel).
abalienatio -onis, f. (transfer of property).
abalieno -are, (to make alien, separate, estrange).
abavus -i, m. (great-great-grandfather).
Abdera -orum, n. pl., also -ae, f., (a town in Thrace, noted for the stupidity of its, inhabitants).
abdicatio -onis, f. (disowning, renunciation).
abdico (1) -are, (to renounce, reject); esp. of magistracies, (to abdicate), often with reflex., and ablative of office.
abdico (2) -dicere -dixi -dictum, in augury, (to disapprove of).
abdo -dere -didi -ditum, (to put away, withdraw, remove); esp. (to secrete, hide). Hence partic., abditus -a -um, (concealed, secret).
Adv. abdite.
abdomen -inis, n. (belly); hence (gluttony).
abduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (to lead or take away, detach, withdraw).
abeo -ire -ii -itum, (to go away); 'abi', (be off with you); 'abi in malam rem' (go to the devil)., Trans., (to retire) from office; (to depart)
from life, (die); in discussion, (to digress); in form, (to change); of things, (to pass away, disappear, vanish); (to pass over) from owner
to owner.
abequito -are, (to ride off).
aberratio -onis, f. (escape, relief).
aberro -are, (to wander, deviate, escape).
abhinc, (1) (hereafter). (2) (ago): 'abhinc annos tres', or 'annis tribus', (three, years ago).
abhorreo -ere, (to shrink back from); hence (to be inconsistent with or opposed to); 'a fide', (to be incredible). Pres. part., as adj.,
(unseasonable, inappropriate).
abicio -icere -ieci -iectum, (to throw down or away). Transf., (to pronounce carelessly, break off abruptly,; to get rid of, give up; to
dash to the ground, weaken, dishearten). Hence, partic. abiectus -a -um; of position (low, common); of character (cowardly, mean);
of style, (without force, prosaic). Adv. abiecte, (without spirit, meanly).
abiectio -onis, f. (throwing away); 'animi', (despondency, despair).
abiegnus -a -um, (of fir wood).
abies -etis, f. (the silver fir); meton., (anything made of fir, such as a ship or spear).
abigo -ere -egi -actum, (to drive away); of cattle, (to remove, steal). Transf., (to banish, be rid, of): 'uxorem', (to divorce).
abitio -onis, f. (going away, departure; place of egress).
abitus -us, m., (going away, departure; place of egress).
abiudico -are, (to take away by a judgement).
abiungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, (to unharness); hence (to estrange, detach).
abiuro -are, (to abjure, deny on oath).
ablativus -a -um, (ablative).
ablegatio -onis, f. (sending away, banishment).
ablego -are, (to send away, remove to a distance).
abligurio -ire, (to lick away); hence (to squander).
abludo -ere, (to be out of tune).
abluo -luere -lui -lutum, (to wash clean; to wash away).
abnego -are, (to deny, refuse).
abnepos -otis, m. (great-great-grandson).

abneptis -is, f. (great-great-granddaughter).
abnocto -are, (to stay out all night).
abnormis -e, (irregular, unconventional).
abnuo -nuere -nui, fut. partic. -nuiturus, (to refuse by a gesture,to deny).
aboleo -ere -evi -itum, (to destroy, do away with).
abolesco -ere -evi, (to perish).
abolitio -onis, f. (removing, annulling, abolition).
abolla -ae, f. (a cloak of thick woollen cloth).
abomino -are and abominor -ari, dep. (1) (to deprecate): 'quod abominor', (God forbid). (2) (to hate, detest).
aborior -oriri -ortus, dep.: of heavenly bodies, (to set); poet., of the voice, (to fail).
aboriscor -i, = aborior: q.v.
abortio -onis, f. (untimely birth, miscarriage).
abortivus -a -um, (prematurely born).
abortus -us, m. (miscarriage).
abrado -radere -rasi -rasum, (to scrape off, shave). Transf., (to squeeze out, to extort).
abripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, (to snatch away, drag off, remove, detach).
abrodo -rodere -rosi -rosum, (to gnaw off).
abrogatio -onis, f. (annulling, repealing).
abrogo -are, (to repeal, annul, remove, take away).
abrotonum -i, n. and abrotonus -i, m. (southern-wood).
abrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, (to break off, sever; to remove, dissociate; to break off prematurely, destroy). Hence partic.
abruptus -a -um, (steep, precipitous, abrupt, rough)., N. as subst., (a steep place). Adv. abrupte.
abruptio -onis, f. (tearing away); hence (divorce).
abscedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (to go away, depart, retire, desert).
abscessio -onis, f. (going away, separation).
abscessus -us, m. (going away, withdrawal).
abscido -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to cut off; to separate or take away). Hence partic. abscisus -a -um, (precipitous, abrupt, short).
abscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, (to tear off, wrench away); 'venas', (to cut open the veins); poet., 'abscissa, comas', (with her hair
torn). Transf., (to divide or separate).
abscondo -condere -condi (-condidi) -conditum (-consum), (to conceal; to lose sight of); pass., of stars, (to set). Adv. from partic.,
abscondite, (obscurely).
absens -entis, (absent); see also absum.
absentia -ae, f. (absence).
absilio -ire -ii or -ui, (to spring forth or away).
absimilis -e, (unlike).
absinthium -i, n. (wormwood).
absisto -sistere -stiti, (to go away) from a place or person; (to desist) from an action.
absolutio -onis, f. (1) (acquittal). (2) (perfection).
absolutorius -a -um, (relating to acquittal).
absolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum, (to loosen, to free): of an accused person, (to acquit).; of a subject, (to, dispose of, relate in full); in
gen. (to complete). Hence partic. absolutus -a, -um, (perfect, complete; unfettered, unconditional). Adv. absolute, (perfectly,
absonus -a -um, (inharmonious, discordant, disagreeing).
absorbeo -ere -ui, (to swallow, gulp down); hence (to carry away, engross).
absque, prep. with abl. (without).
abstemius -a -um, (temperate, abstemious).
abstergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum, (to wipe off, clean away).
absterreo -ere, (to frighten away).
abstinentia -ae, f. (self-denial, temperance); sometimes (fasting).
abstineo -tinere -tinui -tensum, transit., (to hold back); intransit., (to abstain). Hence present partic., abstinens -entis, (temperate).
Adv. abstinenter.

absto -are, (to stand aloof).
abstraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, (to drag away); hence (to remove, exclude, restrain).
abstrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum, (to push away, hide). Hence partic. abstrusus -a -um, (concealed, secret, abstruse); of character,
absum abesse afui, (1) (to be away, be absent or missing); hence (to take no part) in a thing, (fail to help). (2) (to be far away, to be
distant); hence (to be far from), doing a thing, (to be free) from a fault.
absumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, (to reduce, consume, waste, destroy).
absurdus -a -um, (unmelodious, harsh). Transf., (foolish, unreasonable, out of place); of, persons, (incapable). Hence adv. absurde,
(harshly, discordantly; foolishly).
abundantia -ae, f. (abundance, plenty; riches, wealth).
abunde, (copiously, abundantly); with 'est' and genit., (there is plenty of) a thing.
abundo -are, (to overflow; to grow in abundance; to abound, be rich in), esp. with abl., Hence partic. abundans -antis, (overflowing;
abundant, numerous; abounding, in); adv. abundanter, (abundantly, copiously).
abusque, prep. with abl., (from).
abusus -us, m. (using up, wasting).
abutor -uti -usus, dep., with abl. (1) (to make full use of). (2) (to abuse, waste); esp. (to use, a word wrongly).
ac, see atque.
Academia -ae, f., (the Academy), a grove near Athens where Plato taught; meton., (the, Academic school of philosophy). Hence adj.
Academicus -a -um,; n. pl., Academica, (Cicero's treatise on the Academic philosophy).
acalanthis and acanthis -idis, f., (a small bird), perhaps (siskin).
acanthus -i, m. (1) (bear's foot, a plant). (2) (a thorny evergreen).
Acarnania -ae, f. (Acarnania, a country in western Greece).
Acca Larentia, (a Roman goddess); Larentalia or Accalia -ium, n. pl., (her festival at Rome, in December).
accedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (to approach, come near); of persons, (to enter upon) a course; 'ad rem, publicam', (to begin public
life); of things, (to be added); 'hic accedit ut', (it is also true that, moreover).
accelero -are, transit., (to quicken, accelerate); intransit., (to hasten).
accendo -cendere -cendi -censum, (to kindle, set alight, set on fire). Transf., (to fire, inflame, excite).
accenseo -censere -censum, (to reckon in addition). Hence partic. accensus -a -um, (reckoned with); m. as, subst., (an attendant); in
plural, accensi, (reserve troops, supernumeraries).
acceptio -onis, f. (reception, acceptance).
accepto -are, (to receive).
acceptus -a -um, partic. from accipio; q.v.
accerso, = arcesso; q.v.
accessio -onis, f. (a going or coming to; increase; a thing added, appendage).
accessus -us, m. (approach, access; means of approach, entrance).
accido (1) -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to hew or hack at); hence (to weaken, ruin).
accido (2) -cidere -cidi, (to fall down); 'ad pedes', (to fall at a person's feet). Transf., (to happen, fall out).
accieo -ere, obs. form of accio; q.v.
accingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum, (to gird on) a weapon; (to equip, arm) a person; with reflex., or in pass., (to arm oneself), hence (to
make oneself ready).
accio -ire -ivi (-ii) -itum, (to call, summon).
accipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, (to take, receive, accept). Esp. with the senses, (to hear, feel), etc.; with, the understanding, (to grasp,
to learn); also (to take, interpret) in a, certain sense; of persons, (to receive hospitably or treat) in any particular, manner; in
business, 'acceptum referre', (to enter on the credit side) of an, account book, hence, (to consider oneself indebted to someone for
a thing)., Hence partic. acceptus -a -um, (welcome, pleasant, agreeable).
accipiter -tris, m. (a hawk).
accitus -us, m. (a summons).
Accius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens); esp. of L. Accius, tragic poet (170-c.85 B.C.)

acclamatio -onis, f. (a loud cry).
acclamo -are, (to cry out) (in approval or otherwise);with acc. of person, (to name by, acclamation).
acclaro -are, (to make clear, reveal).
acclinis -e, (leaning towards, inclined to).
acclino -are, (to lean towards, incline to).
acclivis -e, (inclined upwards).
acclivitas -atis, f. (upward slope).
acclivus -a -um, = acclivis; q.v.
accola -ae, m. or f. (neighbor); as adj. (living near, neighboring).
accolo -colere -colui -cultum, (to live near).
accommodatio -onis, f.(1) (proportion or adjusting).(2) (courteousness).
accommodatus -a -um, partic. from accommodo; q.v.
accommodo -are, (to fit, put on) equipment, etc.; (to make suitable, adjust, adapt). Hence, partic. accommodatus -a -um, (adapted,
suitable); adv. accommodate, (agreeably).
accommodus -a -um, (fit, adapted).
accredo -credere -credidi -creditum, (to believe) (with dat.).
accresco -crecere -crevi -cretum, (to grow, increase); with dat. (to be joined to) a thing.
accubitio -onis, f. (the act of reclining at table).
accubitus -us, m. (the act of reclining at table).
accubo -are, (to lie or recline beside), esp. at table; 'apud hominem', (to dine at a man's, house).
accumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, (to lie down or recline), esp. at table.
accumulator -oris, m. (one who heaps together).
accumulo -are, (to heap up, accumulate; to heap things on a person, give in abundance; to, ply, overwhelm a person with things; to
increase). Adv. from partic., accumulate, (abundantly, copiously).
accuratio -onis, f. (accuracy, carefulness).
accuro -are, (to take care of, prepare with care). Hence partic. accuratus -a -um, (done, with care, careful, exact, accurate). Adv.
accurro -currere -curri (-cucurrri) -cursum, (to run to); of ideas, (to occur).
accursus -us, m. (running, concourse).
accusabilis -e, (blameworthy).
accusatio -onis, f. (an accusation, indictment).
accusator -oris, m. (an accuser); hence (an informer).
accusatorius -a -um, (of or like an accuser); adv. accusatorie.
accusatrix -icis, f. (a female accuser).
accuso -are, (to accuse); in gen., (to blame, find fault with).
acer (1) -eris, n. (the maple tree or maple wood).
acer (2) -cris -cre, (sharp, cutting, keen). Hence, to taste, (biting); to touch, (sharp); of, sounds, (shrill); of smells, (penetrating); of
sight, (keen); of emotions, (painful); of understanding, (quick, vigorous, energetic). Adv. acriter, (sharply, keenly).
acerbitas -atis, f. (bitterness, harshness, painfulness); in plur., (calamities).
acerbo -are, (to make bitter, to aggravate).
acerbus -a -um, (bitter). Hence, of sounds, (harsh); of looks, (dark, gloomy); of speech or, writing, (bitter); of events, etc., (painful,
severe); of persons, (morose);, from the notion of unripeness, (premature). Adv. acerbe, (bitterly, harshly).
acernus -a -um, (made of maple wood).
acerra -ae, f. (a casket for incense).
acervatim, (by acclamation). 'dicere', (to sum up).
acervo -are, (to heap up).
acervus -i, m. (a heap, mass); in logic, (argument by accumulation).
acesco acescere acui, (to grow sour).
acetum -i, n. (vinegar).
Achaia -ae, f., (the Greek country of Achaia, in the Peloponnese), or in gen. (Greece);, after 146 B.C., (the Roman province of
Achaea). Hence adj. and subst. Achaeus, and Achivus, (Achaean, an Achaean).
Achates -ae, m. (friend of Aeneas).

Acheron -ontis, m. (older form Acheruns -untis) (mythol. river in the lower world; the lower, world itself).
Achilles -is and Achilleus -ei, m. (a Greek hero, son of Peleus and Thetis). Adj. Achilleus -a -um.
Achivus -a -um, see Achaia.
acidus -a -um, (sharp, sour).
acies -ei, f. (keenness, edge); of the mind, (penetration, insight); of the eye, (a, piercing look or keen vision); sometimes (the pupil of
the eye, or the eye, itself). Milit., (battle line); hence (battle, battlefield).
acinaces -is, m. (a Persian sabre).
acinus -i, m. and acinum -i, n. (a berry; the seed of a berry).
acipenser -eris, also acipensis -is, m. (the sturgeon).
aclys -ydis, f. (a small javelin).
aconitum -i, n. (monk's hood, aconite; strong poison).
acq-, = adq-; q.v.
acratophorum -i, n. (a vessel for unmixed wine).
acredula -ae, f. (a bird, perhaps thrush, owl, or nightingale).
acriculus -a -um, (somewhat sharp in temper).
acrimonia -ae, f. (sharpness, keenness).
acriter, adv. from acer; q.v.
acroama -atis, n. (an entertainment, esp. musical; an entertainer, i.e. reader, actor, or, singer).
acroasis -is, f. (reading aloud, recitation).
Acroceraunia -orum, n. pl. (part of the Ceraunian mountains); hence (any dangerous place).
acta (1) -ae, f. (seashore, beach); meton., (life of the seaside).
acta (2) -orum, from partic. of ago; q.v.
Actaeon -onis, m. (a hunter turned into a stag by Diana, and killed by his hounds).
actio -onis, f. (action, doing); 'gratiarum', (the giving of thanks). Esp. (the action of a, magistrate, a proposal); in the theater, (a plot); at
law, (an action or the, bringing of it or right to bring it); also (a legal formula or speech on an, indictment).
actito -are, (to be busy, in law-court or theater).
Actium -i, n. (a promontory in Acarnania), near which Augustus conquered Antony and, Cleopatra (31 B.C.). Adj. Actiacus and Actius -a
actor -oris, m. (1) (a driver). (2) (a doer); esp. (a dramatic actor, player); (a public, speaker; the plaintiff in an action; a manager of
actuariolum -i, n. (a small skiff).
actuarius -a -um, (swift); 'actuaria (navis)', (a fast-sailing vessel).
actuosus -a -um, (active); adv. actuose.
actus -us, m. (1) (driving, movement), esp. of cattle; hence (right of way for driving, cattle, etc.). (2) (doing, action), esp. on stage;
hence (the presentation of, a piece on the stage); also (a division of a piece, an act).
actutum, adv. (immediately, directly).
aculeatus -a -um, (provided with prickles or stings); hence (pointed, stinging; hair-splitting, subtle).
aculeus -i, m. (sting, point); fig., esp. in plur., (painful thoughts, cutting remarks).
acumen -inis, n. (sharp point; hence the point of remarks, etc.; sharpness of intellect;, cunning, trickery).
acuo -uere -ui -utum, (to sharpen, whet; to quicken, make expert; to inflame, encourage, incite)., Hence partic. acutus -a -um,
(sharpened, pointed, acute); to the hearing, (shrill); to touch, (piercing); of events etc., (sharp, painful); of minds, (sharp, keen,
intelligent); of orators, (effective). Adv. acute, (keenly, sharply).
acus -us, f. (a needle); 'acu pingere', (to embroider); 'acu rem tangere', (to hit the, nail on the head).
acutulus -a -um, (rather subtle).
acutus, see acuo.
ad, prep. with acc. (1) of motion, (towards), to a person or place; 'ad Dianae, (sc. aedem)', (to Diana'a temple); 'ad me', (to my house);
often strengthened, by usque. (2) of rest, (at or near). (3) of time: either (to, until) or (at, about). (4) of other relations: (towards, for)
a purpose; (concerning, bearing, on; compared with, in addition to; in conformity with; approximating to, about; in consequence of)

event; (as far as, up to) a certain degree; 'ad, summam', (on the whole); 'ad verbum', (literally).
adactio -onis, f. (driving, compulsion).
adactus -us, m. (bringing to, application).
adaeque, (in like manner).
adaequo -are, transit., (to make equal); hence, (to compare); intransit., (to match, come, near to).
adamanteus -a -um, (hard as steel).
adamantinus -a -um, (made of steel).
adamas -antis, m. (the hardest steel, adamant); poet., (anything firm, unyielding, durable).
adambulo -are, (to walk by or near).
adamo -are, (to fall in love with, find pleasure in).
adaperio -aperire -aperui -apertum, (to open fully).
adauctus -us, m. (increase).
adaugeo -ere -auxi -auctum, (to increase, augment).
adaugesco -ere, (to begin to increase).
adbibo -bibere -bibi -bibitum, (to drink in).
addenseo -ere, (to make thick or compact).
addenso -are, (to make thick or compact).
addico -dicere -dixi -dictum, (to assent to); in augury, (to promise well); of a judge, (especially the, praetor), (to award); of an
auctioneer, (to knock down) a lot; of an owner, (to put up for sale). Hence in gen., (to give up or over, doom, dedicate, surrender);
partic. addictus, (bound, pledged).
addictio -onis, f. (a judge's word).
addisco -discere -didici, (to learn in addition).
additamentum -i, n. (an addition).
addo addere addidi additum, (1) (to give, bring, place); of feelings, (to inspire, cause). (2) (to add, join); esp. in speech or writing;
'adde' or 'adde huc', or 'eo', (add to this, take also into consideration).
addoceo -ere, (to teach in addition).
addubito -are, (to begin to doubt).
adduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (1) (to bring or lead to) a person, place, or condition; of persons, (to bring, to a certain state of mind,
to influence, induce). (2) (to draw to oneself, pull in); hence (to contract); partic. adductus -a -um, (contracted, taut); of, persons,
(strict). Compar. adv. adductius.
adedo -esse -edi -esum, (to nibble, gnaw; to consume, waste away).
ademptio -onis, f. (taking away).
adeo (1) -ire -ii -itum, (to go or come to, approach, visit); 'in ius', (to go to law); of business, etc., (to undertake, undergo, incur);
'adire hereditatem', (to enter on an, inheritance).
adeo (2), adv. (to that point, so far), often strengthened by usque; of space, (so far);, of time, (so long); of degree, (so much, so, to
such an extent); sometimes, (even, what is more); enclitically, with pron. or conjunction, (just).
adeps -ipis, c. (soft fat).
adeptio -onis, f. (attainment, obtaining).
adequito -are, (to ride to).
adesdum, or ades dum, (come hither).
adfabilis -e, (easy to speak to, affable).
adfabilitas -atis, f. (affability).
adfabre, (in a workmanlike way).
adfatim, (sufficiently, enough).
adfatus -us, m. (address, speech).
adfectatio -onis, f. (striving, eagerness).
adfectator -oris, m. (a striver).
adfectio -onis, f. (manner of being affected); hence (relation) to a thing or person, or, (change, state, condition); sometimes
(favorable state of mind, goodwill).
adfecto -are, (to strive after, grasp at, aim at, aspire to); polit. (to try to win over);, in literary style, (to affect); partic. adfectatus -a -
um, (studied).
adfectus (1) -us, m. (condition, disposition); esp. of the mind, (a feeling); often (friendly, feeling, goodwill).

adfectus (2) -a -um, partic. from adficio; q.v.
adfero adferre attuli adlatum, (to carry to, bring to); esp. of messages and news; absol., (to bring news, report). Transf., (to apply,
bring to bear); 'vim' (to offer violence; to, cause, bring about; to bring forward) by way of excuse or reason; (to bring), by way of help,
adficio -ficere -feci -fectum, (to influence, work upon); with adverbs, (to affect); with abl. of nouns, (to, treat with, present with);
'nominem sepultura', (to bury); 'poena', (to, punish), 'beneficio adfici', (to be benefitted); absol., of the body, (to, affect adversely,
weaken). Hence partic. adfectus -a -um, (affected, influenced); with abl. (furnished with, treated with); absol., of the body,
(weakened, sick); of undertakings, (worked upon), and so (nearly finished).
adfigo -figere -fixi -fixum, (to fasten to, affix); 'litteram ad caput', (to brand); 'adfigi animis', (to, be imprinted).
adfingo -fingere -finxi -fictum, (to form or invent in addition).
adfinis -e, (neighboring); hence (connected with, privy to); also (related by marriage);, as subst., (a relative).
adfinitas -atis, f. (relationship by marriage); meton., (relations by marriage); in gen., (union).
adfirmatio -onis, f. (positive assertion).
adfirmo -are (to strengthen; to support a statement, to prove; to assert as true). Adv. adfirmate, (positively).
adflatus -us, m. (blowing or breathing on, breath); 'maris', (sea breeze). Transf., (inspiration).
adfleo -flere -flevi -fletum, (to weep at).
adflictatio -onis, f. (pain, torture).
adflicto -are, (to agitate, knock about, harass, distress).
adflictor -oris, m. (a subverter).
adfligo -fligere -flixi -flictum, (to dash, knock down, knock about; to weaken, discourage, injure); 'causam, susceptam', (to drop).
Hence partic. adflictus -a -um, (damaged, shattered);, of spirits, (broken down, desponding); of character, (vile, contemptible).
adflo -are, (to blow or breathe on).
adfluentia -ae, f. (overflow, abundance).
adfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, (to flow to, flow near); of men, (to stream, to flock together). Transf., (to, flow freely, to be abundant);
with abl., (to abound in). Hence partic., adfluens -entis, (rich, abounding). Compar. adv. adfluentius.
adfor -ari, dep. (to accost, address); esp. (to say farewell) to the dead, and (to pray), to the gods.
adfulgeo -fulgere -fulsi, (to shine, glitter; to shine upon, favor), with dat.
adfundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, (to pour upon); 'colonia amne adfusa', (washed by a river); 'adfundere se', or, 'adfundi', (to prostrate
oneself). Transf., (to throw in, add).
adgemo -ere, (to groan at), with dat.
adgero -gerere -gessi -gestum, (to carry to, bring up).
adgestus -us, m. (carrying to, accumulation).
adglomero -are, (to wind on a ball); hence, (to add).
adglutino -are, (to glue to, fasten to).
adgravesco -ere, (to grow worse) (of sickness).
adgravo -are, (to make heavier); hence, (to make worse).
adgredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to go to, approach); with words, (to address); of enemies, (to attack);, of business, etc., (to begin,
undertake, attempt).
adgrego -are, (to add to the flock); so (to attach, associate).
adgressio -onis, f. (the introduction to a speech).
adhaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum, (to hang to, stick to, adhere); of places, (to border on, be near); fig., (to, depend on, cling to).
adhaeresco -haerescere -haesi -haesum, (to hang to, adhere). Transf., (to cling to, hang on, attach oneself); in, speaking, (to stick fast,
adhaesio -onis, f. (adhering, clinging).
adhaesus -us, m. (adhering, clinging).
adhibeo -ere -ui -itum, (to bring up to, apply, bring to bear); of persons, (to invite, call in, employ) for a purpose; with adv., (to treat).
adhinnio -ire, (to neigh after, neigh at).

adhortatio -onis, f. (exhortation).
adhortator -oris, m. (one who exhorts).
adhortor -ari, dep. (to exhort, encourage) (esp. of soldiers).
adhuc, of time, (hitherto, till now, till then; still, even now); in gen., (besides, also); with comparatives, (even, still).
adiaceo -ere, (to lie by the side of, be adjacent). N. pl. of partic. as subst. adiacentia, (the neighborhood).
adicio -icere -ieci -iectum, (to throw to);hence (to cast, direct, apply); also (to add); at an auction, (to outbid).
adiectio -onis, f. (addition, advance).
adiectus -us, m. (addition).
adigo -igere -egi -actum, (to drive, force, compel); 'hominem ad iusiurandum' or 'iureiurando', (to put, a man on his oath).
adimo -imere -emi -emptum, (to take away). Hence partic. ademptus -a -um, poet., (dead).
adipatus -a -um, (fatty, greasy); n. pl. as subst., (pastry). Transf., of style, (bombastic).
adipiscor -ipisci -eptus, dep. (to come up to, overtake); hence (to obtain). Perf. partic. adeptus, used, passively, = (obtained).
aditio -onis, f. (approach).
aditus -us, m. (approach, access); hence also (right or possibility of entrance); 'homo, rari aditus', (difficult of access); concr., (an
entrance to a place, approach). Transf., (opportunity of obtaining).
adiudico -are, (to award as a judge, assign, grant).
adiumentum -i, n. (help, assistance).
adiunctio -onis, f. (joining, addition, union); rhet. (a limitation or repetition).
adiunctor -oris, m. (one who joins).
adiungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, (to join to, connect); 'adiunctus fundus', (neighboring); of immaterial, things, (to associate, impart);
of persons, (to attach), esp. as partner, friend, etc. Hence partic. adiunctus -a -um, (bound to, belonging to); n. pl., as subst.
(collateral circumstances).
adiuro -are, (to swear in addition; to swear to a thing, promise on oath).
adiutor -oris, m. (a helper, assistant, deputy).
adiutrix -icis, f., of females and f. nouns, (an assistant, aid); used of (reserved legions), under the empire.
adiuvo -iuvare -iuvi -iutum, (to help, assist, support).
adlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (to glide to, flow to), with dat. or acc.
adlaboro -are, (to labor at); also (to add to by labor).
adlacrimo -are, (to weep at).
adlapsus -us, m. (a gliding approach).
adlatro -are, (to bark at, rail at).
adlaudabilis -e, (praiseworthy).
adlecto -are, (to entice).
adlegatio -onis, f. (the sending of a person on a mission).
adlego (1) -are, (to send on private business, to commission); 'adlegati', (deputies). Transf., (to instigate, suborn; to adduce or allege
in excuse).
adlego (2) -legere -legi -lectum, (to choose, elect).
adlevamentum -i, n. (a means of alleviation).
adlevatio -onis, f. (a lifting up); hence (alleviation).
adlevo -are, (to lift up, erect); hence (to lighten, alleviate); pass., adlevari, (to be, cheered).
adlicio -licere -lexi -lectum, (to allure, entice).
adlido -lidere -lisi -lisum, (to strike against,dash against); pass. adlidi, (to suffer damage).
adligo -are, (to tie to, bind to); of wounds, (to bind up). Transf., in gen., (to fetter, bind, confine); esp. (to bind by friendship,
obligations, promises, etc.);, pass., (to become an accomplice in, make oneself responsible for); perf., partic. adligatus, (implicated,
adlino -linere -levi -litum, (to smear on, bedaub).
adlocutio -onis, f. (an address); esp. (a word of comfort).
adloquium -i, n. (exhortation, encouragement, consolation).
adloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. (to address); esp. (to encourage, appeal to).
adluceo -lucere -luxi, (to shine at, or upon).

adludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, (to jest at, sport with); of waves, (to play or dash upon).
adluo -luere -lui, (to wash), of the sea.
adluvies -ei, f. (a pool caused by flooding).
adluvio -onis, f. (alluvial land).
admaturo -are, (to hasten).
admetior -metiri -mensus, dep. (to measure out to).
Admetus -i, m. (husband of Alcestis).
adminiculor -ari, dep. (to support, prop).
adminiculum -i, n. (prop, support); in gen., (aid, help).
administer -stri, m. (attendant, assistant).
administra -ae, f. (a (female) helper).
administratio -onis, f. (the giving of help; direction, government).
administrator -oris, m. (administrator, manager).
administro -are, (to help, assist; to manage, direct, administer): 'navem', (to steer).
admirabilis -e, (admirable; astonishing, strange). Adv., admirabiliter.
admirabilitas -atis, f. (admirableness; admiration).
admiratio -onis, f. (admiration); plur. (outbursts of admiration; wonder, astonishment).
admiror -ari, dep. (to admire; to be astonished, to wonder). Hence gerundive admirandus -a, -um, (admirable).
admisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, (to mix with, to join); 'admisceri novis sermonibus', (to become familiar, with).
admissarius -i, m. (stallion).
admissio -onis, f. (audience), esp. with kings, etc.
admitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to send to, admit); esp. of horses, (to let go, put to a gallop). Transf., (to allow; to admit a crime to
one's record), so (to commit); hence n. of, partic. as subst. admissum -i, (a crime).
admixtio -onis, f. (an admixture).
admoderate, (appropriately).
admodum, (up to the measure, up to the mark); hence, (completely). With adjectives and, other parts of speech, (wholly, quite);
'puer admodum', (a mere boy); with, numbers, (just about); in affirmative answers, (certainly).
admoneo -ere -ui -itum, (to admonish, remind), of a fact or duty. N. of partic. as subst. admonitum, -i, (an admonition).
admonitio -onis, f. (a reminding); esp. (a friendly admonition).
admonitor -oris, m. (one who reminds).
admonitu, abl. sing. m. (by reminding, by warning).
admordeo -mordere -morsum, (to bite at, gnaw); fig. (to fleece).
admotio -onis, f. (moving to, application).
admoveo -movere -movi -motum, (to move to, bring up, apply); 'manum operi', (to engage in a work); 'manus, nocentibus' (to lay
hands on the guilty); milit. (to bring up) war machines or, soldiers.
admugio -ire, (to bellow after).
admurmuratio -onis, f. (murmuring).
admurmuro -are, (to murmur at).
adnato -are, (to swim to or beside).
adnecto -nectere -nexui -nexum, (to bind to, connect with).
adnexus -us, m. (binding, connection).
adnitor -niti -nisus or -nixus, dep. (to press against; lean upon). Transf., (to strive after).
adno -are, (to swim to, or near, or beside).
adnoto -are, (to note, remark on).
adnumero -are, (to count out, pay; to reckon in with), with acc. and dat.
adnuo -nuere -nui -nutum, (to nod to; indicate by nodding; to nod assent to); in gen., (to agree); also, (to agree to give or do) a thing.
adoleo (1) -ere -ui, (to worship, offer sacrifice, burn a sacrifice; to sacrifice on) an altar; in, gen., (to burn).

adoleo (2) -ere, (to smell).
adolescens, = adulescens; q.v.
adolesco -olescere -olevi, (1) (to grow up, come to maturity). (2) (to be heaped up), or perhaps (to, burn) (cf. adoleo). Hence partic.
adultus -a -um, (grown up, adult, mature).
Adonis -is or -idis, (a beautiful young man, beloved of Venus).
adoperio -operire -operui -opertum, (to cover or close).
adopinor -ari, dep. (to guess).
adoptatio -onis, f. (adopting).
adoptio -onis, f. (the adoption of a child).
adoptivus -a -um, (adopted, connected with adoption); of plants, (grafted).
adopto -are, (to choose for oneself); esp. (to adopt), as child or grandchild; of plants, (to graft).
ador -oris, n. (a species of grain, spelt).
adoratio -onis, f. (praying to, adoration).
adoreus -a -um, (of spelt); f. as subst. (a reward for valor) (originally a gift of corn).
adorior -oriri -ortus, dep. (to rise up at); hence (to attack, set about, attempt, undertake).
adorno -are, (to prepare, furnish, provide; to adorn).
adoro -are, (to speak to); esp. (to address) a deity, in worship or entreaty; sometimes, (to ask) a deity for a thing.
adp-, see under app-.
adquiesco -quiescere -quievi -quietum, (to rest, repose, be undisturbed, find comfort).
adquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, (to acquire, get), esp. in addition to previous possessions.
adrado -radere -rasi -rasum (to scrape, shave).
adrectus -a -um, partic. from adrigo; q.v.
adrepo -repere -repsi -reptum, (to creep up, glide gently to).
Adria, see Hadria.
adrideo -ridere -risi -risum, (to laugh to, to smile upon). Transf., (to be favorable to; to please).
adrigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, (to erect, lift up); hence (to excite, arouse).
adripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, (to seize, snatch, appropriate); poet., 'terram velis', (to sail quickly to);, mentally, (to grasp,
comprehend quickly); legal, (to arrest, bring to court, accuse); hence perhaps (to satirize).
adrisor -oris, m. (a flatterer).
adrodo -rodere -rosi -rosum, (to gnaw at).
adrogans, partic. from adrogo; q.v.
adrogantia -ae, f. (assumption); hence (pride, haughtiness).
adrogo -are, polit., (to associate) in office; in gen., either (to take to oneself, ('sibi'), to claim, assume; or to adjudge, grant to another
(dat.)); Hence, partic. adrogans -antis, (assuming, arrogant, haughty); adv. adroganter.
adsc-, see under asc-.
adsectatio -onis, f. (respectful attendance).
adsectator -oris, m. (a companion, follower).
adsector -ari, dep. (to follow, attend respectfully).
adsecula (adsecia) -ae, m. (follower, servant, sycophant).
adsensio -onis, f. (assent, agreement, applause); philosoph. (belief in the reality of, sensible appearance).
adsensor -oris, m. (one who assents or agrees).
adsensus -us, m. (assent, agreement); philosoph. (belief in the reality of sensible, appearances); poet., (echo).
adsentatio -onis, f. (flattering assent or applause, flattery).
adsentatiuncula -ae, f. (trivial flattery).
adsentator -oris, m. (a flatterer).
adsentatorie, (flatteringly).
adsentio -sentire -sensi -sensum and adsentior -sentiri -sensus, dep. (to assent to, agree with).
adsentor -ari, dep. (to assent constantly); hence (to flatter).
adsequor -sequi -secutus, dep. (to follow after; to reach by following, to come up to, attain);, mentally, (to grasp).

adsero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, (to plant at or near).
adsero (2) -serere -serui -sertum, (to lay hold of) a slave, and thereby either (claim him or declare him free);, in gen. (to set free,
protect, or to claim).
adsertor -oris, m. (one who asserts the freedom) of another person or (claims him as his, own).
adservio -ire, (to assist, help).
adservo -are, (to preserve, watch).
adsessio -onis, f. (a sitting by the side of one (to console)).
adsessor -oris, m. (one who sits by, or assists).
adseveratio -onis, f. (earnestness, vehemence);esp. (vehement assertion, asseveration).
adsevero -are, (to be earnest); esp. (to assert confidently or strongly). Adv. from partic., adseveranter, (earnestly).
adsideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, (to sit near, sit beside), esp. beside a person, (to give comfort, advice, etc.); usually with dat. Hence (to
devote oneself to; to approximate to);, milit., (to besiege, blockade).
adsido -sidere -sedi -sessum, (to sit down).
adsiduitas -atis, f. (continual presence, regular attention). Hence (constancy; constant, repetition); 'epistularum', (regular
adsiduus (1) -a -um, (continuously in one place, or one occupation), in gen. (constant, persistent). Adv. adsidue and adsiduo,
(continuously, without remission).
adsiduus (2) -i, m. (a taxpaying citizen).
adsignatio -onis, f. (assignment, allotment).
adsigno -are, (1) (to assign, allot); hence (to impute, ascribe). (2) (to seal); hence (to, impress upon).
adsilio -silire -silui, (to leap to or on).
adsimilis -e, (like, similar).
adsimulo -are, (to make like; to compare). Hence partic. adsimulatus -a -um, (similar, pretended, simulated).
adsisto adsistere adstiti or astiti, (to place oneself at, to stand by); at law, (to defend).
adsoleo -ere, (to be accustomed); 'ut adsolet', (as is usual).
adsono -are, (to answer with a sound).
adsp-, see under asp-.
adsterno -ere, (to strew or spread upon).
adstipulator -oris, m. (a supporter).
adstipulor -ari, dep. (to agree with).
adsto -stare -stiti, (to stand up, stand by), esp. (to stand by to help, to assist).
adstrepo -ere, (to make a noise at); esp. (to applaud).
adstringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, (to tighten, draw together, contract, make fast); in writing or speech, (to, compress); of
persons, (to bind, oblige); with reflex., 'se adstringere', (to, commit oneself to, become guilty of). Hence partic. adstrictus -a -um,
(tight, compressed, drawn together; close-fisted, avaricious); of oratory, (concise);, adv. adstricte.
adstruo -struere -struxi -structum, (to build to or near);hence (to add to).
adstupeo -ere, (to be astonished at), with dat.
adsuefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to accustom) a person to a thing.
adsuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum, intransit., (to grow accustomed): 'adsuevi' (I am accustomed); transit., (to, accustom); poet., of
things, (to make familiar). Hence partic. adsuetus -a -um, (customary, usual; accustomed to).
adsuetudo -inis, f. (custom, use).
adsuetus -a -um, partic. from adsuesco; q.v.
adsulto -are, (to leap violently upon; to attack, assault).
adsultus -us, m. (leaping up, assault).
adsum adesse adfui, (to be present, to be at or near); esp. (to be present and ready, to stand, by); hence (to support, be favorable
to); sometimes (to be present for a, special purpose), esp. political or legal; of the mind, 'adesse animo' or, 'animis', (to attend); of
things, (to be near, at hand).
adsumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, (to take to oneself, or take in addition) a person or thing; hence (to claim, appropriate, call in);
in logic, (to state the minor premises of a, syllogism).
adsumptio -onis, f. (choice, adoption); in logic, (the minor premise of a syllogism).

adsumptivus -a -um, (deriving its defense from an extraneous cause).
adsuo -ere, (to sew on).
adsurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, (to rise up, stand up); with dat., (to rise in the presence) of a person, as a, sign of respect; of
feelings, (to rise, be aroused); of style, (to become, elevated); of material things, (to rise up).
adt-, see under att-.
adulatio -onis, f. (fawning, cringing, flattery).
adulator -oris, m. (flatterer).
adulescens (adolescens) -entis, as adj., (young, growing); as subst., (a young man or young woman).
adulescentia -ae, f. (youth).
adulescentulus -i, m. (a young man).
adulo -are, (to fawn upon).
adulor -ari, dep. (to fawn); with acc. or dat., (to flatter, cringe before).
adulter (1) -eri, m., adultera -ae, f. (an adulterer, adulteress).
adulter (2) -era -erum, adj. (adulterous).
adulterinus -a -um, (adulterous; not genuine, forged).
adulterium -i, n. (adultery).
adultero -are, (to commit adultery, to defile). Transf. (to falsify, defile, corrupt).
adultus -a -um, partic. from adolesco; q.v.
adumbratim, (in outline).
adumbratio -onis, f. (a sketch).
adumbro -are, (to shade in, sketch),esp. in words. Partic. adumbratus -a -um, (sketched);, hence (imperfect, shadowy, unreal).
aduncitas -atis, f. (a bending, curvature).
aduncus -a -um, (bent in, crooked).
adurgeo -ere, (to press against); poet., (to pursue closely).
aduro -urere -ussi -ustum, (to set fire to, kindle, singe); of frost or wind, (to nip). Hence partic., adustus -a -um, (burnt): 'hominum
color', (sunburnt).
adusque, prep. with acc., (as far as); adv. (thoroughly, entirely).
advecticius -a -um, (brought from a distance, foreign).
advecto -are, (to convey often).
advectus -us, m. (conveying, carrying).
adveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, (to carry, bring, convey to) a place; pass., (to ride up, sail to, etc.).
advelo -are, (to veil).
advena -ae, c. (a stranger, foreigner).
advenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come to, arrive). Transf., of time, (to come); of events, (to happen, come, near, break out); of
property, (to come to) an owner.
adventicius -a -um, (coming from without);esp. (coming from abroad, foreign).
advento -are, (to approach, come near).
adventor -oris, m. (a visitor, guest).
adventus -us, m. (an arrival).
adversarius -a -um, (1) (turned towards); n. pl. as subst. (a day-book, journal, memorandum). (2), (turned against, opposed, contrary);
as subst., m. and f. (an antagonist, rival); n. pl. (the assertions of an opponent).
adversor -ari, dep. (to oppose, resist).
adversus (1) -a -um, partic. from adverto; q.v.
adversus (2), adversum. Adv.(against, opposite); 'adversum ire' or 'venire', (go to meet)., Prep. with acc.: of place, (towards, opposite);
of action, etc., (against, in, answer to); of behavior, (towards); of comparison, (compared with).
adverto (advorto) -vertere -verti -versum, (to turn towards); of the senses, etc. (to direct) towards an object; esp. of, the mind,
'animum' or 'mentem advertere', (to direct one's attention to, to, perceive), and of offences, (to punish); of the object of attention,
(to, attract). Hence partic. adversus -a -um, (turned towards, fronting, opposite);, 'solem adversum intueri', (to look straight at the
sun); 'adverso flumine', (against the stream); 'venti adversi', (contrary winds); hence, in gen., of, persons and things,

(opposed, unfavorable); 'adversa valetudo', (ill health);, 'proelium', (unsuccessful); n. as subst., (misfortune).
advesperascit -avit, (evening approaches).
advigilo -are, (to watch by, guard, be vigilant).
advocatio -onis, f. (a calling to one's aid); hence (legal assistance); concr., (the bar).
advoco -are, (to summon, call); esp. (to call to one's aid): as legal t.t. (to call in as, adviser, to consult an advocate). M. of partic. as
subst., advocatus -i, m., (one called in to help), esp. in court as (witness) or (advocate).
advolo -are, (to fly to); hence (to hasten or rush to).
advolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, (to roll to); of suppliants, 'advolvi', or 'se advolvere', (to throw oneself, down) before a person.
advors-, = advers-;q.v.
advort-, = advert-;q.v.
adytum -i, n. (shrine); poet., 'ex adyto cordis', (from the bottom of the heart).
Aeacus -i, m. (king of Aegina, grandfather of Achilles; after death a judge in the, infernal regions). Hence subst. Aeacides -ae, m. (a
male descendent of, Aeacus).
aedes (aedis) -is, f. (a building); in sing., usually (a temple); plur., (rooms, or a house); of, bees, (cells).
aedicula -ae, f. (a small building), esp. (a small temple or shrine); in plur., (a little, house).
aedificatio -onis, f.: abstr., (the act of building); concr., (a building, structure).
aedificator -oris, m. (a builder, architect).
aedificium -i, n. (a building).
aedifico -are, (to build, erect, establish; to create, frame).
aedilicius -a -um, (relating to the aediles); m. as subst. (an ex-aedile).
aedilis -is, m. (an aedile, a public officer at Rome, in charge of streets, markets and, public games).
aedilitas -atis, f. (aedileship).
aedituens -entis, m. (keeper of a temple, sacristan).
aeditumus -i, m. (keeper of a temple, sacristan).
aedituus -i, m. (keeper of a temple, sacristan).
Aeeta and Aeetes -ae, m., (king of Colchis, father of Medea). Hence f. subst. Aeetias -adis, and, Aeetine -es, = (Medea).
Aegaeus -a -um, (Aegean); n. as subst. Aegaeum -i, (the Aegean Sea).
Aegates -um, f. pl. (three islands off the west coast of Sicily).
aeger -gra -grum, (sick, ill), physically or mentally; 'aeger consilii', (infirm of purpose);, 'aegris oculis', (with envious eyes); politically,
(unsound, mutinous). M. as, subst. (an invalid). Adv. aegre, (with pain, regret or difficulty); hence, (hardly, scarcely)(cf. vix).
Aegeus -ei, m. (king of Athens, father of Theseus).
Aegina -ae, f. (an island near Athens).
aegis -idis, f. (an aegis, or shield), esp. that of Jupiter or Minerva. Transf., (a, protection, bulwark).
Aegisthus -i, m. (murderer of Agamemnon, afterwards husband of Clytemnestra).
aegre, adv. from aeger; q.v.
aegreo -ere, (to be sick).
aegresco -ere, (to fall ill); mentally, (to become troubled); of bad things, (to become, worse).
aegrimonia -ae, f. (grief, trouble of mind).
aegritudo -inis, f. (sickness), esp. of the mind.
aegrotatio -onis, f. (sickness), of body or mind.
aegroto -are, (to be sick or ill), in body or mind.
aegrotus -a -um, (sick, ill), in body or mind.
Aegyptus -i, (1) m., (a king of Egypt, brother of Danaus). (2) f. (Egypt); adj. Aegyptius, and Aegyptiacus -a -um, (Egyptian).
aelinos -i, m. (a dirge).
Aemilius -a -um, (name of an old patrician family at Rome). Hence adj. Aemilianus -a -um, (relating to the 'gens Aemiliana'; a surname
of Scipio Africanus minor).
Aemonia, = Haemonia; q.v.
aemulatio -onis, f. (a striving after, emulation); in bad sense, (jealousy, rivalry).

aemulator -oris, m. (a rival, imitator).
aemulor -ari, dep. (to rival, emulate); with dat. (to envy).
aemulus -a -um, (emulous, rivalling); in bad sense, (jealous). M. or f. as subst., (a rival), esp. in love.
Aemus, see Haemus.
Aeneas -ae, m. (son of Venus and Anchises, hero of Vergil's Aeneid). Hence subst. Aeneades, -ae, m. (a male descendant of Aeneas);
Aeneis -idos, f. (Vergil's Aeneid).
aeneus and aheneus -a -um, (made of copper or bronze; hard as bronze, brazen).
aenigma -atis, n. (a riddle, mystery).
aenipes -pedis, (brazen-footed).
aenus (ahenus) -a -um, (made of copper or bronze); poet., (hard as bronze). N. as subst., (a brazen, vessel).
Aeoles -um, m. (the Aeolians, Greeks living in Greece and Asia Minor). Hence adj. Aeolicus, and Aeolius -a -um, (Aeolic).
Aeolia -ae, f. (north part of the coast of Asia Minor).
Aeolus -i, m. (ruler of the Aeolian islands and of the winds).
aequabilis -e, (like, similar, equal). Transf., (equal to itself, uniform, consistent, fair, impartial). Hence adv. aequabiliter, (equably,
uniformly, fairly).
aequabilitas -atis, f. (uniformity, equability); hence (evenness) in style, (impartiality) in, law.
aequaevus -a -um, (of equal age).
aequalis -e, (even); of places, (level). Transf., (equal); esp. of time, (of the same age, contemporary, coexistent). M. or f. as subst., (a
comrade, person of the same, age). Adv. aequaliter, (evenly, equally).
aequalitas, -atis, f. (evenness); of places, (smoothness). Transf., (equality), esp., (equality of age).
aequanimitas -atis, f. (impartiality).
aequatio -onis, f. (making equal); 'bonorum' (communism).
Aequi -orum, m. (a people of central Italy).
aequilibritas -atis, f. (equal distribution of natural forces).
aequinoctialis -e, (equinoctial).
aequinoctium -i, n. (the equinox).
aequiparo (aequipero) -are, (to compare, equal).
aequitas -atis, f. (uniformity, evenness). Transf., (equanimity); also (impartiality, fairness, justice).
aequo -are, (1) (to make level or equal). (2) (to compare). (3) (to equal, come up to).
aequor -oris, n. (a flat level surface); esp. (a plain) or (the sea); rarely (a river).
aequoreus -a -um, (belonging to the sea).
aequus -a -um, (equal). (1) (equal in itself, even, level); 'ex aequo loco loqui', (to speak, in the senate); milit., 'aequa frons', (a straight
line). (2) (equal to, something else): 'ex aequo, in aequo', (on even terms). Transf., of places or, times, (favorable, advantageous); of
battles, (even), and so (indecisive); of, temper, (even, contented, easy); 'aequo animo', (patiently, with resignation);, of behavior,
etc., (equal, impartial); of persons, (fair); 'aequum est', (it, is just). N. as subst. aequum -i, (level ground; fairness, equity). Adv., aeque,
(in like manner, equally; fairly, justly).
aer aeris, m. (the lower air, the atmosphere).
aerarius -a -um, (of or belonging to bronze or copper); hence (belonging to (copper) money);, 'tribuni', (paymasters). M. as subst. (a
coppersmith); in plur., 'aerarii', (the citizens of the lowest class in Rome). M. as subst. (a treasury), esp., (the public treasury at
aeratus -a -um, (made of or fitted with copper or bronze); hence (provided with money, rich).
aereus -a -um, (made of or fitted with copper or bronze).
aerifer -fera -ferum, (bearing brazen cymbals).
aeripes -pedis, (brazen-footed).
aerius -a -um, (belonging to the air, airy); hence (high in the air, lofty).
aerugo -inis, f. (the rust of copper, verdigris; rusty money). Transf., (envy or avarice).
aerumna -ae, f. (labor, toil, hardship).
aerumnosus -a -um, adj., (full of hardship).
aes aeris, n. (copper ore, and the alloy of copper, bronze). Transf., (anything made of, bronze; a vessel, statue, trumpet, kettle); 'aera
aere repulsa', (cymbals);, 'aes publicum', (public inscriptions). Esp. (copper or bronze money); 'aes, grave', (the as); 'aes signatum',
(coined money); also (money)

generally, (pay); 'aes alienum', (debt).
Aeschylus -i, m. (an Athenian tragic poet).
Aesculapius -i, m. (the god of medicine). Hence subst. Aesculapium -i, n. (a temple of, Aesculapius).
aesculetum -i, n. (an oak forest).
aesculeus -a -um, (relating to the oak).
aesculus -i, f. (the winter or Italian oak).
Aeson -onis, m. (a Thessalian prince, father of Jason). Hence subst. Aesonides -ae, m. (a, male descendant of Aeson, = Jason); adj.
Aesonius -a -um.
Aesopus -i, m. (a Greek fabulist of Phrygia).
aestas -atis, f. (summer); hence (summer weather, summer heat).
aestifer -fera -ferum, (heat-bringing).
aestimabilis -e, (valuable).
aestimatio -onis, f. (an appraising in terms of money); 'litis', (assessment of damages)., Transf., in gen., (valuation, worth, value).
aestimator -oris, m. (one who estimates, an appraiser).
aestimo (aestumo) -are, (to appraise, rate, estimate the value of); 'litem', (to assess the damages in, a law-suit); in a wider sense, (to
value) a thing or person; hence, in gen., (to judge).
aestivus -a -um, (relating to summer). N. pl. as subst. aestiva -orum, (a
summer camp), and hence, (a campaign; summer pastures for cattle).
aestuarium -i, n. (low ground covered by the sea at high water; a firth, creek).
aestuo -are, (to be agitated or hot); of liquids, (to boil, seethe); fig. of emotional, excitement, (to burn); of perplexity, (to waver).
aestuosus -a -um, (hot, agitated); adv. aestuose.
aestus -us, m. (agitation, heat); of liquids, esp. of the sea, (seething, raging); also of, the sea's (tide) and (spray); fig., of persons,
(dizziness); also (emotional, excitement, heat, fury; perplexity, anxiety).
aetas -atis, f. (age): of human life, either (a lifetime) or (time of life, age); 'id, aetatis', (of that age); 'bona (iniens) aetas, flos aetatis',
(youth). 'aetas, ingravescens' or 'provecta', (old age). Meton., (the persons of a particular, age): 'aetas puerilis', (boys). In gen., (time,
age, a period of time, epoch).
aetatula -ae, f. (youth).
aeternitas -atis, f. (eternity, immortality).
aeterno -are, (to make eternal, immortal).
aeternus -a -um, (eternal, everlasting); 'aeternum' or 'in aeternum', (for ever).
aether -eris, acc. -era, m. (the upper air); poet., (heaven, or the upper world).
aetherius -a -um, (of the air or upper air); 'aqua', (rain); poet., (heavenly, or belonging to, the upper world).
Aethiopia -ae, f. (Ethiopia); adj. Aethiopicus -a -um and Aethiops -opis, (Ethiopian, Negro).
aethra -ae, f. (the upper air, clear sky).
Aetna -ae and Aetne -es, f. (Etna, a volcano in Sicily); adj. Aetnaeus -a -um.
Aetolia -ae, f. (Aetolia, a country in the west of Greece); adj. Aetolus, Aetolicus, Aetolius -a -um.
aevitas -atis, f. = aetas; q.v.
aevum -i, n., also aevus -i, m., (eternity). Transf., (time, lifetime, or time of life);, 'flos aevi', (youth). in gen., (a period of life).
Afer -fra -frum, adj. and subst., (African, from Africa); esp. (from Carthage). Hence subst., Africa -ae, f. (the continent of Africa); esp.
either (the country around, Carthage) or (the Roman province of Africa). Adj. Africanus -a -um, (African, belonging to Africa); esp. as a
surname, conferred upon two of the Scipios., Also adj. Africus -a -um; 'ventus Africus', or simply 'Africus', (the S.W., wind) (bringing
rain and storms).
aff-, see under adf-.
Agamemnon -onis, m. (leader of the Greek expedition to Troy).
Aganippe -es, f. (a fountain in Boeotia, sacred to the Muses); adj. Aganippaeus -a -um, (sacred to the Muses).
agaso -onis, m. (a groom, lackey).
agellus -i, m. (a little field).
agema -atis, n. (a corps in the Macedonian army).

Agenor -oris, m. (father of Cadmus and Europa); hence adj. Agenoreus -a -um, and subst., Agenorides -ae, m. (a male descendant of
ager agri, m. (land, territory); as cultivated, (a field; open country), (opp.towns);, (land), (opp. sea).
agg-, (except agger and aggero); see adg-.
agger -eris, m. (heap, mound); milit., (rampart); poet., (any high place).
aggero -are, (to form a mound, heap up, increase).
agilis -e, (easily moved, light, nimble, active).
agilitas -atis, f. (quickness, agility).
agitabilis -e, (easily moved, light).
agitatio -onis, f. (movement, agitation, activity); 'rerum magnarum', (management).
agitator -oris, m. (driver); esp. (charioteer).
agito -are, (to put in motion, drive about) (cf. ago); of animals, (to drive or hunt); of, water, (to toss). Transf. (1) (to vex, harry, trouble
persons, etc.) (2)(to, deal with, be engaged upon, argue, discuss, consider) a subject; (to maintain), a state of affairs; (to conduct) a
business; (to keep) a holiday; (to spend), time; so, absol., (to live).
Aglaia -ae or Aglaie -es, f. (one of the Graces).
agmen -inis, n. (a driving movement or a mass in (orderly) movement, a stream, band, train); esp. milit., (an army on the march).
agna -ae, f. (a ewe lamb).
agnascor -nasci -natus, dep., of children, (to be born after their father's will). M. of partic. as, subst. agnatus -i, (a relation descended
from a common ancestor in the male, line; a child born into a family where a regular heir already exists).
agnatio -onis, f. (relationship reckoned through males only).
agnellus -i, m. (a little lamb).
agninus -a -um, (of a lamb); f. as subst., (lamb's flesh).
agnitio -onis, f. (recognition); in gen., (knowledge).
agnomen -inis, n. (surname).
agnosco -noscere -novi -nitum, (to know again, recognize; to know by inference or report, understand,; to, express knowledge,
admit, acknowledge).
agnus -i, m. (lamb).
ago agere egi actum, (to set in motion, drive); of animals, (to drive or hunt). 'se agere', (to, go); 'animam' (to give up the ghost);
'radices', (to strike root). Transf., (to incite) to action; (to deal with, be engaged upon; to treat of) a, subject;'hoc agere', (to attend to
the matter at hand); pass., (to be, concerned, be at stake); 'actum est de', (it is settled about), so (it is all, over with); 'bene agere
cum homine', (to treat a person well); 'grates, gratias', (to express thanks); 'pacem', (to keep the peace); of time, (to, spend); so
absol., (to spend time, live); on the stage, (to act, play);, 'primas partes',(to play the leading part); legal and polit., (to take a, matter
up publicly); [CONTINUED]
ago agere egi actum [2 of 2], 'agere (iure, or lege)', (to go to law); 'agere causam', (to plead a cause). Pres. partic. agens -entis, as adj.
agon -onis, m. (a contest in the public games).
agonalia -ium and -orum, n. (a festival of Janus).
agrarius -a -um, (relating to land); m. pl. as subst. (the agrarian party), aiming at a general, distribution of land.
agrestis -e, (belonging to the field or country; wild, rustic); hence, (countrified, boorish, clownish). M. as subst. agrestis -is, (a
agricola -ae, m. (farmer).
Agricola -ae, m. Gnaeus Julius, (governor of Britain, and father-in-law of Tacitus).
agricult-, see under cult-.
Agrigentum -i, n.; also Acragas -antis, m.; (a Doric town in S.W. Sicily).
agripeta -ae, m. (a land-grabber, squatter).
Agrippa -ae, m. (a Roman family name).
Agrippina -ae, f. (the name of several Roman women, esp. Nero's mother). Hence Colonia, Agrippinensis (now Cologne).
ah or a, interj. (ah! oh!).

Ahala -ae, m. C. Servilius, (master of the horse under the dictator Cincinnatus, 439, B.C.).
ai, (ah!), interjection of grief.
Aiax -acis, m. (name of two Homeric heroes, sons of Telamon and Oileus).
aio, defective verb, (to say yes, to affirm, assert, state); 'ain tu?', (you don't, say?). Hence pres. partic. aiens -entis, (affirmative).
ala -ae, f. (a wing); poet., the (sails) or (oars) of a ship; of a man, (the armpit);, milit., (a wing, squadron).
alabaster -stri, m., with pl. alabastra, (a perfume casket).
alacer -cris -cre, and alacris -e, (quick, lively, animated).
alacritas -atis, f. (quickness, eagerness, animation).
alapa -ae, f. (a box on the ear), given by a master to his slave when freeing him.
alaris -e, (belonging to the wings of an army); m. pl. as subst. (allied troops).
alarius -a -um, (belonging to the wings of an army); m. pl. as subst., (allied troops).
alatus -a -um, (winged).
alauda -ae, f. (a lark); also (the name of a legion formed by Caesar in Gaul); in pl., Alaudae -arum, (the soldiers of this legion).
Alba -ae, f. (Alba Longa), the oldest Latin town; hence adj. Albanus -a -um.
albatus -a -um, (clothed in white).
albeo -ere, (to be white).
albesco -ere, (to become white).
albico -are, (to be white).
albidus -a -um, (whitish).
Albion -onis, f. (old name of Great Britain).
Albis -is, m. (the river Elbe).
albulus -a -um, (whitish); f. as subst. Albula -ae (sc. aqua), (old name of the Tiber).
album -i, n.; see albus.
albus -a -um, (white, dead white); hence (pale or bright); sometimes (making bright); fig., (fortunate). N. as subst. album -i, (white
color; a white writing-tablet, a, list).
Alcaeus -i, m. (a Greek lyric poet) (about 600 A.D.).
alcedo -inis, f. (the kingfisher). Hence n. pl. alcedonia -orum, (the kingfisher's time, quietness, calm).
alces -is, f. (the elk).
Alcestis -is, and Alceste -es, f. (wife of Admetus, who saved her husband by dying for, him).
Alceus -ei and -eos, m. (grandfather of Hercules). Hence subst. Alcides -ae, m. (a descendant of, Alcaeus), esp. (Hercules).
Alcibiades -is, m. (an Athenian general, pupil of Socrates).
Alcinous -i, m. (king of the Phaeacians, host of Odysseus).
Alcmena -ae, also Alcmene -es, f. (mother of Hercules).
alcyon -onis, f. (the kingfisher).
alea -ae, f. (a game of dice, game of hazard); hence (chance, risk, uncertainty).
aleator -oris, m. (dicer, gambler).
aleatorius -a -um, (of a gambler).
alec, = allec; q.v.
ales alitis, (winged); hence (swift); as subst., (a bird), esp. (a large bird or bird of, omen); poet., (an omen, sign).
alesco -ere, (to grow up).
Alexander -dri, m. (1) (Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy). (2) (Alexander the Great (356-323, B.C.), king of Macedonia). Hence
Alexandria or -ea -ae, f. (a city founded by, Alexander), esp. (Alexandria in Egypt); adj. Alexandrinus -a -um, (of, Alexandria).
alga -ae, f. (sea-weed).
algeo algere alsi, (to be cold); partic. algens -entis, (cold).
algesco algescere alsi, (to catch cold).
algidus -a -um, (cold).
Algidus -i, m. (a mountain in Latium); adj. Algidus -a -um, (of Algidus).
algor -oris, m. (cold).
algus -us, = algor; q.v.

alias, see under alius.
alibi, (1) (elsewhere, at another place); 'alibi....alibi', (here...there). (2), (otherwise, in other respects).
alica -ae, f. (spelt), or (a drink prepared from spelt).
alicubi, (anywhere, somewhere).
alicunde, (from anywhere, from somewhere).
alienatio -onis, f. (a transference, alienation); 'mentis', (aberration of mind).
alienigena -ae, m. (strange, foreign); as subst., (a foreigner).
alieno -are, (to make something another's, let go, transfer; to estrange) one person from, another; (to put a thing out of one's mind,
to forget); with 'mentem', etc., (to cause a person to lose his reason); pass., 'alienari', (to go out of one's, mind).
alienus -a -um, (belonging to another); 'aes', (another's money), and so (debt); in gen., (strange, foreign, unrelated); esp. of persons,
(not at home, unfamiliar),or, (estranged, unfriendly);of things,(unfavorable). M. as subst. alienus, (a, stranger); n. as subst. alienum,
(another person's property).
aliger -gera -gerum, (winged).
alimentarius -a -um, (relating to food).
alimentum -i, n. (1) (food). (2) (maintenance).
alimonium -i, n. (nourishment).
alio, see under alius.
alioqui and alioquin, (1) (otherwise, in other respects). (2) (in general, in most respects). (3), (else, in other conditions).
aliorsum and aliorsus, (1) (in another direction, elsewhere). (2) (in another manner).
alipes -pedis, (having wings on the feet); hence (swift); m. pl. as subst., (horses).
alipta and aliptes -ae, m. (the anointer in the wrestling school, or in the baths).
aliqua, see under aliquis.
aliquamdiu, see under aliquis.
aliquammultus, see under aliquis.
aliquando, (at any time, once; sometimes, occasionally).
aliquantulus -a -um, (little, small); n. as adv. (a little).
aliquantus -a -um, (of some size, moderate). N. as subst. aliquantum -i, (a good deal); acc., aliquantum, and (with compar.) abl.
aliquanto, (somewhat, considerably).
aliquatenus, (to certain degree).
aliqui aliquae or aliqua aliquod, adj. (some).
aliquis aliquid, pron. (someone, something; anyone, anything). N. aliquid often with partitive, genit., (a certain amount or number
of); as adv., (in any respect). Transf., (somebody or something great or significant). Hence adv. aliquo, (some, whither, in some
direction); adv. aliqua, (by some road, in some way); adv., aliquamdiu, (for some time); adj. aliquammultus, (considerable) in number
or, quantity.
aliquot, indecl., (some, several).
aliquotiens, (several times).
alis, alid, old form of alius, aliud; q.v.
aliter, see under alius.
alium or allium -i, n. (garlic).
aliunde, (from some other direction); 'alii aliunde', (from various directions).
alius -a -ud, adj. and pronoun, (another, other, different). Distributively, (one, another);, 'alii...alii', (some...others); 'alii alia censent',
(some think one thing, some another). In comparison, (other than), followed by atque, quam, etc., Rarely, in plur., (all other, the
rest); in sing. = alter, (one of two). Hence, adv. alias. (1) (at another time); 'alius alias', (one person at one time, another at
another).(2)(otherwise). Adv. alio, (to another place); 'alius, alio', (in various directions). Transf., (to another person or object; for,
another end). Adv. aliter. (1) (otherwise, in another way); 'alius aliter', (in different ways). (2) (else, in other conditions).
aliusmodi, (of another kind).
all-, v. also under adl-.
allec or alec -ecis, n. (fish-pickle).
Allecto or Alecto, (one of the three Furies).

Allia (Alia) -ae, f. (river in Latium); adj. Alliensis -e.
Allobrox -ogis, and pl. Allobroges -um, m. (the Allobroges, a Gallic people).
almus -a -um, (nourishing, kind).
alnus -i, f. (the alder); meton., (a ship of alder wood).
alo alere alui altum (or alitum), (to nourish, support, rear, feed); hence in gen., (to strengthen, increase, promote, advance). Hence
partic. altus -a -um, (grown, great). As seen from, below, (high), hence, of the voice, (shrill); of character, dignity, rank, (lofty, noble).
As seen from above, (deep); of thoughts,(secret, deep-seated);, of time, (reaching far back, ancient). N. as subst. altum -i, either
(height), or (depth). Adv. alte. (highly, deeply).
aloe -es, f. (the aloe; bitterness).
Alpes -ium, f. (the Alps); adj. Alpinus and Alpicus -a -um, (Alpine).
Alpheus or Alpheos -i, m. (the chief river of the Peloponnese).
alsius -a -um, (frosty, cold).
altaria -ium, n. pl. (an erection upon an altar); hence (high altars), or (a high altar).
alter -tera -terum, (one of two, the one, the other); as a numeral(second), 'unus et alter', (one, or two); in pl., (a second set). Hence
of quality, (second, next best); of, similarity, (another, a second); 'alter idem', (a second self); of difference, (other, changed).
altercatio -onis, f. (dispute, wrangling); legal, (cross-examination).
altercor -ari, dep. (to dispute, contend, quarrel); legal, (to cross-examine, cross-, question).
alterno -are, (to do first one thing, then another): transit., (to interchange); intransit., (to alternate, waver).
alternus -a -um, (one after the other, by turns, alternate, interchanging); 'sermones', (dialogue); of meter, (elegiac) (with hexameter
and pentameter alternating).
alteruter -utra -utrum, (one of two).
altilis -e, (fattened, fed); f. as subst. (sc. avis), (a fowl).
altisonus -a -um, (sounding from on high; high-sounding, sublime).
altitudo -inis, f. (1) (height); hence (sublimity). (2) (depth); 'animi', (secrecy, reserve).
altor -oris, m. (nourisher, foster-father).
altrix -icis, f. (nurse, foster-mother).
altus -a -um, alte, etc.; see under alo.
alucinor -ari, dep. (to wander in mind, dream, talk idly).
alumnus -a -um, adj. used as noun, (nursling, foster-child); hence (pupil).
aluta -ae, f. (soft leather; a shoe, purse or patch).
alvearium -i, n. (beehive).
alveolus -i, m. (tray, trough, bucket; gaming-board).
alveus -i, m. (a hollow, cavity, trough); hence (boat); also (the hold of a ship;, bathtub; bed of a stream; beehive; gaming-table).
alvus -i, f. (belly, womb, stomach; hold of a ship, beehive).
amabilis -e, (amiable, lovely); adv. amabiliter.
Amalthea -ae, f. either (a nymph, the nurse of Jupiter in Crete) or (the goat on the milk of, which Jupiter was reared).
amandatio -onis, f. (a sending away).
amando -are, (to send away).
amans, = partic. of amo; q.v.
amanuensis -is, m. (secretary, clerk).
amaracinus -a -um, (made of marjoram); n. as subst. (marjoram ointment).
amaracus -i, c. and amaracum -i, n. (marjoram).
amarantus -i, m. (the amaranth).
amarities -ei, f. (bitterness).
amaritudo -inis, f. (bitterness); 'vocis', (harshness of voice).
amaror -oris, m. (bitterness).
amarus -a -um, (bitter, pungent). Hence, of things, (disagreeable, unpleasant); of persons, (irritable); of speech, (biting, acrimonious).
Adv. amare, (bitterly).
amator -oris, m. (a lover, friend, admirer); esp.(the lover of a woman).
amatorius -a -um, (loving, amorous); n. as subst. (a love philtre). Adv. amatorie.

amatrix -icis, f. (mistress, sweetheart).
Amazon -onis, f.; gen. in plur. Amazones -um, myth., (nation of female warriors). Hence, subst. Amazonis -idis, f. = Amazon; adj.
Amazonicus, Amazonius -a -um.
ambactus -i, m. (vassal).
ambages, abl. -e, f. (of sing. only abl. found) (a roundabout way, winding). Hence, in, speech, etc., either (circumlocution) or
(obscurity, ambiguity).
ambedo -esse -edi -esum, (to eat round, consume).
ambigo -ere, (to go about or round). Transf., (1) (to doubt, hesitate); 'ambigitur', impers., (it is in doubt); (2) (to dispute, wrangle).
ambiguitas -atis, f. (ambiguity).
ambiguus -a -um, (moving from side to side, doubtful, uncertain, insecure, unreliable); of, speech, (ambiguous, obscure); n. as subst.
(uncertainty, doubt, ambiguity)., Adv. ambigue, (ambiguously, indecisively).
ambio -ire -ivi or -ii -itum, (to go round). Hence (1) (to surround). (2) (to go round) from person to, person, (to approach, entreat,
canvass) (for votes, help, etc.).
Ambiorix -rigis, m. (chief of the Eburones in Gallia Belgica).
ambitio -onis, f. (canvassing for office) (in a lawful manner); in gen., (desire for office, popularity or fame).
ambitiosus -a -um, (going round); esp. (active in seeking office,popularity or fame; ambitious, ostentatious). Adv. ambitiose,
(ambitiously, ostentatiously).
ambitus -us, m. (a going round, circuit, revolution). Hence, of things, (border, edge or, extent); in speech, (circumlocution); in
relation to persons, (illegal, canvassing for office, bribery, striving after popularity or effect).
ambo -ae -o, (both, two together).
ambrosia -ae, f. (ambrosia, the food or unguent of the gods).
ambrosius -a -um, (divine, immortal, ambrosial).
ambubaia -ae, f. (a Syrian flute-girl).
ambulatio -onis, f. (a walk or place for walking).
ambulatiuncula -ae, f. (a little walk or place for walking, promenade).
ambulo -are, (to walk, go for a walk, travel, march): 'bene ambula', ('bon voyage'); with, acc., (to traverse).
amburo -urere -ussi -ustum, (to burn round, scorch); of cold, (to nip, numb); in gen., (to injure).
amellus -i, m. (the purple Italian starwort).
amens -entis, (mad, insane, senseless).
amentia -ae, f. (madness, senselessness).
amento -are, (to furnish with a strap).
amentum -i, n. (a strap, thong).
ames -itis, m. (a forked pole).
amethystinus -a -um, (amethyst-colored); n. pl. as subst., (dresses of amethyst color).
amethystus -i, m. (an amethyst).
amfractus, = anfractus; q.v.
amicio -icire -icui or -ixi -ictum, (to clothe, wrap round, wrap up, cover, conceal).
amicitia -ae, f. (friendship); in plur., concrete, = (friends).
amicities -ei, f. = amicitia; q.v.
amictus -us, m. (the putting on of a garment), esp. (the toga). Transf., (a garment, covering).
amicula -ae, f. (a little mistress).
amiculum -i, n. (a mantle or cloak).
amiculus -i, m. (a dear friend).
amicus -a -um, (friendly, well-wishing, favorable). M. as subst., amicus -i, (a friend); in, plur., (retinue); f. as subst., amica -ae, (a friend
or mistress). Adv. amice, and amiciter, (in a friendly manner).
amissio -onis, f. (loss).
amissus -us, m. = amissio; q.v.
amita -ae, f. (a father's sister, aunt).
amitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to send away, let go, let slip); hence, in gen., (to lose).

Ammon (Hammon) -onis, m. (a Libyan deity), worshipped at Rome under the name of Jupiter Ammon.
amnicola -ae, c. (dwelling by the riverside).
amniculus -i, m. (a little river).
amnis -is, m. (a stream, river, torrent); poet., (current, river water).
amo -are, (to love (passionately), be fond of); 'amare se', (to be selfish or pleased, with oneself); 'amabo te', or 'amabo', (please, be so
good); with infin., (to, like) to do a thing, also (to be wont, be accustomed). Hence partic. amans, -antis, (loving, fond); as subst., (a
lover). Adv. amanter, (lovingly).
amoenitas -atis, f. (pleasantness), esp. of places.
amoenus -a -um, (pleasant, delightful), esp. of places.
amolior -iri, dep. (to remove by an effort, set aside, get rid of); 'amoliri se', (to take, oneself off).
amomum -i, n. (an Eastern spice plant; the spice obtained from this plant).
amor -oris, m. (love, passion, fondness, desire); meton., (an object of love, darling);, personified, (Love, Cupid).
amotio -onis, f. (removal).
amoveo -movere -movi -motum, (to move away, withdraw); 'se admovere', (to depart); 'in insulam', (to banish, to an island); of ideas
or feelings, (to put aside).
amphibolia -ae, f. (ambiguity, double meaning).
Amphictyones -um, m. plur., (the Amphictyons, religious representatives of the Greek states).
Amphion -onis, m. (king of Thebes, husband of Niobe).
amphitheatrum -i, n. (amphitheater).
Amphitrite -es, f. (wife of Neptune, goddess of the sea).
amphora -ae, f. (1) (a two-handled jar). (2) (a measure): liquid, = about 7 gallons; of, shipping, = about 1/40 of our ton.
amplector -plecti -plexus, dep. (to embrace, twine round, enclose, surround). Transf., (to welcome, love, esteem); in thought or
speech, (to take in, consider, deal with; to include, comprise).
amplexor -ari, dep. (to embrace; to welcome, love).
amplexus -us, m. (encircling, embrace).
amplificatio -onis, f. (enlarging, heightening, amplification).
amplificator -oris, m. (one who enlarges).
amplifico -are, (to enlarge, heighten, increase, magnify).
amplio -are, (to enlarge, increase, magnify); legal, (to adjourn a case).
amplitudo -inis, f. (breadth, size; greatness, dignity, grandeur).
amplus -a -um, (large, spacious, ample). Transf., (great, important, honorable; eminent, distinguished); 'amplissimi viri', (men of the
highest position); rhet., (grand, full). Adv. ample and ampliter, (fully, grandly). Compar. adv. and n., subst., amplius, (more, further,
besides); with numerals, often = more than.
ampulla -ae, f. (flask, bottle). Transf., (bombast).
ampullor -ari, dep. (to speak bombastically).
amputatio -onis, f. (cutting off, pruning).
amputo -are, (to cut off), esp. of trees, (to lop, prune); of limbs, (to amputate); hence, in gen., (to remove, diminish); 'amputata
loqui', (to speak disconnectedly).
Amulius -i, m. (king of Alba Longa, brother of Numitor).
amurca -ae, f. (oil lees).
amygdalum -i, n. (almond).
Amyntas -ae, m. (name of several Macedonian kings).
amystis -idis, f. (the emptying of a goblet at a draught).
an, conj.: in direct questions, (or); in indirect questions, (or whether).
anabathrum -i, n. (a raised seat).
anadema -atis, n. (a head ornament, fillet).
anagnostes -ae, m. (reader).
analecta -ae, m. (a dining room slave).
analogia -ae, f. (proportion, comparison, analogy).
anapaestus -a -um: 'pes', (a metrical foot, anapest); n. as subst. (a poem in anapestic verse).
anaphora -ae, f. in rhetoric, (the repetition of a word at the beginning of several, sentences).

anas anatis, f. (duck).
anaticula -ae, f. (little duck).
anatocismus -i, m. (compound interest).
Anaxagoras -ae, m. (a Greek philosopher of the fifth century B.C.).
anceps -cipitis, (two-headed); hence (with two peaks or edges). Transf., (coming on or from, both sides; of two natures; ambiguous,
uncertain, undecided); hence, (dangerous); n. as subst., (danger).
Anchises -ae, m. (father of Aeneas). Hence subst. Anchisiades -ae, m. (a male descendant of, Anchises, Aeneas).
ancile -is, n. (a sacred shield, supposed to have fallen from heaven).
ancilla -ae, f. (maidservant, female slave).
ancillaris -e, (of a maidservant).
ancillor -ari, dep. (to serve (as a maid)).
ancillula -ae, f. (a little maidservant).
ancisus -a -um, (cut round).
Ancon -onis, and Ancona -ae, f. (a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy).
ancora -ae, f. (an anchor); 'ancoram tollere', (to weigh anchor).
ancorale -is, n. (a cable).
ancorarius -a -um, (belonging to an anchor).
Ancus (Marcius) -i, (fourth king of Rome).
Ancyra -ae, f. (capital of Galatia, in Asia Minor).
androgynus -i, m. or androgyne -es, f. (hermaphrodite).
Andromache -es and -cha -ae, f. (wife of Hector).
Andromede -es, f. and -da -ae, f. (wife of Perseus).
andron -onis, m. (corridor).
Andronicus -i, m. L. Livius, (Roman dramatic and epic poet of the third century B.C.).
anellus -i, m. (a little ring).
anethum -i, n. (dill, anise).
anfractus -us, m. (a turning, a bend); 'solis', (revolution); 'vallis', (winding). Transf., (legal intricacies, circumlocution, digression).
angellus -i, m. (a little corner).
angiportum -i, n. and angiportus -us, m. (a narrow street).
ango -ere, (to press tightly); of the throat, (to strangle, throttle); in gen., (to hurt, distress); of the mind, (to torment, make anxious).
angor -oris, m. (compression of the throat, suffocation); of the mind, (distress, anguish, trouble).
anguicomus -a -um, (having snaky hair).
anguifer -fera -ferum, (snake-bearing).
anguigena -ae, m. (snake-born).
anguilla -ae, f. (an eel).
anguimanus -a -um, (snake-handed).
anguineus -a -um, (of a snake, snaky).
anguinus -a -um, (snaky).
anguipes -pedis, (snake-footed).
anguis -is, c. (a snake); in astronomy, (the constellation Draco, or Hydra, or the, Serpent).
Anguitenens -entis, m. (the Snake-holder, i.e. the constellation Ophiuchus).
angulatus -a -um, (angular, cornered).
angulus -i, m. (a corner, angle);esp. either (a quiet corner, retired spot) or fig., (an, awkward corner, strait).
angustiae -arum, f. pl. (narrowness); hence, of space, (a strait, narrow place); 'spiritus', (shortness of breath); of time, (shortness); of
supplies, (shortness, poverty); of circumstances, (difficulty, distress); of disposition, (narrow-, mindedness); of reasoning, (subtlety).
angustus -a -um, (narrow, confined); 'habenae', (tightly-drawn reins); 'spiritus angustior', (constricted breath); of time, (short); of
supplies, (short, scarce); of, circumstances, (precarious, critical); of mind or speech, (narrow, petty, limited); of style, (brief, simple).
N. as subst. angustum -i, (a narrow, space). Adv. anguste, (narrowly, sparingly, in a narrow, confined manner); of, speech, (briefly).

anhelitus -us, m. (puffing, panting). Transf., in gen., (breath; exhalation, vapor).
anhelo -are, (to puff, pant); transit., (to pant out words); also (to pant for a thing, desire eagerly).
anhelus -a -um, (puffing, panting); 'febris', (causing to pant).
anicula -ae, f. (a little old woman).
anilis -e, (belonging to or like an old woman). Adv. aniliter.
anilitas -atis, f. (old age) (of women).
anima -ae, f. (breath, wind, air). Transf., (the breath of life, vital principle, soul);, 'animam edere', (to give up the ghost); poet., (life-
blood); meton., (a living, being); sometimes = animus, (rational soul).
animadversio -onis, f. (perception, observation, notice); esp. (unfavorable notice; censure, blame, punishment).
animadversor -oris, m. (an observer).
animadverto (animadvortor) -vertere -verti -versum, (to turn or give the mind to). Hence (to take notice of, attend to; to, perceive,
observe). Esp. (to take notice of) a fault, (blame, censure, punish).
animal -alis, n. (a living being, animal).
animalis -e, (1) (consisting of air, airy). (2) (living).
animans -antis, (living); as subst., (a living being, animal).
animatio -onis, f. (animating); hence, (a living being).
animo -are, (1) (anima), (to animate, give life to). (2) (animus), (to endow with a, particular disposition). Hence partic. animatus -a -
um. (1) (having life, alive). (2) (having a disposition, inclined, disposed); esp. (having courage, spirited).
animosus -a -um, (1) (anima), (full of breath, airy). (2) (animus), (full of spirit or, courage). Adv. animose, (courageously).
animula -ae, f. (a little soul, little life).
animus -i, m. (the spiritual or rational principle of life in man). More specifically:, (1) (the seat of feeling, the heart); 'animi causa', (for
pleasure); loc. (or, genit.) 'animi', (at heart). (2) (character, disposition); as a trait of, character (esp. in plur.) (courage, spirit, vivacity);
also (pride, arrogance). (3) (the seat of the will, intention): 'habeo in animo', (I am, resolved). (4) (the seat of thought, intellect, mind,
memory, consciousness).
Anio -enis and poet. Anienus -i, m. (the Anio, a tributary of the Tiber).
Anna -ae, f. (sister of Dido); 'Anna Perenna', (an Italian goddess).
annalis -e, (lasting a year, or relating to a year). M. as subst., usually plur. annales, -ium, (yearly records, annals).
anniversarius -a -um, (recurring every year).
annona -ae, f. (yearly produce, crop), esp. of grain; (the price of provisions, the cost, of living).
annosus -a -um, (full of years, long-lived).
annotinus -a -um, (a year old, belonging to last year).
annus -i, m. (a circuit of the sun, year); 'exeunte anno', (at the end of the year);, 'annos LXX natus', (seventy years old); 'habere annos
viginti', (to be, twenty); esp. (year of office, or of eligibility for office); poet., (time of, year, season).
annuus -a -um, (lasting for a year; returning every year, annual). N. plur. as subst. (a, salary, pension).
anquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, (to seek carefully, inquire after, investigate); legal, (to set an inquiry on, foot).
ansa -ae, f. (a handle); hence, (occasion, opportunity).
ansatus -a -um, (with a handle); 'homo', (a man with arms akimbo).
anser -eris, m. (goose).
Antaeus -i, m. (a giant killed by Hercules).
ante, Adv. (before), of place or time; Prep. (before), of place or time; 'ante urbem, conditam', (before the founding of the city); of
preference, (sooner than, above).
antea, (before, formerly).
anteambulo -onis, m. (a footman to clear the way ahead).
antecapio -capere -cepi -ceptum, (to seize beforehand); hence (to anticipate, not to wait for); philosoph., 'antecepta informatio', (an
innate idea).
antecedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (to go before, precede), in space or time; (to excel) (with dat. or acc.).
antecello -ere, (to be outstanding, excel) (with dat. or acc.).

antecessio -onis, f. (a preceding or going before); philosoph., (the antecedent cause).
antecursor -oris, m. (a forerunner); in pl., (pioneers).
anteeo -ire -ii, (to go before), in space or time; hence (to excel) (with dat. or acc.).
antefero -ferre -tuli -latum, (to carry before). Transf., (to prefer; to anticipate, consider before).
antefixus -a -um, (fastened in front); n. as subst. (ornaments fixed on roofs).
antegredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to go before); philosoph., of antecedent causes.
antehabeo -ere, (to prefer).
antehac, (before this time, formerly).
antelucanus -a -um, (happening before daybreak).
antemeridianus -a -um, (before noon).
antemitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to send before).
antemna or antenna -ae, f. (a sail-yard).
anteoccupatio -onis, f. (an exception).
antepes -pedis, m. (the forefoot).
antepilani -orum, m. (front line soldiers) (i.e. the hastati and principes).
antepono -ponere -posui -positum, (to place before, to prefer).
antequam, conjunction, (before).
antes -ium, m. pl. (rows or ranks).
antesignanus -i, m. usually plur., (soldiers chosen for a place in front of the standards);, hence, sing., (a leader).
antesto (antisto) -stare -steti, (to stand before; to excel, surpass).
antestor -ari, dep. legal, (to call as a witness).
antevenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come before, precede). Transf., (to anticipate, prevent; to prefer).
anteverto (-vorto) -vertere -verti -versum, (to come or go before, precede). Transf., (to anticipate, prevent; to, prefer).
anticipatio -onis, f. (a preconception, innate idea).
anticipo -are, (to receive before, anticipate); 'viam', (to travel over before).
anticus -a -um, (forward, in front).
antidea, old form of antea; q.v.
antideo, old form of anteeo; q.v.
antidhac, old form of antehac; q.v.
Antigone -es, f. and Antigona -ae, f. (daughter of Oedipus, put to death for burying her, brother).
Antigonus -i, m. (name of several of the successors of Alexander the Great).
Antiochia or Antiochea -ae, f. (Antioch, name of several Asiatic towns).
Antipater -tri, m. (name of several kings of Macedonia).
antiquarius -a -um, (belonging to antiquity); m. or f. as subst. (an antiquary).
antiquitas -atis, f. (antiquity, ancient times; the history of ancient times); in plur., (the, ancients).
antiquitus, see antiquus.
antiquo -are, (to leave in its former state); 'legem', (to reject a bill).
antiquus -a -um, (coming before; previous, earlier); absol., (old, ancient, primitive). In, compar. and superl. (preferred, more
important). M. pl. as subst. antiqui, -orum, (the people of old time), esp. (ancient authors). Hence adv. antique, (in the ancient
manner); also antiquitus, (from of old or long ago).
antistes -stitis, c. (a presiding priest or priestess).
antistita -ae, f. (a presiding priestess).
antisto, = antesto;q.v.
antitheton -i, n. (antithesis, opposition).
Antium -i, n. (an old town of Latium on the sea-coast).
antlia -ae, f. (a pump).
Antoninus -i, m. (name of several Roman emperors).
Antonius -a -um, (the name of a Roman gens).
antrum -i, n. (a cave, hollow).
Anubis -bis or -bidis, m. (an Egyptian god).
anularius -a -um, (of a ring); m. as subst. (a ring-maker).

anulus -i, m. (a ring); 'anulus equestris', (the badge of knighthood at Rome).
anus (1) -i, m. (the fundament).
anus (2) -us, f. (an old woman); also used like adj., (old).
anxietas -atis, f. (anxiety, grief, anguish).
anxifer -fera -ferum, (causing anxiety).
anxitudo -inis, f. (anxiousness).
anxius -a -um, (anxious, uneasy). Transf., (causing anxiety). Adv. anxie.
Anxur -uris, n. (an old town of the Volsci).
Aones -um, (the Boeotians); Aonia -ae, f. (part of Boeotia, resort of the Muses); hence, Aonides -um, f. (the Muses); adj. Aonius -a -um.
Aornos -i, m. (the lake of Avernus).
apage, interj. (away! be off !).
Apelles -is, m. (a Greek painter, friend of Alexander the Great). Adj. Apelleus -a -um.
aper apri, m. (a wild boar).
aperio aperire aperui apertum, (1) (to uncover, lay bare); hence in gen. (to reveal). (2) (to open what was, shut, open up); 'ludum',
(to open a school); 'annum', (to begin the year)., Hence partic. apertus -a -um, (1) (uncovered, clear, unconcealed, manifest);, of
speech, (clear, intelligible, frank); of character, (frank, straightforward, open). (2) (unclosed, accessible, exposed). N. as subst., (an,
open space). Adv. aperte, (openly, frankly).
apex -icis, m. (the top); esp. (the top of the conical cap of the Roman 'flamines', or the, cap itself); hence any (crown, tiara, helmet);
fig., (highest honor, crown);, gram., (the long mark over a vowel).
aphractus -i, f. (a long undecked boat).
apicatus -a -um, (wearing the priest's cap).
apinae -arum, f. pl. (trifles).
apis or apes -is, f. (a bee).
Apis -is, m. (Apis, the ox-god of the Egyptians).
apiscor apisci aptus, dep. (to attain, come to, come by).
apium -i, n. (parsley or celery).
aplustre -is, n. generally plur. aplustria -ium, and aplustra -orum, (the carved stern of a, ship).
apodyterium -i, n. (the undressing-room in a bath).
Apollo -inis, m. (Apollo, god of the sun, born at Delos); 'ad Apollinis' (sc. sedem), (to, the temple of Apollo). Adj. Apollinaris -e, and
Apollineus -a -um.
apologus -i, m. (a narrative, fable).
apophoreta -orum, n. pl. (presents given to guests).
apotheca -ae, f. (storeroom).
apparate, adv. from apparo; q.v.
apparatio -onis, f. (preparation).
apparatus -us, m.: abstr., (preparation, preparing); concr., (provision, equipment, apparatus), esp. on a pretentious scale; hence
(splendor, magnificence, pomp, parade).
appareo -ere -ui -itum, (to become visible, appear, be manifest); 'apparet', (it is clear); sometimes, (to appear as a servant, to serve)
(with dat.).
appario -ere, (to get, obtain).
apparitio -onis, f. (waiting upon, serving); meton., plur. (servants).
apparitor -oris, m. (a servant); esp. (a public servant, e.g. lictor).
apparo -are, (to prepare, get ready, provide). Hence partic. apparatus -a -um, (prepared, well supplied or sumptuous). Adv. apparate,
appellatio -onis, f. (addressing, speech); legal, (an appeal; a naming, name, title;, pronunciation).
appellator -oris, m. (an appellant).
appellito -are, (to be accustomed to name).
appello, (1) -pellere -puli -pulsum, (to drive to, bring to, apply); nautical, (to, bring to land); 'huc appelle', ('put in here').
appello, (2) -are. (1) (to address, accost, speak to); esp. of asking favors, (to, approach, entreat, sue); legal, (to appeal to). (2) (to name,
entitle); hence, (to mention by name, make known). (3) (to pronounce).
appendix -icis, f. (appendage, addition).

appendo -pendere -pendi -pensum, (to weigh to, deal out by weight).
Appenninus -i, m. (the chain of the Apennines).
appetentia -ae, f. (desire, longing).
appetitio -onis, f. (desire, longing).
appetitus -us, m. (longing, appetite); plur., (the passions).
appeto -ere -ivi or -ii -itum, (to make for, grasp at, seek); of places, (to make for or go to); in hostile, sense, (to attack); intransit., of
time, (to draw near).
appingo -pingere -pinxi -pictum, paint to, or upon; to write in addition).
Appius -i, m., Appia -ae, f. (a Roman praenomen common in the gens Claudia); as adj., Appius -a -um, (Appian); 'via', (the Appian way, a
road from Rome to Capua, afterwards extended to Brundisium); also adj. Appianus -a -um, (belonging to, an Appius, Appian).
applaudo -plaudere -plausi -plausum, (to strike upon, clap).
applicatio -onis, f. (attachment, application).
applico -are -avi -atum, and -ui -itum, (to apply to, place to or near); 'corpora corporibus', (to, close up the ranks); naut., (to lay a ship
to or beside); absol., (to land)., Trnasf. in gen., (to attach, connect); with reflex. (to attach oneself, devote, oneself). Perf. partic. pass.
applicatus -a -um, (situated near, built near).
apploro -are, (to lament, deplore).
appono -ponere -posui -positum, (to place near, put to); esp. (to serve, put on table; to appoint) a person, (to add) a thing; 'appone
lucro', (reckon as gain). Hence partic. appositus -a, -um, (placed near, lying near; approaching, near to; fit, appropriate, apposite);
adv. apposite, (appropriately).
apporrectus -a -um, (extended near).
apporto -are, (to carry, bring to).
apposco -ere, (to ask in addition).
apprecor -ari, dep. (to worship, pray for).
apprehendo -prehendere -prehendi -prehensum, and poet. apprendo, (to seize, lay hold of).
apprime, (above all, exceedingly).
apprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, (to press to).
approbatio -onis, f. (approval, assent); in philosophy, (proof).
approbator -oris, m. (one who approves or assents).
approbo -are, (to approve of, assent to; to prove, establish; to make acceptable to), another.
appromitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to promise in addition).
appropero -are, (to hasten, hasten on).
appropinquatio -onis, f. (approach).
appropinquo -are, (to approach, draw near).
appugno -are, (to assault, fight against).
Appulia, see Apulia.
appulsus -us, m. (a driving towards); hence (approach, influence); naut. (landing).
apricatio -onis, f. (sun-bathing).
apricor -ari, dep. (to sun oneself).
apricus -a -um, adj. (open to the sun, sunny; loving the sun).
Aprilis -e, (of April); m. as subst. (the month of April).
apto -are, (to fit, adapt, adjust; to make ready or fit).
aptus -a -um, (1) as partic. (fitted, fastened, connected). Transf., (depending on); also, (prepared, fitted out; fitted up with, equipped
with), with abl. (2) as adj., (suitable, appropriate, fitting). Adv. apte.
apud, prep. with acc. (at,near, by, with); 'apud me', (at my house). Of other, relations; 'apud se', (in one's senses); 'apud me valet', (it
weighs with me);, 'apud patres', (in our fathers' time); 'apud Ciceronem', (in the works of, Cicero).
Apulia or Appulia -ae, f. (Apulia, a region in S. Italy). Adj. Apulicus and Apulus -a -um.
aqua -ae, f. (water); 'aqua et ignis', (the necessaries of life); 'aqua et igni, interdicere homini', (to banish a person); 'aquam terramque
poscere', (to, demand submission). Esp. (the water of the sea, a lake, a river, or rain); in, plur. ((medicinal) springs); often (water in
the water-clock).
aquaeductus -us, m. (an aqueduct; the right of conveying water).
aquarius -a -um, (belonging to water); m. as subst. (a water-carrier or an inspector of, conduits).

aquaticus -a -um, (living in water, or full of water, watery).
aquatilis -e, (living in water).
aquatio -onis, f. (a fetching of water); meton., (a watering-place).
aquator -oris, m. (a water-carrier).
aquila -ae, f. (an eagle); milit., (an eagle as the standard of a Roman legion);, architect., (gable or pediment).
aquilifer -feri, m. (an eagle- or standard-bearer).
aquilo -onis, m. (the north wind; the north).
aquilonius -a -um, (northern).
aquilus -a -um, (dark-colored, blackish).
Aquitania -ae, f. (Aquitania, the southwest part of Gaul). Adj. Aquitanus -a -um.
aquor -ari, dep. (to fetch water).
aquosus -a -um, (full of water, watery).
aquula -ae, f. (a little water, small stream).
ara -ae, f. (altar); hence (refuge, protection); 'arae', plur., (name of certain rocks, at sea).
Arabia -ae, f. (Arabia). Adj. Arabius and Arabicus -a -um, (Arabian); adj. and subst., Arabs -abis and Arabus -a -um, (Arabian, an Arabian).
Arachne -es, f. (a Lydian maiden turned into a spider by Minerva).
aranea -ae, f. (a spider); meton., (the spider's web).
araneola -ae, f. (a little spider).
araneolus -i, m. (a little spider).
araneosus -a -um, (full of cobwebs).
araneus (1) -a -um, (of a spider); n. as subst. (a cobweb).
araneus (2) -i, m. (a spider).
aratio -onis, f. (plowing, agriculture); meton., (a plowed field).
arator -oris, m. (ploughman, husbandman).
aratrum -i, n. (plow).
arbiter -tri, m. (a witness, spectator), legal, (an umpire, arbitrator); hence (any judge, ruler, master).
arbitra -ae, f. (a female witness).
arbitrarius -a -um, (arbitrary, uncertain).
arbitratus -us, m. (will, choice, decision).
arbitrium -i, n. (1) (the presence of witnesses). (2) (the decision of an umpire); hence, (any decision, judgment, authority); 'arbitrio
suo', (under his own control).
arbitro -are, and arbitror -ari, dep. (1) (to witness; to bear witness). (2) (to arbitrate, judge, decide).
arbor (arbos) -oris, f. (a tree); also any wooden object, such as an (oar, mast, ship); 'arbor, infelix', (the gallows).
arboreus -a -um, (relating to trees; treelike).
arbustus -a -um, (planted with trees). N. as subst. arbustum -i, (a plantation, vineyard, planted with trees).
arbuteus -a -um, (of the arbutus).
arbutum -i, n. (the fruit, leaves, etc., of the wild strawberry or arbutus tree).
arbutus -i, f. (the wild strawberry or arbutus tree).
arca -ae, f. (a chest, box); esp. (a money-box or coffin); also (a cell).
Arcadia -ae, f. (part of the Peloponnesus).Adj. Arcadius and Arcadicus -a -um.
arcanus -a -um, (shut, closed); hence (silent, secret). N. as subst. (a secret). Adv. arcano, (secretly).
Arcas -adis, m. adj. and subst., (Arcadian, an Arcadian).
arceo -ere -ui, (1) (to shut in). (2) (to keep at a distance, hinder, prevent, keep away).
arcessitor -oris, m. (a summoner).
arcessitu, abl. sing. m. (at the summons) of a person.
arcesso (accerso) -ere -ivi -itum, (to fetch, call, summon); legal, (to summon, bring before a court of justice);, in gen., (to fetch,
derive, obtain). Hence partic. arcessitus, (strained, far-fetched).
archetypus -a -um, (original).
Archias -ae, m. Aulus Licinius, (a Greek poet defended by Cicero).
archimagirus -i, m. (head cook).
Archimedes -is, m. (a mathematician and inventor, killed at the capture of Syracuse (212, B.C.)).

archipirata -ae, m. (chief pirate).
architecton -onis, m. (master-builder).
architector -ari, dep. (to build, devise).
architectura -ae, f. (architecture).
architectus -i, m. (an architect, master-builder, inventor, maker).
archon -ontis, m. (an archon, an Athenian magistrate).
arcitenens -entis, (holding the bow).
Arctos -i, f. (the Great and Little Bear); hence (the north).
arctous -a -um, (belonging to the Bear); hence (northern).
Arcturus -i, m. (the brightest star of Bootes).
arcula -ae, f. (a casket). Transf., (rhetorical argument).
arcuo -are, (to bend or shape like a bow).
arcus -us, m. (a bow, arch, arc); esp. (the rainbow).
ardea -ae, f. (a heron).
ardelio -onis, m. (a busybody).
ardeo ardere arsi, (to burn, glow, be on fire); of bright objects, (to gleam); of feeling (esp., of love), (to burn, smart); of political
disorder, (to be ablaze). Hence, partic. ardens -entis, (hot, glowing, burning, fiery, eager); adv. ardenter.
ardesco -ere (to take fire); of bright objects, (to glitter); of passions, (to become inflamed); of strife, (to blaze up).
ardor -oris, m. (flame, burning, heat); of bright objects, (gleam); of feelings (esp. of, love), (heat, eagerness); meton., (an object of
love, loved one).
arduus -a -um, (steep, towering, lofty). Transf., (difficult to undertake or reach); n. as, subst., (difficulty).
area -ae, f. (a level or open space, site, court-yard, threshing floor); esp. (a, playground); hence, in gen., (play).
arefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to make dry).
arena, = harena;q.v.
areo -ere, (to be dry); partic. arens -entis, (dry, thirsty).
Areopagus -i, m. (Mars' hill at Athens, where a court sat). Hence Areopagites -ae, m. (a, member of the court).
Ares -is, m. (the Greek god of war, Latin Mars).
aresco -ere, (to become dry).
aretalogus -i, m. (a babbler about virtue).
Arethusa -ae, f. (a fountain at Syracuse); myth. (a nymph chased by the river Alpheus under, the sea to Sicily).
argentarius -a -um, (relating to silver or money); 'taberna', (a banker's stall). M. as subst. (a, money-changer, banker); f. as subst., (the
office or trade of a banker); also, (a silver mine).
argentatus -a -um, (ornamented with silver).
argenteus -a -um, (of silver). Transf., (ornamented with silver; of the color of silver;, belonging to the Silver Age).
argentum -i, n. (silver); esp. (silver plate or silver coin); hence, in gen., (money).
Argiletum -i, n. (the booksellers' district in Rome).
argilla -ae, f. (white clay, potter's clay).
Argo Argus, f. (the ship Argo).
Argonautae -arum, m. pl. (the Argonauts, the heroes who sailed in the Argo).
Argos, n. and Argi -orum, m. pl. (Argos, capital of Argolis in the Peloponnese). Adj., Argeus and Argivus -a -um; plur. subst. Argivi, m.
(the Argives or Greeks)., Hence f. subst. Argoles -idis, (the district Argolis); adj. Argolicus -a -um.
argumentatio -onis, f. (the bringing forward of a proof).
argumentor -ari, dep. (to bring forward a proof, allege as a proof).
argumentum -i, n. (argument, proof; subject, contents, matter).
arguo -uere -ui -utum, (to put in clear light; to declare, prove; to accuse, blame, expose, convict)., Hence partic. argutus -a -um: to
the eye, (expressive, lively); to the ear, (piercing, shrill, noisy); of omens, (clear, significant); of persons, (sagacious, cunning). Adv.
argute, (sagaciously).

Argus -i, m. (the hundred-eyed guardian of Io).
argutiae -arum, f. pl. (liveliness, animation); of the mind, (cleverness, sagacity, cunning).
argutulus -a -um, (somewhat acute).
Ariadna -ae and Ariadne -es, f. (daughter of Minos of Crete).
aridulus -a -um, (somewhat dry).
aridus -a -um, adj. (dry, arid, thirsty); 'febris', (parching); 'crura', (shrivelled); of, living conditions, (meager); intellectually, (dry,
jejune); of character, (avaricious). N. as subst., (dry ground).
aries -ietis, m. (a ram; a battering ram; a prop, beam).
arieto -are, (to butt like a ram).
Arion -onis, m. (a cithara player, saved from drowning by a dolphin).
Ariovistus -i, m. (a Germanic prince).
arista -ae, f. (the beard of an ear of grain); hence (the ear itself); also (a harvest).
Aristophanes -is, m. (the Athenian comic dramatist). Adj. Aristophaneus -a -um.
Aristoteles -is and -i, m. (the Greek philosopher, pupil of Plato, founder of the Peripatetic school)., Adj. Aristoteleus and Aristotelius -
a -um.
arithmetica -ae and -e -es, f.; also arithmetica -orum, n. pl.; (arithmetic).
arma -orum, n. pl. (defensive arms, armor, weapons of war); hence (war, soldiers, military, power; protection, defense);in gen. (tools,
armamenta -orum, n. pl. (implements, tackle), esp. of a ship.
armamentarium -i, n. (an armory).
armarium -i, n. (a cupboard, chest).
armatu, abl. sing. m. (with armor); 'gravi armatu', (with heavy-armed troops).
armatura -ae, f. (equipment, armor); meton., (armed soldiers).
armentalis -e, (belonging to a herd).
armentarius -i, m. (herdsman).
armentum -i, n. (cattle for plowing); coll., (a herd).
armifer -fera -ferum, (bearing arms, warlike).
armiger -gera -gerum, (bearing arms); as subst., m. or f., (an armor bearer).
armilla -ae, f. (bracelet).
armillatus -a -um, (adorned with a bracelet).
armipotens -entis, (mighty in arms, warlike).
armisonus -a -um, (resounding with arms).
armo -are, (to provide with arms, arm, equip, fit out).
armus -i, m. (shoulder or shoulder-blade); also, of an animal, (the side).
Arnus -i, m. (chief river of Etruria) (now Arno).
aro -are, (to plow, farm, cultivate). Transf., (to furrow, wrinkle); of ships, (to plow), the sea.
Arpinum -i, n. (a Volscian hill-town, birthplace of Cicero); adj. and subst. Arpinas, -atis; adj. Arpinus -a -um.
arquatus -a -um, (relating to jaundice); m. as subst., (a sufferer from jaundice).
arr-, see also adr-.
arrabo, see arrha.
arrha -ae, f. and arrhabo -onis, m. (earnest money).
ars -tis, f. (1) (skill, method, technique); 'ex arte', (according to the rules of art)., (2) (an occupation, profession). (3) concrete, in plur.,
(works of art). (4), (conduct, character, method of acting); 'bonae artes', (good qualities).
Artaxerxes -is, m. (name of several Persian kings).
arteria -ae, f. (the wind-pipe; an artery).
arthriticus -a -um, (gouty).
articularis -e, (of the joints); 'morbus', (gout).
articulatim, (piecemeal, joint by joint, distinctly).
articulo -are, (to articulate, speak distinctly).
articulus -i, m.: in the body, (a small joint); in plants, (a knob, knot); of time, (a, moment, crisis); in gen., (a part, division, point).
artifex -ficis, m. As adj.: act., (skilled, clever); pass., (skillfully made). As subst., (worker, craftsman,

maker, creator, expert).
artificiosus -a -um, (skillful, accomplished; skillfully made); hence (artificial). Adv., artificiose, (skillfully).
artificium -i, n. (occupation, craft, art); also (the theory, system of an art); concr., (work of art); in gen., (cleverness, skill, cunning).
arto -are, (to press together, reduce, abridge).
artolaganus -i, m. (a cake made of meal, wine, milk, etc.).
artopta -ae, m. (a baker; a bread pan).
artus (1) (arctus) -a -um, (narrow, tight, close); 'somnus', (fast, sound); of supplies, (small, meager);, of circumstances, (difficult,
distressing). N. as subst. (a narrow space); in, gen., (difficulty, constraint). Adv. arte, (narrowly, tightly, closely);, 'dormire', (soundly,
fast); 'artius appellare', (to cut a name short).
artus (2) -us, m. normally plur., (the joints); 'dolor artuum', (gout); poet., (limbs).
arula -ae, f. (a little altar).
arund-, see harund-.
Aruns, (an Etruscan name for a younger son).
arvina -ae, f. (fat, lard).
arvus -a -um, (plowed). N. as subst. arvum -i, (plowed land, a field); in gen., (a region).
arx -cis, f. (fortress, citadel, stronghold, height); fig., (bulwark, protection, headquarters).
as assis, m. (a whole, a unit), divided into 12 parts (unciae); 'heres ex asse', (sole, heir); as a small coin, (the as); as a weight, (a
Ascanius -i, m. (son of Aeneas).
ascendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, (to mount, ascend, rise).
ascensio -onis, f. (ascent); 'oratorum', (lofty flight).
ascensus -us, m. (a going up, ascent); meton., (a way up).
ascia -ae, f. (a carpenter's axe; a mason's trowel).
ascio -scire, (to take to oneself, adopt as one's own).
ascisco asciscere ascivi ascitum, (to receive, admit); of persons, (to adopt); of things, (to take up, approve)., Hence partic. ascitus -a -
um, (foreign, acquired).
Ascra -ae, f. (town in Boeotia, home of Hesiod); adj. Ascraeus -a -um.
ascribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum: of things, (to write in, add in writing); hence (to attribute, impute); of persons, (to, enrol,
include, put on a list).
ascripticius -a -um, (enrolled as member of a community).
ascriptio -onis, f. (addition in writing).
ascriptor -oris, m. (one who approves).
asella -ae, f. (a she-ass).
asellus -i, m. (ass).
Asia -ae, f. (1) (a town and district in Lydia). (2) (the continent of Asia). (3) (the, peninsula of Asia Minor). (4) (the Roman province of
Asia, formed in 133, B.C.). Hence adj. Asianus, Asiaticus and Asius -a -um; subst. Asis -idis, f., poet., (Asia).
asilus -i, m. (gad-fly).
asina -ae, f. (she-ass).
asinus -i, m. (ass).
asotus -i, m. (sensualist, libertine).
asparagus -i, m. (asparagus).
aspargo, = aspergo;q.v.
aspectabilis -e, (visible).
aspecto -are, (to look at earnestly, look towards, observe, attend to).
aspectus -us, m.: act., (looking, sight, range or power of vision); pass., (sight, power of, being seen, look, aspect, appearance).
aspello -ere, (to drive away).
asper -era -erum, (rough, uneven); to the taste, (pungent, sour); to the hearing, (harsh, grating); of weather, (rough, stormy); of
character or circumstances, (rough, wild, harsh, difficult, severe). N. as subst. (roughness, a rough place). Adv., aspere, (roughly).

aspergo (1) -spergere -spersi -spersum, (to sprinkle upon or besprinkle with).
aspergo (2) -inis, f. (sprinkling, spray).
asperitas -atis, f. (roughness, unevenness); to the taste, (sourness); to the ear, (harshness)., of character or circumstances, (harshness,
fierceness, severity, difficulty).
aspernatio -onis, f. (contempt).
aspernor -ari, dep. (to despise, reject, spurn).
aspero -are, (to make rough or sharp; to excite, arouse).
aspersio -onis, f. (sprinkling).
aspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, (to look at, behold, survey, inspect, confront). Transf., mentally, (to, investigate, consider); of places,
(to look towards, face).
aspiratio -onis, f. (breathing, exhalation); in speech, (pronunciation of the letter H, aspiration).
aspiro -are, intransit., (to breathe, blow, exhale): fig. (to be favorable, assist); also, (to climb up, reach towards) a thing; transit., (to
blow air); fig. (to infuse, spirit, etc.).
aspis -idis, f. (an adder, asp).
asportatio -onis, f. (a taking away, carrying off).
asporto -are, (to carry off, take away).
aspreta -orum, n. pl. (rough, uneven places).
asser -eris, m. (a stake, pole).
assula -ae, f. (a shaving, clip).
assus -a -um, (dried, roasted); n. pl. as subst. (a sweating bath).
ast, = at;q.v.
ast-, see also adst-.
astrologia -ae, f. (astronomy).
astrologus -i, m. (an astronomer or astrologer).
astrum -i, n. (a star, or constellation). Transf., esp. plur., (the heights, glory, immortality).
astu, n. (a city), esp. Athens.
astus -us, m. (cleverness, cunning).
astutia -ae, f. (adroitness, craft); in pl. (tricks).
astutus -a -um, (adroit, clever, crafty): adv. astute.
asylum -i, n. (a sanctuary, place of refuge).
asymbolus -a -um, (contributing nothing to the cost of an entertainment).
at (ast), (but, yet, moreover); sometimes introducing an imaginary objection, (but, you, may say).
atat, attat, attatae, attattatae, etc. interj. (oh! ah! alas!).
atavus -i, m. (a great-great-great-grandfather); in gen., (an ancestor).
Atella -ae, f. (a city in Campania); adj. Atellanus -a -um; f. as subst. (sc. fabella) (a, kind of popular farce); m. as subst., (a player in these
farces); adj., Atellanius or Atellanicus -a -um, (of Atellan farces).
ater atra atrum, (dead black, dark); poet. (clothed in black). Transf., (dark, gloomy, sad;, malicious, poisonous).
Athenae -arum, f. pl. (Athens); meton., (learning). Adj. Athenaeus -a -um, (Athenian, an, Athenian).
atheos and atheus -i, m. (an atheist).
athleta -ae, m. (wrestler, athlete).
athleticus -a -um, (relating to an athlete);adv. athletice, (athletically).
Atlas -antis, m. (1) (a mountain in Mauritania). (2) (a mythical king and giant, changed, into Mount Atlas). Hence Atlantiades -ae, m. (a
male descendant of Atlas);, Atlantis -idis, f. (a female descendant of Atlas); adj. Atlanticus and, Atlanteus -a -um.
atomus -i, f. (an atom).
atque and ac, (and, and also, and indeed). In comparisons: of similarity, with such words as, aequus or idem, (as); of difference, with
such words as alius or secus, (than, from).
atqui, (nevertheless, but in fact); sometimes confirmatory, (indeed, certainly).
atramentum -i, n. (black fluid, such as ink or shoemaker's black).
atratus -a -um, (clothed in black, in mourning).
Atreus -ei, m. (son of Pelops, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus). Hence Atrides or Atrida, -ae, m. (a son of Atreus).
atriensis -is, m. (head slave, steward).

atriolum -i, n. (a little atrium, an antechamber).
atrium -i, n. (the hall or entrance in a Roman house, temple or public building).
atrocitas -atis, f. (frightfulness, cruelty, harshness, barbarity).
Atropos -i, f. (one of the three Parcae or Fates).
atrox -ocis, (terrible, cruel, horrible); of human character, (harsh, fierce, severe). Adv., atrociter.
attactu, abl. sing. m., (by touch, by contact).
attagen -enis, m. and attagena -ae, f. (the black partridge).
Attalus -i, m. (name of several kings of Pergamum): adj. Attalicus -a -um.
attamen or at tamen, (but yet).
attempero -are, (to fit, adjust to); adv. from partic., attemperate, (appropriately).
attendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, (to stretch to); usually with animum (animos) or absol., (to direct the, attention towards, attend
to). Hence partic. attentus, (attentive, careful):, adv. attente.
attentio -onis, f. (attentiveness, attention).
attento or attempto -are, (to try, test, essay; to tamper with, try to corrupt, or to attack).
attenuo -are, (to make thin, reduce, weaken). Hence partic. attenuatus, (made weak); of, style, (abbreviated, overrefined, or
unadorned); adv. attenuate, (simply, without ornament).
attero -terere -trivi (-terui) -tritum, (to rub against, rub away); in gen., (to weaken, ruin). Hence partic. attritus, -a -um, (rubbed away,
worn out); fig., 'frons', (shameless).
attestor -ari, dep. (to attest, bear witness to).
attexo -texere -texui -textum, (to weave or plait on or to); hence, in gen., (to add).
Atthis -idis, f. adj., (Attic, Athenian).
Attica -ae, f. (Attica, the district of Greece containing Athens).
Atticus (1) -a -um, (belonging to Attica or Athens, Attic, Athenian); adv. Attice, (in the Attic, or Athenian manner).
Atticus (2), T. Pomponius, (the friend of Cicero).
attineo -tinere -tinui -tentum, transit., (to hold, keep, detain);intransit., (to pertain to, or concern), only in the third person: 'quod
ad me attinet' (as far as I am concerned);, 'nihil attinet', (it is pointless).
attingo -tingere -tigi -tactum, (to touch, to reach); of places, (to border upon); of enemies, (to attack, strike). Transf., (to handle,
manage, be concerned or connected with); of, feelings, (to affect) a person; in writing or speech, (to touch upon, to, mention).
attollo -tollere, (to raise, lift up). Transf. (to elevate, excite, exalt).
attondeo -tondere -tondi -tonsum, (to cut, clip, prune); in gen., (to diminish).
attono -tonare -tonui -tonitum, (to strike with thunder, stun). Hence partic. attonitus -a -um, (struck by, thunder; stunned, senseless;
inspired, frantic).
attorqueo -ere, (to whirl, swing upward).
attraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, (to draw, drag, attract).
attrecto -are, (to touch, handle, lay hands on).
attribuo -uere -ui -utum, (to allot, assign, hand over). Transf., in gen., (to give, ascribe, add); of, taxes, (to impose). N. of partic. as
subst. attributum -i, (a predicate, attribute).
attributio -onis, f. (the assignment of a debt); rhet. (an attribute).
attritus -a -um, partic. from attero; q.v.
au, interj., (oh!).
auceps -cupis, n. (a fowler, bird-catcher; a spy, eavesdropper).
auctificus -a -um, (increasing).
auctio -onis, f. (an increasing); hence, from the bidding, (an auction).
auctionarius -a -um, (relating to an auction).
auctionor -ari, dep. (to hold an auction).
auctito -are, (to increase very much).
aucto -are, (to increase very much).
auctor -oris, m. (one who gives increase). Hence (1) (an originator, causer, doer; founder, of a family; architect of a building; author
of a book; originator of or, leader in an enterprise; source of or warrant for a piece of information). (2), (a backer, supporter,
approver, surety).
auctoramentum -i, n. (a contract; wages).
auctoritas -atis, f. (1) (support, backing, lead, warrant); polit., (sanction) (esp. of the, senate). (2) (power

conferred, rights, command); legal, (title). (3) in gen., (influence, authority, prestige); meton., (an influential person).
auctoro -are, (to bind or hire for money).
auctumnus, = autumnus; q.v.
auctus -us, m. (increase, enlargement, growth).
aucupatio -onis, f. (fowling, bird-catching).
aucupium -i, n. (bird-catching, fowling); hence, in gen.,(hunting, watching, eavesdropping); 'aucupia verborum', (cavilling, quibbling).
aucupor -ari, dep. (to catch birds); in gen., (to watch out for, lie in wait for).
audacia -ae, f. (courage, daring); in bad sense, (audacity, impudence, temerity); in plur., (audacious deeds).
audax -acis, (bold) (in good or bad sense).
audentia -ae, f. (boldness, courage).
audeo audere ausus sum, (to be daring; to dare, venture, bring oneself to). Hence partic. audens, -entis, (daring, bold); compar. adv.
audientia -ae, f. (hearing, attention).
audio -ire, (to hear, listen; to learn a thing by hearing); sometimes (to listen to and, believe (or obey)); rarely (to be called); 'bene
audire', (to be well spoken, of). Hence partic. audiens -entis, as adj., (obedient);as subst. (a hearer).
auditio -onis, f. (hearing, listening); concr., (hearsay reports).
auditor -oris, m. (a hearer, auditor, scholar).
auditorium -i, n. (a place of audience, lecture-room, court of justice, etc.).
auditus -us, m. (hearing, sense of hearing); concr., (a report).
aufero auferre abstuli ablatum, (to carry away, remove); in bad sense, (to make away with, carry off, steal).
Aufidus -i, m. (a river in Apulia).
aufugio -fugere -fugi, (to flee, escape).
augeo augere auxi auctum, (to enlarge, increase); of rivers, in pass., (to be swollen); in speech, (to, extol, set forth); with abl., (to
enrich with, furnish with); in transit., (rare), (to grow). Hence partic. auctus -a -um, (increased, enriched).
augesco -ere, (to increase, begin to grow).
augmen -inis, n. (increase, growth).
augur -uris, c. (augur, soothsayer, seer).
auguralis -e, (relating to an augur or augury); n. as subst. augurale -is, (part of the, Roman camp, where auspices were taken).
auguratio -onis, f. (divining, soothsaying).
auguratus -us, m. (the office of augur).
augurium -i, n. (the office and work of an augur, observation and interpretation of omens, augury); in gen., (an omen, prophecy,
augurius -a -um, (relating to an augur).
auguro -are, (to act as an augur, take auguries); 'locus auguratur', (the place is, consecrated by auguries); in gen., (to have a
foreboding or presentiment).
auguror -ari, dep. (to act as an augur, foretell by auguries); hence, in gen. (to foretell, or to guess).
Augusta -ae, f. (a name for any female relative of the Roman emperor, or town named after, him).
Augustalis -e, (belonging to or in honor of the Emperor Augustus).
augustus -a -um, (consecrated, holy; majestic, dignified). Adv. auguste, (reverently).
Augustus (1) -i, m. (a name assumed by all Roman emperors).
Augustus (2) -a -um, (relating to Augustus); 'mensis', (August).
aula (1) -ae, f., (forecourt, courtyard); poet. = atrium, (an inner court). Transf., (a, palace, royal court); meton., (courtiers).
aula (2), = olla; q.v.
aulaeum -i, n. usually plur., (embroidered work, tapestry, curtains (esp. of a theater)).
aulicus -a -um, (of the court, princely).
auloedus -i, m. (one who sings to the flute).
aura -ae, f. (air), esp. (air breathed or blowing, breath, wind); poet., esp. plur., (upper air, heaven);

'superas ad auras', (to the light of day); 'ferre sub, auras', (to make known); poet. (rarely), (smell, glitter, or echo).
aurarius -a -um, (golden, of gold); f. as subst., (a gold mine).
auratus -a -um, (golden or adorned with gold).
Aurelius -a -um, (name of a Roman plebeian gens).
aureolus -a -um, (golden, glittering, splendid).
aureus -a -um, (golden, made of gold or adorned with gold); poet., (of the color of gold), and, in gen., (excellent, beautiful).
aurichalchum, = orichalchum; q.v.
auricomus -a -um, (with golden hair or leaves).
auricula -ae, f. (the lobe of the ear); in gen., (the ear).
aurifer -fera -ferum, (gold-bearing, gold-producing).
aurifex -ficis, m. (a goldsmith).
auriga -ae, c. (charioteer, driver); of a ship, (helmsman); as a constellation, (the, Wagoner).
auriger -gera -gerum, (gold-bearing).
aurigo -are, (to drive a chariot).
auris -is, f. (the ear); hence (hearing); of a plow, (the earth- or mould-board).
auritus -a -um, (long-eared); hence (attentive).
aurora -ae, f. (dawn, break of day); personified, (Aurora, goddess of morning). meton., (the east).
aurum -i, n. (gold; anything made of gold, gold plate, coin, a cup, ring, etc.; the, golden age).
Aurunca -ae, f. (a town in Campania).
auscultator -oris, m. (a listener).
ausculto -are, (to hear attentively, listen to); sometimes also (to obey); of servants, (to, attend, wait).
ausim, as subjunctive of audeo; q.v.
Ausonia -ae, f. (Ausonia, Lower Italy), and in gen., (Italy); adj. Ausonius -a -um.
auspex -icis, c. (one who watches birds and divines from them); esp. (an official witness of, marriage contracts); poet., in gen., (a
auspicium -i, n. (divination by means of birds, the taking of or right to take auspices)., Transf., (any omen or sign); poet. (leadership,
auspico -are, (to take the auspices). Hence partic. auspicatus -a -um, (consecrated by, auguries); as adj., (favorable, auspicious). Abl.
abs. auspicato, (after, taking auspices); hence (in a fortunate hour).
auspicor -ari, dep. (to take the auspices); hence (to begin favorably).
auster -stri, m. (the south wind); meton., (the south).
austeritas -atis, f. (harshness, strictness, severity).
austerus -a -um, (sour, harsh, strict, severe, gloomy). Adv. austere.
australis -e, (southern).
austrinus -a -um, (southern).
ausum -i, n. (a daring deed, undertaking).
aut, (or, or else); repeated, aut....aut...., (either....or).
autem, (but, on the other hand, however, moreover, now).
authepsa -ae, f. (a cooking stove).
Automedon -ontis, m. (charioteer of Achilles).
autumnalis -e, (autumnal).
autumnus (1) -i, m. (autumn).
autumnus (2) -a -um, adj. (autumnal).
autumo -are, (to say, assert).
auxiliaris -e, (giving help, assisting); m. pl. as subst., (auxiliary or allied troops).
auxiliarius -a -um, (helping); 'milites', (auxiliary troops).
auxiliator -oris, m. (a helper).
auxiliatus -us, m. (help, assistance).
auxilior -ari, dep. (to help, assist, support).
auxilium -i, n. (help, aid, assistance); milit., often plur., (auxiliary troops), or in, gen., (military power).
avaritia -ae, f. (avarice, covetousness).
avarus -a -um, (covetous, greedy); adv. avare and avariter.

aveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, (to carry off, bear away); pass., (to ride or sail off).
avello -vellere -vulsi (-volsi) -vulsum (-volsum), (to tear away, pluck away) (esp. with violence).
avena -ae, f. (oats or wild oats); hence (oaten pipe, shepherd's pipe); in gen., (any, stalk, straw).
Aventinum -i, n. and Aventinus -i, m. (the Aventine, one of the seven hills of Rome).
aveo (1) -ere, (to long for, desire).
aveo (2) (haveo) -ere, (to be well); found only in imperat. and infin.; 'ave', (hail! or farewell!).
Avernus -i, m. (a lake near Puteoli, said to be an entrance to the infernal regions);, meton., (the infernal regions); adj. Avernus -a -
um, Avernalis -e.
averrunco -are, (to turn away, avert).
aversabilis -e, (from which one must turn away, horrible).
aversor (1) -ari, dep. (to turn away (in shame, disgust, etc.)); with acc., (to turn away from, avoid, shun).
aversor (2) -oris, m. (an embezzler).
averto (avorto) -vertere -verti (-vorti) -versum (-vorsum), (to turn away, remove): 'flumina', (to divert); of feelings, (to estrange); of,
property, (to carry off, appropriate, embezzle); poet., intransit., (to, retire). Hence partic. aversus -a -um, (turned away, backward,
behind); of, feeling, (disinclined, unfavorable, hostile).
avia -ae, f. (a grandmother).
aviarium -i, n. (an aviary); also (the haunts of wild birds).
aviditas -atis, f. (desire, longing); esp. (desire for money, avarice).
avidus -a -um, (desiring, longing for); esp.(greedy for money, avaricious); adv. avide.
avis -is, f. (a bird); often (a bird of omen), and in gen., (an omen).
avitus -a -um, (of a grandfather, ancestral).
avius -a -um: of places, (out of the way, untrodden); of persons, (wandering, astray, lost).
avocatio -onis, f. (a calling away, diversion).
avoco -are, (to call away, or off, to withdraw, remove, divert).
avolo -are, (to fly away, hasten away).
avunculus -i, m. (a mother's brother, uncle).
avus -i, m. (a grandfather); poet., in gen., (an ancestor).
axis (or assis) -is, m. (an axle). Hence (1) (a wheel); meton., (a chariot, wagon). (2) (the axis, of the earth); meton. (the north pole or
the heavens); 'sub axe', (in the open, air). (3) (a board, plank).
babae or papae, interj. (wonderful!).
Babylon -onis, f. (a city on the Euphrates); Babylonia -ae, f. (Babylonia, between the, Euphrates and the Tigris); adj. Babylonicus and
Babylonius -a -um.
baca (bacca) -ae, f. (a berry, fruit; a pearl).
bacatus -a -um, (set with pearls).
baccar (bacchar) -aris, n. and baccaris -is, f. (a plant), perhaps (sowbread).
Baccha -ae, f. (a Bacchante, female worshipper of Bacchus).
Bacchanal -is, n. (the place where Bacchus was worshipped); plur. Bacchanalia -ium, (the, Greek festival of Dionysus or Bacchus).
bacchatio -onis, f. (revelling in Bacchanalian fashion).
bacchor -ari, dep. (to celebrate the festival of Bacchus); as passive, of places, (to be, made the scene of Bacchic revels); in gen., (to
rage, rave like a Bacchante)., Partic. bacchantes = Bacchae; see Baccha.
Bacchus -i, m. (the god of wine); meton., (the vine, or wine, or the Bacchic cry (Io, Bacche)). Adj. Baccheus, Bacchicus, Bacchius -a -
bacifer -fera -ferum, (bearing berries).
bacillum -i, n. (a little staff); esp. (the lictor's staff).
baculum -i, n. and baculus -i, m. (a staff, walking stick).
Baetis -is, m. (a river in Spain); adj. Baeticus -a -um, (relating to the Baetis); f., subst. Baetica -ae, f. (the Roman province of Baetica on
the Baetis).
Baiae -arum, f. pl. (a holiday-resort on the coast of Campania); adj. Baianus -a -um.
baiulo -are, (to carry a burden).
baiulus -i, m. (a porter).
balaena -ae, f. (a whale).
balanus -i, f. rarely m. (an acorn, chestnut or date).

balatro -onis, m. (buffoon, jester).
balatus -us, m. (the bleating of sheep or goats).
balbus -a -um, (stammering); adv. balbe.
balbutio -ire, (to stammer, stutter); hence in gen.(to speak obscurely).
Baliares (Baleares) -ium, f. pl. (the Balearic Islands); adj. Baliaris -e, Baliaricus -a -um.
balineum or balneum -i, n. esp. in pl.; also heteroclite pl. balineae or balneae -arum; (a bath, bathing place).
ballista -ae, f. (a military engine for throwing large stones).
balneae, see balineum.
balnearius -a -um, (belonging to the bath); n. pl. as subst. (baths, bathing rooms).
balneator -oris, m. (the keeper of a bath).
balneolum -i, n. (a little bathroom).
balneum, = balineum; q.v.
balo -are, (to bleat).
balsamum -i, n. (the balsam tree, or its gum).
balteus -i, m. and balteum -i, n. (a girdle).
barathrum -i, n. (a pit, abyss; esp. of the lower world).
barba -ae, f. (beard); 'promittere barbam', (to let the beard grow).
barbaria -ae, f. (a foreign country), as opposed to Greece and Rome; (want of culture, rudeness, savagery).
barbaricus -a -um, (foreign), i.e., not Greek or Roman.
barbaries -ei, f. (a foreign country), as opposed to Greece and Rome; (want of culture, rudeness, savagery).
barbarus -a -um, (foreign, strange; uncultivated, rough, savage); as subst., (a foreigner)., Adv. barbare, (like a foreigner; roughly,
barbatulus -a -um, (with a slight beard).
barbatus -a -um, (bearded).
barbiger -gera -gerum, (wearing a beard).
barbitos, m. and f. (a lyre).
barbula -ae, f. (a little beard).
bardocucullus -i, m. (a Gallic overcoat).
bardus -a -um, (stupid, slow, dull).
baris -idos, f. (an Egyptian barge).
baritus (barritus) -us, m. (a German war-cry).
baro -onis, m. (a blockhead, simpleton).
barrus -i, m. (elephant).
bascauda -ae, f. (a basket).
basiatio -onis, f. (kissing, a kiss).
basiator -oris, m. (a kisser).
basilicus -a -um, (royal, kingly, princely). M. as subst., (the best cast of the dice); n. as, subst., (a royal robe); f. as subst., basilica -ae, (a
basilica, a building, with double colonnades, where merchants met and courts were held). Adv., basilice, (royally).
basio -are, (to kiss).
basis -is and -eos, f. (a pedestal, base); 'villae', (foundation-wall); 'trianguli', (base).
basium -i, n. (a kiss).
Bassareus -ei, m. (a name of Bacchus).
batillum (or vatillum) -i, n. (a chafing-dish or shovel).
battuo (batuo) -are, (to beat, knock).
baubor -ari, dep. (to bark gently).
beatitas -atis, f. (happiness, blessedness).
beatitudo -inis, f. (happiness, blessedness).
beatus -a -um, partic. from beo; q. v.
Belgae -arum, m. pl. (the Belgae, a warlike people in the north of Gaul).
bellaria -orum, n. pl. (dessert).
bellator -oris, m. (a warrior); as adj. (warlike, courageous).

bellatorius -a -um, (warlike).
bellatrix -icus, f. (a warrior); as adj. (warlike, courageous).
bellicosus -a -um, (warlike).
bellicus -a -um, (of war, warlike). N. as subst. bellicum -i, (the signal for march or, attack).
belliger -gera -gerum, (waging war, warlike).
belligero -are, (to wage war).
bellipotens -entis, (mighty in war).
bello -are and bellor -ari, dep. (to wage war, fight).
Bellona -ae, f. (the goddess of war).
bellua, = belua; q.v.
bellulus -a -um, (pretty, elegant).
bellum -i, n. (old form, duellum), (war, fighting); 'in bello', or loc., 'belli', (in, time of war).
bellus -a -um, colloq., (pretty, handsome); adv. belle.
belua -ae, f. (a beast, large animal); as a term of reproach, (monster, brute, beast).
beluosus -a -um, (full of monsters).
Belus -i, m. (a king, founder of Babylon). Hence f. pl. subst., Belides -um, (the, granddaughters of Belus, the Danaides).
bene, adv.; comp. melius; superl. optime; (well, rightly, properly); 'bene
rem gerere', (to succeed); with adj. or adv., (thoroughly, very); as an exclamation, (good, excellent); 'bene facis', (I am obliged to
you); 'bene facta' (or benefacta), (good deeds, benefits).
beneficentia -ae, f. (kindness).
beneficiarius -a -um, (of a favor); m. pl. as subst., (privileged soldiers).
beneficium -i, n. (a kindness, favor, service); in political life, (favor, distinction, promotion; also privilege, exemption).
beneficus -a -um, comp. -entior, superl. -entissimus, (kind, generous, obliging).
Beneventum -i, n. (a town in Samnium).
benevolens -entis, (well-wishing, obliging).
benevolentia -ae, f. (goodwill, kindness).
benevolus -a -um, (kind, obliging, well-disposed); adv. benevole.
benignitas -atis, f. (kindness, generosity).
benignus -a -um, (kind, friendly, generous); of things, (abundant, fruitful). Adv. benigne, (kindly, generously); colloq., 'benigne dicis',
(much obliged) (accepting or, refusing an offer).
beo -are, (to bless, enrich, make happy). Hence partic. beatus -a -um, (happy, blessed, prosperous; well off); n. as subst. (happiness).
Adv. beate, (happily).
beryllus -i, c. (a beryl).
bes bessis, m. (two-thirds).
bestia -ae, f. (an animal without reason, a brute, beast).
bestiarius -a -um, (belonging to animals); m. as subst., (one who fought with wild beasts at the, public shows).
bestiola -ae, f. (a small animal).
beta (1) -ae, f. (a vegetable, beet).
beta (2), n. indecl. (beta, the second letter of the Greek alphabet).
bibliopola -ae, m. (a book-seller).
bibliotheca -ae, and bibliothece -es, f. (a collection of books, library).
bibo bibere bibi bibitum, (to drink, drink in).
Bibracte -is, n. (a town in Gaul).
bibulus -a -um, (fond of drinking, thirsty); 'charta', (blotting paper).
biceps -cipitis, (two-headed).
bicolor -oris, (of two colors).
bicorniger -geri, m. (two-horned).
bicornis -e, (two-horned, two-pronged); 'luna', (the new moon); 'Rhenus', (with two, mouths).
bicorpor -oris, (having two bodies).
bidens -entis, (having two teeth). As subst.: m., (a hoe with two crooked teeth); f., (a, sheep).
bidental -alis, n. (a sacred enclosure).

biduum -i, n. (a space of two days); abl., biduo, (in the course of two days).
biennium -i, n. (a space of two years).
bifariam, (in two parts).
bifer -fera -ferum, of a tree, (bearing fruit twice a year).
bifidus -a -um, (split into two parts).
biforis -e, (having two doors or openings).
biformatus -a -um, (of double form).
biformis -e, (of double form).
bifrons -frontis, (with double forehead or countenance).
bifurcus -a -um, (having two prongs or forks).
bigae -arum, f. pl. (and sing. biga -ae) (a pair of horses), or (a chariot drawn by a, pair).
bigatus -a -um, (stamped with the effigy of a pair of horses); m. as subst., (a silver coin so, marked).
biiugis -e and biiugus -a -um, (yoked two together); m. pl. as subst., (a pair of horses or a chariot drawn, by a pair).
bilibra -ae, f. (two pounds weight).
bilibris -e, (weighing or containing two pounds).
bilinguis -e, (having two tongues, or speaking two languages); hence (double-tongued, treacherous).
bilis -is, f. (gall, bile, anger, displeasure); 'atra (or nigra) bilis', (black bile), i.e. (melancholy, madness).
bilix -icis, (having a double thread).
bilustris -e, (lasting ten years).
bimaris -e, (lying on two seas).
bimaritus -i, m. (the husband of two wives).
bimatris -e, (having two mothers).
bimembris -e, (having two kinds of limbs); m. pl. as subst., (Centaurs).
bimestris -e, (lasting two months); 'porcus', (a pig two months old).
bimulus -a -um, (two years old).
bimus -a -um, (two years old or lasting two years).
bini -ae -a, (twofold). Hence (two apiece), sometimes simply (two); of things that match, (a pair); 'findi in bina', (to be cleft in twain);
'bis bina', (twice two).
binoctium -i, n. (a space of two nights).
binominis -e, (having two names).
bipalmis -e, (two palms or spans long or broad).
bipartitus or bipertitus -a -um, (divided in two); abl. as adv., bipartito or bipertito, (in two parts, in two, ways).
bipatens -entis, (doubly open, open in two directions).
bipedalis -e, (two feet long, broad, thick or high).
bipennifer -fera -ferum, (armed with a two-edged axe).
bipennis -e, (having two wings or edges); f. as subst., (a double-edged axe).
bipes -edis, (having two feet); as subst. (biped).
biremis -e, (two-oared); f. as subst., (a boat with two oars or a ship with two banks of, oars).
bis, (twice, two times).
Bistones -um, m. (a Thracian people); adj. Bistonius -a -um, (Bistonian or Thracian).
bisulcus -a -um, (split into two parts, forked).
Bithynia -ae, f. (a country in northwest Asia Minor).{2}
bito -ere, (to go).
bitumen -inis, n. (asphalt, bitumen).
bitumineus -a -um, (bituminous).
bivius -a -um, (having two ways or passages); n. as subst. bivium, (a place where two roads, meet).
blaesus -a -um, (lisping, indistinct).
blandimentum -i, n. (flattery, allurement).
blandior -iri, dep. (to flatter, caress, coax), with dat. Hence partic. blanditus -a -um, (charming).
blanditia -ae, f. (flattery, allurement, attraction, charm).
blandus -a -um, (flattering, caressing, alluring, tempting). Adv. blande and blanditer, (flatteringly).
blatero -are, (to chatter, babble).

blatta -ae, f. (a cockroach).
boarius and bovarius -a -um, (relating to cattle).
Boeoti -orum or -um, and Boeotii, m. pl. (the inhabitants of Boeotia, a district in Greece to the, west of Attica).
Boii -orum, m. pl. (a Celtic people of north Italy, Germany and Gaul).
boletus -i, m. (a mushroom).
bolus -i, m. (a throw); hence (the haul or catch) of a fishing net.
bombus -i, m. (a boom, deep hollow noise).
bombycinus -a -um, (silken).
bombyx -ycis, m. and f. (the silkworm, or silk).
bonitas -atis, f. (goodness, excellence); esp. (moral goodness, kindness, integrity).
bonus -a -um, compar. melior -ius; superl. optimus -a -um; (good); in gen., (good of its, kind); 'nummi boni', (genuine coin); 'bona
aetas',(youth); 'bona verba', (words of good omen); 'bona pars', (a good (considerable) proportion); in a, particular respect of tools,
workmen, etc. (useful, efficient); morally, (good, virtuous, honest, kind); polit., (patriotic, loyal). N. as subst. bonum, -i, (good); in
gen., (profit, advantage); 'bonum publicum', (the common weal);, 'cui bono fuisset', (for whose advantage); materially, usually pl.,
(goods, property); morally, (the good); 'summum bonum', (the supreme good).
boo -are, (to shout, roar, echo).
Bootes -ae, m. (a constellation in the northern hemisphere).
Boreas -ae, m. (the north wind); meton., (the north). Adj. Boreus -a -um, (northern).
bos bovis, c. (1) (ox, bullock, cow); 'bos Lucas', (elephant). (2) (a kind of flat, fish).
Bosporus (Bosphorus) -i, m. (name of various straits, esp. those between Thrace and Asia Minor).
botulus -i, m. (a sausage).
bovile, = bubile; q.v.
Bovillae -arum, f. pl. (a town in Latium).
bovillus -a -um, (relating to oxen).
brabeuta -ae, m. (a judge, umpire).
bracae (braccae) -arum, f. pl. (breeches, trousers).
bracatus (braccatus) -a -um, (wearing breeches); 'Gallia Bracata', (Gaul on the north side of the Alps).
bracchium -i, n. (the forearm, arm from elbow to wrist; any limb of a living creature; any, other thing like an arm, e.g. branch, spur,
yard, outwork of a fortification, mole).
bractea (brattea) -ae, f. (a thin plate of metal; gold leaf).
brassica -ae, f. (cabbage).
breviarium -i, n. (a summary, epitome).
breviloquens -entis, (brief in speech).
breviloquentia -ae, f. (brevity of speech).
brevis -e, (short), in space or time; of water, (shallow); of living things, conditions, etc., (short-lived); of style, (concise); n. abl. brevi,
(shortly, soon, briefly); n. pl. as subst. brevia -ium, (shallows, shoals). Adv. breviter, (shortly, briefly).
brevitas -atis, f. (shortness), in space or time; of style, (brevity, conciseness).
Briareus -ei, m. (a giant with a hundred arms).
Britanni -orum, m. pl. (the Britons); Britannia -ae, f. (Britain); adj. Britannicus -a -um, (British); m. sing. as (a title commemorating
success in Britain).
Bromius -i, m. (a surname of Bacchus).
bruma -ae, f. (the winter solstice); in gen., (winter, wintry cold).
brumalis -e, (relating to the shortest day); in gen., (wintry).
Brundisium -i, n. (a seaport in Calabria); adj. Brundisinus -a -um.
Brutti (Brutii, Brittii) -orum, m. (the inhabitants of the southern extremity of Italy).
brutus -a -um, (heavy, immoveable; dull, without feeling or reason).
Brutus -i, m. (a cognomen of the Roman gens Iunia).
bubile -is, n. (an ox-stall).
bubo -onis, m. (the owl).
bubulcus -i, m. (one who plows with oxen).

bubulus -a -um, (related to cows or oxen); f. as subst. (sc. caro), (beef).
bucca -ae, f. (the cheek), esp. when puffed out. Transf., (a declaimer, bawler; a, parasite; a mouthful).
buccina, buccinator, etc.; v. bucina, etc.
buccula -ae, f. (a small cheek); of a helmet, (beaver, visor).
bucerus and bucerius -a -um, (having ox's horns).
bucina -ae, f. (a crooked trumpet or horn).
bucinator -oris, m. (a trumpeter).
bucolica -orum, n. pl. (pastoral poems).
bucula -ae, f. (a heifer).
bufo -onis, m. (a toad).
bulbus -i, m. (an onion).
buleuterion -i, n. (the place of meeting of a Greek council).
bulla -ae, f. (a round swelling); in water, (a bubble); on furniture or equipment, (a, boss, stud); 'bulla aurea', (a golden ornament, an
bullatus -a -um, (1) (inflated, bombastic), or perhaps, (transitory). (2) (wearing the bulla), (q.v.).
bumastus -i, f. (a kind of vine).
buris -is, m. (the crooked hinder part of the plow).
bustuarius -a -um, (belonging to the place where corpses were burned).
bustum -i, n. (the place where corpses were burned and buried); hence (grave, sepulchre).
buxifer -fera -ferum, (producing the box tree).
buxus -i, f. and buxum -i, n. (the evergreen box tree; box wood; an article made of box, wood).
Byzantium -i, n. (Byzantium, a Greek city on the Bosporus).
caballus -i, m. (pack-horse, nag, hack).
cachinnatio -onis, f. (violent laughter).
cachinno (1) -are, (to laugh aloud).
cachinno (2) -onis, m. (jester, scoffer).
cachinnus -i, m. (loud laughter).
cacoethes -is, n. (an obstinate disease).
cacumen -inis, n. (the extreme point, top, tip, zenith).
cacumino -are, (to point, make pointed).
cadaver -eris, n. (dead body, carcass).
cadaverosus -a -um, (corpse-like).
Cadmus -i, m. (the founder of Thebes); adj. Cadmeus -a -um, (Theban).
cado cadere cecidi, (to fall, sink, drop); 'vela cadunt', (are furled); 'iuxta solem cadentem', (in the west); of living beings, often (to fall
in death, die); hence (to be, destroyed, to subside, sink, flag, fail); 'cadere animis', (to lose heart);, with in or sub, (to come under, be
subject to); with in, (to agree with, be, consistent with); of events, (to fall out, happen); of payments, (to fall, due).
caduceator -oris, m. (herald).
caduceus -i, m. and caduceum -i, n. (a herald's staff).
caducifer -fera -ferum, (bearing the staff) (of Mercury).
caducus -a -um, (1) (falling or fallen). (2) (inclined or ready to fall); esp. (destined to, die, devoted to death); in gen., (transitory, frail,
cadus -i, m. (jar or urn).
caecigenus -a -um, (born blind).
Caecilius -a -um, (name of a plebeian gens).
caecitas -atis, f. (blindness).
caeco -are, (to make blind or dark).
Caecubum -i, n. and Caecubus ager, (a marshy district in Latium, famous for its wine);, '(vinum) Caecubum', (Caecuban wine).
caecus -a -um, act., (blind, not seeing; intellectually or morally blind; uncertain, objectless); pass., (unseen, hidden, obscure, dark).
caedes -is, f. (cutting down, killing, slaughter). Transf., (persons slain; blood shed in, slaughter).
caedo caedere cecidi caesum, (1) (to cut). (2) (to beat, knock about). (3) (to kill, slay).
caelamen -inis, n. (bas-relief).

caelator -oris, m. (chaser, engraver, carver).
caelatura -ae, f. (the art of chasing or engraving; an engraving).
caelebs -libis, (unmarried, single) (of men); of trees, (to which no vine is trained).
caeles -itis, (heavenly); as subst., (a dweller in heaven, god).
caelestis -e, (belonging to heaven, coming from heaven); n. pl. as subst. (things in heaven, heavenly bodies). Transf., (belonging to
the gods, celestial, divine, superhuman); as subst., esp. plur., (the gods).
caelicola -ae, adj. (dwelling in heaven); as subst. (a god).
caelifer -fera -ferum, (bearing the heavens).
Caelius -a -um, (name of a Roman plebeian gens); 'Caelius mons', (a hill in Rome).
caelo -are, (to engrave or chase, to carve in bas-relief, to fashion).
caelum (1) -i, n. (the burin or engraving tool).
caelum (2) -i, n. (the heavens, sky, air, climate). Esp. (heaven) as the home of the gods;, fig., (heaven) as the height of joy, renown,
caementum -i, n. (rough stone from the quarry).
caenosus -a -um, (muddy).
caenum -i, n. (mud, dirt, filth).
caepa (cepa) -ae, f. and caepe (cepe) -is, n. (onion).
Caere, n. (a very old city of Etruria); adj. Caeres -itis and -etis.
caerimonia -ae, f. (holiness, sanctity; holy awe, reverence; religious usage, sacred, ceremony).
caeruleus (poet. also caerulus) -a -um, (blue, dark blue) esp. of the sea or sky.
Caesar -aris, m. (a Roman family name of the gens Iulia); esp. of C. Iulius Caesar, the, general and dictator, and later of all emperors.
caesaries -ei, f. (hair, a head of hair).
caesim, (with cutting); fig. of style, (in short sentences).
caesius -a -um, (bluish gray) (esp. of eyes).
caespes (cespes) -itis, m. (a turf, sod). Transf. (a hut or altar of turf).
caestus -us, m. (gauntlet for boxers).
caetra (cetra) -ae, f. (short Spanish shield).
caetratus -a -um, (armed with the 'caetra').
Caius, = Gaius; q.v.
Calabria -ae, f. (the peninsula at the southeast extremity of Italy); adj. and subst., Calaber -bra -brum, (Calabrian, a Calabrian).
calamister -tri, m. and calamistrum -tri, n. (a curling-iron for the hair). Transf., (excessive, ornament or flourish in style).
calamistratus -a -um, (curled with the curling-iron).
calamitas -atis, f. (loss, failure, misfortune, damage, a reverse).
calamitosus -a -um, act., (causing loss, destructive); pass., (suffering loss, miserable). Adv., calamitose, (disastrously).
calamus -i, m. (reed); hence (anything made of reed, e.g. a pen, a reed pipe, an arrow).
calathiscus -i, m. (a small wicker basket).
calathus -i, m. (a wicker basket); and of other containers, e.g. (a milk-pail, wine-bowl).
calator -oris, m. (attendant).
calcar -aris, n. (spur).
calceamentum -i, n. (covering for the foot).
calceo -are, (to shoe, provide with shoes).
calceus -i, m. (shoe).
calcitro -are, (to kick; to resist obstinately).
calco -are, (to tread, trample on).
calculus -i, m. (a little stone, pebble). Esp. (a piece used in the Roman game of draughts;, a voting pebble; a counter for reckoning);
hence (a calculation).
caldus, = calidus; q.v.
Caledonia -ae, f. (the highlands of Scotland); adj. Caledonius -a -um.
calefacio (calfacio) -facere -feci -factum, pass. calefio, etc., (to make warm, heat; to disturb, excite).
calefacto -are, (to make warm, heat).

Calendae, = Kalendae; q.v.
caleo -ere -ui, (to be warm, to glow); of feeling, etc. (to be inflamed, aroused, excited).
calesco -ere, (to become warm, grow hot).
calidus (caldus) -a -um, (warm, hot; fiery, passionate). F. sing. as subst., calida (calda) -ae, (warm, water); n. sing. calidum -i, (warm
wine and water).
caliendrum -i, n. (a lady's wig).
caliga -ae, f. (a stout shoe or boot) (esp. a soldier's).
caligatus -a -um, (wearing heavy boots); m. as subst., (a private soldier).
caliginosus -a -um, (foggy, misty, dark).
caligo (1) -inis, f. (fog, mist, darkness). Transf., (mental darkness, dullness; calamity, affliction, gloom).
caligo (2) -are, transit., (to spread a dark mist around, to make dizzy); intransit., (to be, dark, misty).
Caligula -ae, m. (a little soldier's shoe; nickname given by the soldiers to the emperor, Gaius).
calix -icis, m. (a drinking or cooking vessel).
calleo -ere, (to be thick-skinned). Transf.: intransit., (to be practiced, experienced);, transit., (to know by experience, understand).
calliditas -atis, f. (expertness, cleverness).
callidus -a -um, (experienced, clever, dexterous, skillful); in bad sense, (cunning, subtle, sly). Adv. callide.
Calliope -es and Calliopea -ae, f. (Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry).
callis -is, m. or f. (narrow track, footpath, cattle track).
callosus -a -um, (hard-skinned, solid).
callum -i, n. (hard skin or flesh; toughness, insensibility).
calo (1) -are, (to call, summon).
calo (2) -onis, m. (a soldier's servant); in gen., (a drudge).
calor -oris, m. (warmth, heat, glow; passion, excitement).
Calpurnius -a -um, (name of a Roman plebeian gens).
caltha -ae, f. (a plant, prob. marigold).
calumnia -ae, f. (trick, artifice, chicanery, craft); at law, (a false accusation, or an, action for false accusation).
calumniator -oris, m. (a false accuser, pettifogger).
calumnior -ari, dep. (to accuse falsely, misrepresent); in gen., (to practice trickery).
calva -ae, f. (the bald scalp of the head).
calvities -ei, f. (baldness).
calvitium -i, n. (baldness).
calvus -a -um, (bald, without hair).
calx (1) -cis, f. (the heel).
calx (2) -cis, f. rarely m. (a stone, pebble); collectively,(lime, chalk); meton., (a goal, (marked with chalk), an end).
Calypso -us, f. (a nymph who entertained Ulysses).
camella -ae, f. (a goblet).
camelus -i, m. and f. (a camel or dromedary).
Camena -ae, f. usually pl., (Latin goddesses of poetry), identified with the Greek Muses.
camera (camara) -ae, f. (a vaulted chamber, vault; a flat covered boat).
Camillus -i, m. (cognomen of several members of the gens Furia).
caminus -i, m. (a forge, fireplace, fire).
cammarus -i, m. (a crustacean, perhaps crayfish).
Campania -ae, f. (a district of Central Italy).
campester -tris -tre, in gen., (on level ground, flat); esp. (relating to the Campus Martius and its, exercises and elections). M. sing. as
subst., (a loin-cloth worn by, wrestlers); n. pl. as subst., (a plain).
campus -i, m. (a level space, plain, field); esp. of (the Campus Martius at Rome, as a, place for various exercises, and for meetings of
the comitia). Transf., (any, free space, field, or theater of action; any level surface); poet., (the, sea).
Camulodunum -i, n. (a town in Britain) (now Colchester).
camur -a -um, (hooked, curved).
canalis -is, m. (waterpipe, channel, canal).

cancelli -orum, m. pl. (lattice, railing, grating). Transf., (bounds, limits).
cancer -cri, m. (crab; a sign of the Zodiac); meton., (the south, or summer heat; the, disease cancer).
candela -ae, f., (a wax or tallow candle, taper; a cord coated with wax).
candelabrum -i, n. (a candle-stick).
candeo -ere -ui, (to shine white, glitter or glow with heat).
candesco -ere -ui, (to begin to shine or glow).
candidatorius -a -um, (relating to a candidate).
candidatus -a -um, (clothed in white); as subst. (a candidate for office).
candidulus -a -um, (shining, dazzling).
candidus -a -um, (shining white); of persons, with the suggestion of beauty, (fair). Transf., of time or fortune, (happy); of writing,
(clear, lucid); of character, (honest, straightforward); of dress, (clothed in white); 'sententia candida', (a vote for acquittal). N. as
subst. candidum -i, (white color). Adv. candide, (in white; clearly, candidly).
candor -oris, m. (shining whiteness, luster); of character, (sincerity, candor); of writing, (clarity, simplicity).
caneo -ere -ui, (to be white or hoary).
canesco -ere, (to become white or hoary); hence (to become old).
canicula -ae, f. (little bitch) sometimes a term of abuse. Transf., (Dog-star, Sirius; the, worst throw at dice).
caninus -a -um, (of a dog, canine). Transf. (snarling, spiteful);'littera', (the letter R).
canis -is, f. (dog, hound); of persons, as a term of abuse; in dice, (the worst throw).
canistra -orum, n. pl. (baskets).
canities -ei, f. (whitish-gray color), esp. of the hair; meton., (gray hair, old age).
canna -ae, f. (reed). Transf., (a reed pipe; a small boat).
cannabis -is, f. and cannabum -i, n. (hemp).
Cannae -arum, f. pl. (town in Apulia, where Hannibal defeated the Romans (216 B.C.)). Adj., Cannensis -e.
cano canere cecini cantum, (to sing or play). Intransit. (to sing); of cocks, (to crow); of frogs, (to, croak); also (with abl.), (to play on an
instrument); 'canere receptui', (to, sound the signal for retreat); of instruments, (to sound). Transit.: (1) (to, sing with the voice).(2)
(to sing of, celebrate in song). (3) (to sound or, play an instrument). (4) (to prophesy).
canor -oris, m. (melody, song, sound).
canorus -a -um, (melodious, harmonious, sweet-sounding); n. as subst., (harmonious sound).
Cantabria -ae, f. (a region in northwest Spain).
cantamen -inis, n. (incantation).
cantharis -idis, f. (a beetle); esp. (the Spanish fly).
cantharus -i, m. (a tankard; a sea-fish, the black bream).
cantherius -i, m. (a gelding, nag).
canthus -i, m. (the tire of a wheel).
canticum -i, n. (a scene in Roman comedy, accompanied by music and dancing; a song;, sing-song delivery in an orator).
cantilena -ae, f. (an old song, twaddle, chatter).
cantio -onis, f. (a song; an incantation, enchantment).
cantito -are, (to sing or play often).
Cantium -i, n. (a district in Britain) (now Kent).
cantiuncula -ae, f. (a flattering song).
canto -are -avi -atum, (to sing or play). Intransit., of persons,(to sing); of cocks, (to crow); also, (to play on an instrument); of
instruments, (to sound). Transit. (1) (to, sing). (2) (to sing of, celebrate, continually mention). (3) (to predict).
cantor -oris, m. (a singer, poet, musician; an actor).
cantus -us, m. (song, melody, music, poetry; prophecy; incantation).
canus -a -um, (whitish-gray); hence (aged); m. pl. as subst.,(gray hair).
capacitas -atis, f. (breadth, capacity).
capax -acis, (able to hold, broad, wide, roomy). Transf., (receptive, able to grasp, capable, fit for).

capedo -inis, f. (a bowl used in sacrifices).
capella -ae, f. (a she-goat; a star in the constellation Auriga).
Capena -ae, f. (a town in Etruria;): adj. Capenus -a -um; 'porta Capena', (a gate in Rome, at the beginning of the Via Appia).
caper -pri, m. (he-goat).
capesso -ere -ivi and -ii -itum, (to seize, grasp eagerly): of places, (to strive to reach, to make for); of, business, etc., (to take up,
undertake); 'rempublicam', (to enter public, life).
capillatus -a -um, (hairy, having hair).
capillus -i, m. (a hair); usually pl., or collect. sing., (the hair of the head or beard).
capio capere cepi captum, (to take). (1) in gen., (to take, seize); of places, (to choose, reach, or, take possession of); of business,
opportunities, etc. (to take up, take in, hand, adopt); of persons, (to choose). (2) (to catch, take in a violent or, hostile manner);
hence (to attack, injure); pass. capi, (to be injured or, diseased); 'oculis et auribus captus', (blind and deaf); also (to charm, captivate,
take in); at law, (to convict). (3) (to receive), esp. of money; in, gen., (to suffer, undergo, take on). (4) (to take in, hold, contain, keep
in);, mentally, (to grasp, comprehend).
capis -idis, f. (a one-handled vessel).
capistro -are, (to fasten with a halter).
capistrum -i, n. (a halter).
capitalis -e, (relating to the head, or to life). Transf., (deadly, mortal; first, chief, distinguished). N. as subst. capital and capitale, (a
capital crime).
capito -onis, m. (a man with a large head).
Capitolium -i, n. (the temple of Jupiter at Rome, the Capitol); adj. Capitolinus -a -um; m., pl. as subst., (superintendents of games in
honor of Jupiter Capitolinus).
capitulum -i, n. (a little head).
Cappadocia -ae, f. (a district in Asia Minor).
capra -ae, f. (a she-goat); also (a star in the constellation Auriga).
caprea -ae, f. (a roe).
Capreae -arum, f. pl. (a small island off the Campanian coast) (now Capri).
capreolus -i, m. (a roebuck); in plur., (props, supports).
capricornus -i, m. (Capricorn, a sign of the Zodiac).
caprificus -i, f. (the wild fig tree, and its fruit).
caprigenus -a -um, (born of goats).
caprimulgus -i, m. (goat-milker — i.e. a countryman).
caprinus -a -um, (relating to a goat).
capripes -pedis, (goat-footed).
capsa -ae, f. (a box or case, esp. for books).
capsarius -i, m. (a slave who carried his young master's satchel).
capsula -ae, f. (a little chest).
captatio -onis, f. (an eager seizing); 'verborum', (quibbling).
captator -oris, m. (one who eagerly seizes); esp. (a legacy-hunter).
captio -onis, f. (1) (a cheat, deception). (2) (harm, loss). (3) (a fallacy, sophism).
captiosus -a -um, (deceitful; captious); n. pl. as subst. (sophistries). Adv. captiose.
captiuncula -ae, f. (fallacy, quibble).
captivitas -atis, f. (captivity, capture); collectively, (a number of captives).
captivus -a -um, (captured, taken) esp. in war. Transf., (of a prisoner). M. and f. as subst., (a prisoner, captive).
capto -are, (to seize, catch at); in gen., (to strive after, desire, seek).
captus -us, m. (catching, taking); hence (power or manner of comprehension, idea).
Capua -ae, f. (chief town of Campania).
capulus -i, m. (1) (a coffin). (2) (a handle);esp. (the hilt of a sword).
caput -itis, n. (the head); meton., (a living individual), esp. of human beings, (a, person); also (a person's life, existence); esp., in
Rome, (a man's political, and social rights). Transf., of lifeless things, (the top, summit, extremity);, of rivers, etc., (the source); of
persons and things, (the head, leader, chief, headquarters, chief point); of places, (the capital).

carbaseus -a -um, (made of canvas).
carbasus -i, f.: heteroclite pl. carbasa -orum, n.; (flax); meton., (anything made of flax, e.g. garments, curtains, sails).
carbo -onis, m. (burning or burnt wood).
carbonarius -i, m. (a charcoal burner).
carcer -eris, m. (prison, cell); in plur., carceres, (the starting-place of a race-course).
carchesium -i, n. (a goblet with handles). Transf., (the top of a mast, scuttle).
cardiacus -a -um, (pertaining to the stomach); m. as subst., (one who suffers from a disease of, the stomach).
cardo -inis, m. (a hinge; any pole or pivot): 'cardo duplex', (the ends of the earth's, axis; a cardinal point, main consideration).
carduus -i, m. (a thistle).
carectum -i, n. (a sedgy spot).
careo -ere -ui, (to be without) (with abl.); of a place, (to absent oneself from).
carex -icis, f. (rush, sedge).
caries, acc. -em, abl. -e, f. (rottenness, decay).
carina -ae, f. (the keel of a ship); meton., (a ship, vessel).
cariosus -a -um, (rotten, decayed).
caris -idis, f. (a kind of crab).
caritas -atis, f. (dearness, high price); esp. (high cost of living). Transf., (affection, love, esteem).
carmen -inis, n. (a song, tune), vocal or instrumental; (a poem, poetry, verse; a, prediction; an incantation; a religious or legal
Carmentis -is, and Carmenta -ae, f. (a prophetess, mother of Evander); adj. Carmentalis -e.
carnifex -ficis, m. (an executioner, hangman).
carnificina -ae, f. (the work of a hangman; execution, torture).
carnifico -are, (to behead, or mangle).
caro (1) -ere, (to card).
caro (2) carnis, f. (flesh).
carpentum -i, n. (a two-wheeled carriage).
carpo carpere carpsi carptum, (to pluck, pull off, select, choose out); and so (to enjoy); of animals, (to, graze). Transf., (to proceed on)
a journey; (to pass over) a place; (to carp, at, slander) a person; (to weaken, annoy, harass) an enemy; (to break up, separate, divide)
carptim, pieces, in small parts; in different places; at different times).
carptor -oris, m. (one who carves food).
carruca -ae, f. (a four-wheeled carriage).
carrus -us, m. (a four-wheeled baggage-wagon).
Carthago (Karthago) -inis, f. (1) (the city of Carthage in N. Africa). (2) (Carthago (Nova), a colony of, the Carthaginians in Spain) (now
Cartagena). Adj. Carthaginiensis -e.
caruncula -ae, f. (a small piece of flesh).
carus -a -um, adj. (high-priced, dear, costly). Transf. (dear, beloved).
casa -ae, f. (hut, cottage, cabin).
caseolus -i, m. (a little cheese).
caseus -i, m. (cheese).
casia -ae, f. (1) (a tree with an aromatic bark, like cinnamon). (2) (the sweet-smelling, mezereon).
Cassandra -ae, f. (a prophetess, daughter of Priam).
casses -ium, m. pl. (a net; a trap, snare); also (a spider's web).
cassida -ae, f.; = cassis; q.v.
Cassiope -es, f. (mother of Andromeda).
cassis -idis and cassida -ae, f. (a metal helmet).
Cassius -a -um, (the name of a Roman gens); adj. Cassianus -a -um.
cassus -a -um, (empty, hollow); with abl., (devoid of). Transf., (worthless, useless, vain);, 'in cassum' or incassum as adv., (in vain).
Castalia -ae, f. (a spring on Mount Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and the Muses).
castanea -ae, f. (a chestnut or chestnut tree).

castellanus -a -um, (relating to a fortress); m. pl. as subst., (the garrison of a fortress).
castellatim, (in single fortresses).
castellum -i, n. (a castle, fortress, fort; a shelter, refuge).
castigatio -onis, f. (punishment, reproof).
castigator -oris, m. (one who reproves or corrects).
castigo -are, (to reprove, chasten, punish; to check, restrain). Hence partic. castigatus -a, -um, (restrained, orderly, neat).
castimonia -ae, f. (purity).
castitas -atis, f. (chastity).
castor -oris, m. (the beaver).
Castor -oris, m. (twin brother of Pollux). Hence, ecastor and mecastor, (By Castor!).
castoreum -i, n. (an aromatic excretion obtained from the beaver).
castrensis -e, (pertaining to a camp).
castro -are, (to castrate, enervate, weaken).
castrum -i, n.: sing., (a castle, fort, fortress); plur. castra -orum, (a camp, encampment); 'aestiva', (summer quarters); 'hiberna', (winter
quarters)., Transf., (a day's march; martial service; a party, faction).
castus -a -um, (clean, pure, chaste); with reference to religion, (pious, religious, holy)., Adv. caste, (purely, piously, religiously).
casula -ae, f. (a little hut, cottage).
casus -us, m. (a falling, fall). Transf.: (1) (what befalls, an accident, event, occurrence). (2) (occasion, opportunity). (3) (destruction,
downfall, collapse); and, in gen., (end). (4) in grammar, (a case).
cataphractes -ae, m. (a breastplate of iron scales).
cataphractus -a -um, (mail-clad).
cataplus -i, m. (the arrival of a ship; a ship that is arriving).
catapulta -ae, f. (an engine of war, a catapult).
cataracta (catarracta) -ae, f. and cataractes -ae, m. (a waterfall; a sluice or floodgate; a portcullis).
catasta -ae, f. (a stage upon which slaves were exposed in the market).
cateia -ae, f. (a kind of spear).
catella (1) -ae, f. (a little dog, puppy).
catella (2) -ae, f. (a little chain).
catellus (1) -i, m. (a little dog, puppy).
catellus (2) -i, m. (a little chain).
catena -ae, f. (a chain, fetter). Transf.,(1) (restraint).(2) (a series).
catenatus -a -um, (chained, bound, linked together); 'labores', (continuous).
caterva -ae, f. (crowd, troop, flock).
catervatim, (in troops, in masses).
cathedra -ae, f. (a chair); esp. a soft one for ladies, or one occupied by a professor.
Catilina -ae, m. L. Sergius, (a Roman noble, killed at the head of a conspiracy in 62 B.C.)., Hence adj. Catilinarius -a -um.
catillus -i, m. (a small dish or plate).
catinus -i, m. (a deep dish or bowl).
Cato -onis, m. (a cognomen belonging to members of the gens Porcia); adj. Catonianus -a, -um; subst. Catonini -orum. (the party of M.
Porcius Cato Uticensis, the, younger Cato).
Catonium -i, n. (the lower world) (with a play on the word Cato).
Catullus -i, m. C. Valerius (c. 85-55 B.C.), (the Roman lyric and epigrammatic poet).
catulus -i, m. (a young animal), esp. (a whelp, puppy).
catus -a -um, (sharp, cunning); adv. cate.
cauda (coda) -ae, f. (the tail of an animal).
caudex, = codex; q.v.
Caudium -i, n. (an old city in Samnium, near the pass of the Caudine Forks). Adj. Caudinus, -a -um.
caulae -arum, f. pl. (a hole, opening; a sheep-fold).
caulis -is, m. (the stalk of a plant); esp. of a cabbage.
caupo -onis, m. (a small shopkeeper or inn-keeper).
caupona -ae, f. (a tavern, inn).

cauponor -ari, dep. (to trade).
cauponula -ae, f. (a little inn).
Caurus (Corus) -i, m. (the northwest wind).
causa (caussa) -ae, f. (a cause), in all senses of the English word. (1) (a reason, motive, pretext). (2) (interest); abl., causa, (on account
of, for the sake of), with, genit., mea, etc. (3) (a case at law, law-suit, claim, contention); 'causam, dicere', (to plead). (4) (situation,
condition, case).
causarius -a -um, (sickly, diseased); m. pl., milit., (men invalided out of the army).
causidicus -i, m. (an advocate, barrister) (often used contemptuously).
causor -ari, dep. (to give as a reason, or pretext; to plead, pretend).
causula -ae, f. (a little cause or case).
cautes -is, f. (a rough sharp rock).
cautio -onis, f. (caution, care, foresight, precaution); legal, (security, bail, bond).
cautor -oris, m. (one who is on his guard, or who gives bail for another).
cautus -a -um, partic. from caveo; q.v.
cavaedium -i, n. (an inner quadrangle).
cavea -ae, f. (a hollow place, cavity). Esp. (an enclosure, den, cage; the seats in a, theater).
caveo cavere cavi cautum, (to be on one's guard); with acc. (to be on one's guard against); 'cave, ignoscas', (take care not to forgive);
with ut and the subj., (to take care, that); with dat. of person, (to take care for, provide for). Commercial and, legal, (to give security
or to get security); also (to provide, order), in a, will, treaty or law. Hence partic. cautus -a -um: of persons, etc., (cautious, wary,
careful); of property, (made safe, secured). Adv. caute, cautim, (cautiously or with security).
caverna -ae, f. (a hollow place, cavern); 'navis', (the hold); 'caeli', (the vault of, heaven).
cavillatio -onis, f. (raillery, jesting, irony). Transf., (a quibbler).
cavillor -ari, dep. (to jest, joke, satirize). Transf., (to quibble).
cavo -are, (to hollow out, excavate, pierce).
cavum -i, n. and cavus -i, m. (a hollow, hole, cavity).
cavus -a -um, (hollow, concave).
ce, a demonstrative particle joined on to pronouns and adverbs — e.g. hisce.
Cecrops -opis, m. (the mythical first king of Athens); adj. Cecropius -a -um, (Cecropian, Athenian).
cedo (1) cedere cessi cessum, (to go, proceed): of things, (to turn out, happen; to fall to the lot of) a, person; (to change) into
something else; (to go away, withdraw, retire); with, dat., (to give ground to, submit to), hence (to be inferior to); transit., (to, grant,
cedo (2) and plur. cette, colloquial imperat., (give, hand over, out with it!).
cedrus -i, f. (the cedar); meton. (cedarwood or cedar oil).
celator -oris, m. (a concealer).
celeber -bris -bre, (filled, crowded); of places, (frequented); of occasions, (well attended); of, sayings, (often repeated); of persons
and things, (celebrated, famous, renowned).
celebratio -onis, f. (a numerous assembly or attendance).
celebrator -oris, m. (one who praises).
celebritas -atis, f. (a crowd, multitude, numerous attendance); of a festival, (celebration); in, gen., (fame, renown).
celebro -are, (to visit frequently, or in large numbers; to fill; to celebrate, solemnize;, to publish, make known; to sing the praise of,
to honor; to practice often, repeat, exercise). Hence partic. celebratus -a -um: of places, (much, frequented): of festivals, (kept
solemn, festive); in gen., (famous, celebrated).
celer -eris -ere, (swift, quick, rapid); in a bad sense, (hasty, rash). Adv. celere and, celeriter.
Celeres -um, m.(early name for Roman nobles, esp. the bodyguard of the kings)
celeripes -edis, (swift-footed).
celeritas -atis, f. (quickness, swiftness).
celero -are, transit., (to make quick, accelerate); intransit. (to hasten).
cella -ae, f. (a room); esp. (a storeroom, or a garret, mean apartment); in a temple, (the shrine of the god's image).
cellarius -a -um, (of a storeroom); as subst. (a cellarer).
celo -are, (to hide, conceal, keep secret).
celox -ocis, (swift, quick); f. as subst. (a swift vessel, yacht).

celsus -a -um, (upraised, lofty, elevated); in bad sense, (proud, haughty).
Celtae -arum, m. pl. (the Celts, esp. those of central Gaul). Adj. Celticus -a -um.
Celtiberi -orum, m. (the Celtiberians, a people in the middle of Spain).
cena -ae, f. (dinner, the main Roman meal); meton., (a dish or course at a dinner).
cenaculum -i, n. (a garret, attic).
cenatio -onis, f. (a dining-hall).
cenatorius -a -um, (relating to dinner); n. pl. as subst. (clothes to dine in).
cenito -are, (to dine often).
ceno -are, intransit. (to dine, sup); transit. (to dine on, to eat). Perf. partic. with, middle meaning, cenatus, (having dined, after
censeo censere censui censum, (to estimate, to form or express an opinion or valuation of a person or, thing); esp. of the censor at
Rome, (to take an account of the names and, property of Roman citizens). In gen., (to express an opinion, be of the, opinion, vote,
advise, recommend); of the senate, (to resolve).
censor -oris, m. (the censor, a Roman magistrate). Transf., (a severe judge, rigid, moralist).
censorius -a -um, (relating to the censor); 'homo', (an ex-censor); 'tabulae', (the censor's, lists). Transf., (rigid, severe).
censura -ae, f. (the censor's office, censorship). Transf., (judgement).
census -us, m.(the census, an enrolment of names and assessment of property). Transf., (the censor's list; the amount of property
necessary for enrolment in a, certain rank); in gen., (property, wealth).
centaureum and centaurium -i, n. (the plant centaury).
Centaurus -i, m., (a centaur, i.e. a monster of Thessaly, half man and half horse).
centeni -ae -a, (poet. also sing.), (a hundred together, a hundred each).
centesimus -a -um, (the hundredth). F. sing. as subst. (the hundredth part); hence (a tax of one, percent), or as interest on money,
(one percent), (reckoned at Rome by the, month, therefore = 12 % per annum).
centiceps -cipitis, (hundred-headed).
centies or centiens, (a hundred times).
centimanus -a -um, (hundred-handed).
cento -onis, m., (patchwork); in war, (coverings to ward off missiles or extinguish, fires).
centum, (a hundred); also (any indefinitely large number).
centumgeminus -a -um, (hundred-fold).
centumviralis -e, (relating to the centumviri).
centumviri or centum viri -orum, m. pl. (a bench of judges dealing with civil suits).
centunculus -i, m. (a little piece of patchwork or a saddle-cloth).
centuplex -icis, (a hundred-fold).
centuria -ae, f. (a division of 100; a company of soldiers; a century, a part of the Roman, people, as divided by Servius Tullius).
centuriatim, (by centuries or companies).
centuriatus -us, m. (a division into companies or centuries; the centurion's office).
centurio (1) -are, (to divide into centuries); 'comitia centuriata', (the assembly in which the, whole Roman people voted in their
centurio (2) -onis, m. (commander of a century, centurion).
centurionatus -us, m. (an election of centurions).
cenula -ae, f. (a little meal).
cenum, see caenum.
cera -ae, f. (wax; a waxen writing tablet, wax seal, or waxen image).
cerarium -i, n. (a fee for sealing a document).
cerastes -ae, m. (the horned snake).
cerasus -i, f. (a cherry tree or cherry).
Cerberus -i, m. (the dog guarding Hades).
cercopithecus -i, m. (a kind of ape).
cercurus -i, m. (a species of vessel peculiar to Cyprus; a sea-fish).
cerdo -onis, m. (a workman, artisan).
cerebrosus -a -um, (hot-tempered).

cerebrum -i, n. (the brain; the understanding; hot temper).
Ceres -eris, f. (the Roman goddess of agriculture). Transf., (bread, grain, corn). Adj., Cerealis -e; n. pl. as subst. (the festival of Ceres on
April 10).
cereus -a -um, (waxen, or resembling wax); m. as subst., (a wax taper).
cerintha -ae, f. (the wax flower).
cerinus -a -um, (wax-colored): n. pl. as subst. (wax-colored garments).
cerno cernere crevi cretum, (to separate, sift). Transf., (to distinguish), with the senses, or with the, mind; (to decide, resolve,
cernuus -a -um, (falling headlong).
cero -are, (to smear or cover with wax).
ceroma -atis, n. (an ointment of oil and wax used by wrestlers).
ceromaticus -a -um, (anointed with the ceroma).
cerritus -a -um, (frantic, mad).
certamen -inis, n. (contest, struggle).
certatim, adv. (emulously, eagerly).
certatio -onis, f. (contest, rivalry).
certe and certo, adv. from certus; q.v.
certo -are, (to settle by contest); hence (to contend, struggle, dispute).
certus -a -um, adj. (settled, resolved, decided), of projects and persons; (definite, certain, fixed; sure, to be depended on); of things
as known, (undoubted, sure); 'certum scio', (I know for certain); 'pro certo habeo', (I feel sure);, of persons knowing, (sure, certain);
'certiorem facere', (to inform). Adv., certe and certo, (certainly, assuredly).
cerula -ae, f. (a little piece of wax).
cerussa -ae, f. (white lead).
cerussatus -a -um, (painted with white lead).
cerva -ae, f. (hind); poet., (deer).
cervical -alis, n. (cushion, pillow).
cervicula -ae, f. (a little neck).
cervinus -a -um, (relating to a stag).
cervix -icis, f. (the nape of the neck, the neck); 'dare cervices', (to submit to the, executioner).
cervus -i, m. (stag, deer); pl., milit., (stakes stuck in the ground as a palisade).
cespes, see caespes.
cessatio -onis, f. (delaying, inactivity, laziness).
cessator -oris, m. (one who loiters).
cessio -onis, f. (a giving up, a cession).
cesso -are, (to leave off, cease work, be idle, rest); of things, (to be left alone, do, nothing); so of land, (lie fallow).
cestrosphendone -es, f. (engine for hurling stones).
cestus (1) and cestos -i, m. (a girdle).
cestus (2) -us, m.; see caestus.
cetarium -i, n. (a fish-pond).
cetarius -i, m. (a fishmonger).
ceteroqui or ceteroquin, (otherwise, else).
ceterus -a -um, (the other, the rest); usually plur., ceteri -ae -a; 'et cetera', (and so on)., Acc. n. sing. as adv. ceterum, (otherwise,
moreover, but).
Cethegus -i, m. C. Cornelius, (a conspirator with Catiline, put to death by Cicero in 63, B.C.).
cetra, see caetra.
cette, see cedo.
cetus -i, m. and cetos n.; plur. cete; (any large sea-creature, such as whale, seal, dolphin).
ceu, adv., (as, like as); sometimes (as if).
Chalcis -idis or -idos, f. (the chief city of Euboea).
Chaldaei -orum, m. pl. (the Chaldaeans, famous as astrologers).
chalybeius -a -um, (of steel).
chalybs -ybis, m. (steel); an article made of steel such as (a sword, a horse's bit, the tip, of an arrow).

chane or channe -es, f. (the sea perch).
Chaos, acc. Chaos, abl. Chao, n. (boundless empty space). Hence (the lower world);, personified, (Chaos, the father of Night and
Erebus; the shapeless mass out of, which the universe was made).
chara -ae, f. (an edible root).
Charites -um, f. pl. (the Graces, i.e. Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia).
Charon -ontis, m. (Charon, who ferried souls over the Styx).
charta -ae, f. (a leaf of Egyptian papyrus, paper; anything written on paper, a letter, poem, etc.).
chartula -ae, f. (a little paper, small piece of writing).
Charybdis -is, f. (a whirlpool opposite the rock Scylla).
Chatti (Catti) -orum, m. pl. (a Germanic people).
Chauci -orum, m. pl. (a Germanic people on the coast of the North Sea).
chelydrus -i, m. (an amphibious snake).
chelys, acc. -yn, f. (the tortoise);hence, (the lyre made out of its shell)
cheregra and chiregra -ae, f. (the gout in the hands).
Cherronesus and Chersoneus -i, f. (a peninsula); esp. (of Gallipoli or the Crimea).
chiliarches -ae, and chiliarchus -i, m. (a commander of 1,000 soldiers); among Persians, (chancellor, or prime minister).
Chimaera -ae, f. (a monster killed by Bellerophon).
chimaerifer -fera -ferum, (producing the Chimaera).
Chios or Chius -i, f. (an island in the Aegean Sea, famous for wine and marble).
chirographum -i, n. (an autograph, a person's own handwriting).
chironomos -i, and chironomon -ontis, m. (a gesticulator, a mime).
chirurgia -ae, f. (surgery).
chlamydatus -a -um, (dressed in a chlamys).
chlamys -ydis, f. (a large upper garment of wool).
choragium -i, n. (the training and production of a chorus).
choragus -i, m. (he who pays for a chorus).
choraules -ae, m. (a flute-player, accompanying the chorus).
chorda -ae, f. (cat-gut); usually as the (string) of a musical instrument.
chorea -ae, f. (a dance in a ring).
choreus and chorius -i, m. (the metrical foot afterwards called a trochee).
chorus -i, m. (dance in a circle, choral dance). Transf., (the persons singing and, dancing, the chorus); hence (a crowd, troop).
Christus -i, m. (Christ); Christianus -i, m. (a Christian).
chromis -is, c. (a sea-fish).
chrysanthus -i, m. (a flower, perhaps marigold).
chrysolithos -i, m. and f. (chrysolite, or topaz).
chrysophrys, acc. -yn, f. (a sea-fish).
cibarius -a -um, (relating to food); n. pl. as subst., (food, rations). Transf., (from the food, of slaves), (ordinary, common).
cibatus -us, m. (food, nourishment).
ciborium -i, n. (a large drinking vessel).
cibus -i, m. (food, fodder, nourishment, sustenance).
cicada -ae, f. (a cicada, or tree cricket).
cicatrix -icis, f. (a scar); on plants, (a mark of incision); also (a patch on an old shoe).
cicer -eris, n. (a chick-pea).
Cicero -onis, M. Tullius, (Roman statesman, orator, and writer (106-43 B.C)); adj., Ciceronianus -a -um.
cichoreum -i, n. (succory or endive).
ciconia -ae, f. (a stork).
cicur -uris, (tame).
cicuta -ae, f. (hemlock; poison extracted from the hemlock; a shepherd's pipe, made of, hemlock stalk).
cieo ciere civi citum, (to move, stir, agitate). Transf., (to give rise to, excite, arouse; to, summon; to call by name). Hence partic.
citus -a -um, (quick, speedy). Adv., cito, (quickly); 'citius quam', (sooner

than, rather than).
Cilicia -ae, f. (a region in Asia Minor).
Cimber -bri, m.; usually pl. Cimbri, (the Cimbrians, a German tribe); adj. Cimbricus -a, -um.
cimex -icis, m. (a bug).
Cimmerii -orum, m. pl. (1) (a Thracian people, living on the Dnieper). (2) (a mythical people, living in eternal darkness).
cinaedus -i, m. (a wanton or shameless person).
cincinnatus -a -um, (having curled hair).
Cincinnatus -i, m. (a cognomen of the gens Quinctia).
cincinnus -i, m. (curled hair, a lock of hair). Transf., (artificial rhetorical ornament).
Cincius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
cinctura -ae, f. (a girdle).
cinctus -us, m. (a girding, a way of wearing the toga). Transf. (a girdle).
cinctutus -a -um, (girded).
cinefactus -a -um, (turned to ashes).
cinerarius -i, m. (an attendant who heated in hot ashes the irons for curling the hair).
cingo cingere cinxi cinctum, (to surround or equip the head or body); pass., cingi, (to gird oneself); in, gen., (to surround); esp. (to
surround) with hostile intent, or for, protection; of persons, (to escort, accompany).
cingula -ae, f. (a girdle).
cingulum -i, n. (a girdle, sword-belt).
cingulus -i, m. (a girdle of the earth, zone).
ciniflo -onis, m.; = cinerarius.
cinis -eris, m. rarely f. (ashes).
Cinna -ae, m. (a Roman cognomen), esp. of L. Cornelius Cinna, (supporter of Marius, noted, for his cruelty). Adj. Cinnanus -a -um.
cinnamomum or cinnamum -i, n. (cinnamon).
cippus -i, m. (a pale, stake); esp. (a tombstone); plur., milit., (palisades).
circa, Adv., (around, round about). Prep. with acc.: of space, (around, near); of, persons, (around or with); of time or number, (about).
circamoerium -i, n.; = pomerium; q.v.
Circe -es and -ae, f. (an enchantress, daughter of the Sun); adj. Circaeus -a -um.
Circeii -orum, m. pl. (a town in Latium).
circensis -e, (belonging to the circus); m. pl. as subst. (sc. ludi), (the circus games).
circino -are, (to form into a circle); hence (to fly round).
circinus -i, m. (a pair of compasses).
circiter, adv., and prep. with acc., (about).
circlus, = circulus; q.v.
circueo, see circumeo.
circuitio and circumitio -onis, f. (a going round, patrol). Transf., (a roundabout way of speaking).
circuitus -us, m. (a going round in a circle, circuit). Hence (a roundabout way, circuitous, course); also (compass, circumference,
extent); rhet., (a period).
circulor -ari, dep. (to gather in groups, or collect a group around oneself).
circulus (circlus) -i, m. (a circle, circular figure, circuit; any circular body; a circle or group, for conversation).
circum, Adv. (roundabout, around). Prep. with acc. (round, around, round about, near).
circumago -agere -egi -actum, (1) (to turn round); esp. in the ceremonial manumission of a slave; of time, circumagi or circumagere
se, (to pass away, be spent); of the feelings, (to, influence, bring round). (2) (to drive about from one place to another; to, distract).
circumaro -are, (to plow round).
circumcaesura -ae, f. (the external outline of a body).
circumcido -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to cut round, to cut, trim). Transf., (to make less by cutting, diminish)., Hence partic. circumcisus -a -
um, of places,(abrupt, steep,inaccessible); of, style, (abridged, brief).
circumcirca, (all round about).

circumcludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, (to shut in, enclose, surround).
circumcolo -ere, (to dwell around, dwell near).
circumcurso -are, (to run round).
circumdo -dare -dedi -datum, (surround). (1) (to put something round), with acc. of the thing placed, and, dat. of that round which it
is placed. (2) (to surround with something), with, acc. and abl. (rarely double acc.).
circumduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (to lead round, move or drive round). Transf., (to cheat; to extend, amplify).
circumeo (circueo) -ire -ii or -ivi -itum, (to go round); milit., (to surround; to go the rounds of, to visit); hence (to, canvass or solicit).
Transf., (to cheat, circumvent).
circumequito -are, (to ride round).
circumfero -ferre -tuli -latum, (to carry round, take round); esp. of the eyes, (to turn all round); in, religion, (to lustrate, purify), by
carrying round consecrated objects., Transf., (to spread), esp.(to spread news).
circumflecto -flectere -flexi -flexum, (to bend round, turn about).
circumflo -are, (to blow round).
circumfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, (to flow round). Transf., (to overflow,
abound, with abl., (to abound in).
circumfluus -a -um, act., (flowing round, circumfluent); pass., (flowed round, surrounded by, water).
circumforaneus -a -um, (1) (round the forum); 'aes', (money borrowed from bankers). (2) (attending at, markets).
circumfundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, (1) (to pour around); in pass., or with reflexive, (to be poured round = to, surround). (2) act., (to
surround, encompass), and pass., (to be surrounded);, usually with instrumental abl.
circumgemo -ere, (to growl round).
circumgesto -are, (to carry round).
circumgredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to go round, travel round).
circumiaceo -ere, (to lie round about, adjoin).
circumicio -icere -ieci -iectum, (1) (to throw round, put round). (2) (to surround) one thing with another., Hence partic. circumiectus
-a -um, (thrown round), so (surrounding, adjacent).
circumiectus -us, m. (a surrounding, enclosing).
circumitio, = circuitio; q.v.
circumligo -are, (1) (to bind round, bind to). (2) (to bind round) with something.
circumlino -linere -litum, (1) (to smear one thing over another). (2) (to besmear with, bedaub); hence, poet., (to cover).
circumluo -luere, (to wash round, flow round).
circumluvio -onis, f. (alluvial land).
circummitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to send round).
circummunio -ire, (to wall round, to shut in by lines of circumvallation).
circummunitio -onis, f. (circumvallation).
circumpadanus -a -um, (near the river Po).
circumplector -plecti -plexus, dep. (to embrace, enclose, surround).
circumplico -are, (to fold round, wind round).
circumpono -ponere -posui -positum, (to place or put round).
circumretio -ire, (to enclose in a net, ensnare).
circumrodo -rodere -rosi, (to gnaw round). Transf., (to slander).
circumsaepio -saepire -saeptum, (to hedge round, enclose).
circumscindo -ere, (to tear off, round; to strip).
circumscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, (to describe a circle round, to enclose in a circular line). Transf., (1) (to, confine, define,
limit, restrict). (2) (to set aside, exclude). (3) (to take, in, ensnare, defraud); 'vectigalia', (to embezzle). Hence partic., circumscriptus -
a -um, as rhet. t.t. (rounded, periodic); also (concise). Adv., circumscripte, (in rhetorical periods, fully).
circumscriptio -onis, f. (an encircling); hence (circumference). Transf., (1) (outline, boundary, limit); in rhetoric, (a period). (2)
(swindling, defrauding).
circumscriptor -oris, m. (a cheat, swindler).

circumseco -secare -sectum, (to cut round).
circumsedeo -sedere -sedi -sessum, (to sit round); esp. (to besiege, beleaguer).
circumsessio -onis, f. (encircling, beleaguering).
circumsido -ere, (to besiege).
circumsilio -ire, (to leap or jump round).
circumsisto -sistere -steti or -stiti, (to stand round, surround).
circumsono -sonare -sonui, transit., (to sound all around or to make to resound); intransit., (to, resound, to echo).
circumsonus -a -um, (sounding all around).
circumspectio -onis, f. (looking about, circumspection, caution).
circumspecto -are, intransit., (to look round repeatedly); transit., (to look round at or for).
circumspectus (1) -a -um, see circumspicio.
circumspectus (2) -us, m. (looking round at); hence(attention to; prospect, view all round).
circumspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, intransit., (to look round, esp. anxiously); hence (to consider); transit., (to look round at,
survey); hence (to consider carefully); also (to look about, for, seek for). Hence partic. circumspectus -a -um: pass., of things,
(deliberate, well considered); act., of persons, (circumspect, cautious).
circumsto -stare -steti, intransit., (to stand round or in a circle); partic. as subst., circumstantes, (the bystanders); transit., (to
surround, beleaguer).
circumstrepo -ere, (to make a loud noise around).
circumsurgens -entis, (rising round).
circumtero -terere, (to rub against on all sides).
circumtextus -a -um, (woven all round).
circumtono -tonare -tonui, (to thunder round).
circumtonsus -a -um, (shorn all round); of discourse, (artificial)
circumvado -vadere -vasi, (to attack from every side, to surround).
circumvagus -a -um, (wandering round, flowing round).
circumvallo -are, (to blockade, beleaguer).
circumvectio -onis, f. (a carrying round of merchandise): 'portorium circumvectionis', (transit, dues); in gen., (circuit, revolution).
circumvector -ari, (to ride, or sail round); poet., (to go through, describe).
circumvehor -vehi -vectus, (to ride or sail round); poet., (to describe).
circumvelo -are, (to veil round, envelop).
circumvenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come round, surround, encircle). Transf., (to beset, assail; to cheat, defraud).
circumvertor (-vortor) -verti, (to turn oneself round).
circumvestio -ire, (to clothe all round).
circumvolito -are, (to fly round, rove about).
circumvolo -are, (to fly round).
circumvolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, (to roll round); usually pass., (to revolve).
circus -i, m. (a ring, circle, orbit); 'candens', (the milky way); also (an oval course, for races).
ciris -is, f. (a bird, into which Scylla was transformed).
cirratus -a -um, (curly-haired).
Cirrha -ae, f. (a city near Delphi, sacred to Apollo); adj. Cirrhaeus -a -um.
cirrus -i, m. (a lock, or ringlet of hair; the fringe of a garment).
cis, prep. with acc., (on this side of, within).
Cisalpinus -a -um, (on this (the Roman) side of the Alps).
cisium -i, n. (a light two-wheeled vehicle).
Cisrhenanus -a -um, (on this (the Roman) side of the Rhine).
cista -ae, f. (a chest, box).
cistella -ae, f. (a little chest or box).
cisterna -ae, f. (reservoir, cistern).
cistophorus -i, m. (an Asiatic coin).
cistula -ae, f. (a little chest or box).

citatus -a -um, partic. from cito (2); q.v.
citer -tra -trum, (on this side); usually compar. citerior -us, genit. -oris, (on this side, nearer); superl. citimus -a -um, (nearest).
cithara -ae, f. (a stringed instrument, lyre, lute).
citharista -ae, m. (a player on the cithara).
citharistria -ae, f. (a female player on the cithara).
citharizo -are, (to play the cithara).
citharoedus -i, m. (one who plays the cithara, with voice accompanying).
cito (1), adv. from cieo; q.v.
cito (2) -are (1) (to put in motion, excite, start up). (2) (to summon, call forward), esp. for legal, political or, military purposes; hence
(to appeal to, point to) authorities, etc. Hence, partic. citatus -a -um, (quick, speedy): 'citato equo', (at full gallop). Adv., citatim.
citra (abl. f. from citer), Adv. (on this side, nearer). Prep. with acc., (on this side, nearer than); of, time, (since); hence, in gen., (short
of, without).
citreus -a -um, (belonging to the citrus tree or citron tree).
citro, adv. found only with ultro: 'ultro (et) citro', (up and down, hither and, thither).
citrus -i, m. (1) (the citrus, a kind of African cypress). (2) (the citron tree).
citus -a -um, partic. from cieo; q.v.
civicus -a -um, (relating to a citizen, civic); 'civica (corona)', (the civic crown, awarded, to one who had saved the life of a Roman in
civilis -e, (relating to a citizen, civic, civil); esp. 'ius civile', (the Roman civil law, or civil rights; befitting a citizen); hence, (popular,
affable, courteous;, relating to public life or the state). Adv. civiliter, (like a citizen, politely).
civilitas -atis, f. (1) (the science of politics). (2) (politeness, civility).
civis -is, c. (citizen); also (a fellow citizen);under a king, (subject).
civitas -atis, f.: abstr., (citizenship); concr., (a union of citizens, state, commonwealth;, the inhabitants of a city, townsfolk; (rarely) a
city, town).
clades -is, f. (destruction); in gen., (disaster, injury, defeat).
clam, Adv., (secretly, in secret); 'esse', (to remain unknown). Prep. with acc. or, abl., (unknown to, without the knowledge of).
clamator -oris, m. (a shouter, speaker).
clamito -are, (to cry aloud, shout violently).
clamo -are, (to call, shout, cry aloud); with object, (to call to or upon) a person, (to, shout) something; sometimes (to proclaim,
clamor -oris, m. (a loud shouting, cry); poet., of lifeless things, (echo, reverberation).
clamosus -a -um, act., (noisy, clamorous); pass., (filled with noise).
clanculum, Adv. (secretly, in secret). Prep. with acc. (unknown to).
clandestinus -a -um, (secret, clandestine); Adv. clandestino.
clangor -oris, m. (sound, clang, noise).
clareo -ere, (to be bright, to shine). Transf., (to be evident; to be distinguished).
claresco clarescere clarui, (to become clear to the senses). Transf., (to become evident; to become, illustrious).
clarigo -are, (to demand satisfaction), used of the Fetials.
clarisonus -a -um, (clearly sounding).
claritas -atis, f. (clearness, brightness). Transf., (clearness to the mind, plainness; fame, celebrity).
claritudo -inis, f. (clearness, brilliancy). Transf. (fame, celebrity).
claro -are, (to make bright or clear). Transf., (to make plain to the mind; to make, illustrious).
clarus -a -um, (bright, clear, distinct); poet., of the wind, (making clear, bringing fair, weather). Transf., to the understanding, (clear,
evident, plain); of, reputation, (illustrious, distinguished); in bad sense, (notorious). Hence, adj. clare, (clearly, brightly, distinctly;
classiarius -a -um, (of the fleet); m. pl. as subst., (marines).
classicus -a -um, (1) (relating to the different classes of Roman citizens). (2) (relating to, the armed forces, esp. to the fleet): m. pl. as
subst., (marines): n. sing. as, subst., (the signal for battle or the trumpet giving this).

classis -is, f. (a group as summoned, a division, class). (1) (one of the classes into, which Servius Tullius divided the Roman people). (2)
(the armed forces, esp., the fleet). (3) in gen., (a class, group).
clatri -orum, m. pl. (trellis, grating).
claudeo -ere and claudo -ere, (to limp, halt, be lame).
claudicatio -onis, f. (a limping).
claudico -are, (to limp, be lame). Transf., (to incline, be deflected; to halt, waver).
Claudius (Clodius) -a -um, (the name of two Roman gentes); esp. (of the emperor Claudius (10 B.C.-A.D., 54)). Adj. Claudianus -a -um,
Claudialis -e.
claudo (1) (cludo) claudere clausi clausum, (to close, shut up, make inaccessible); of military positions, (to blockade, invest); of
prisoners, etc., (to shut in, confine). Transf., (to conclude);, 'agmen', (to bring up the rear). Hence partic. clausus -a -um, of character,
(close, reserved); n. as subst., (an enclosed place).
claudo (2), = claudeo; q.v.
claudus -a -um, (limping, lame). Transf., (crippled, defective); poet., 'carmina alterno, versu', (elegiac verse).
claustrum -i, n. (a means of closing or shutting in; bolt, bar; an enclosure, prison, den; a, barricade, dam, fortress); milit., (the key to
a position).
clausula -ae, f. (end, conclusion); in rhetoric, (the close of a period).
clava -ae, f. (a staff or cudgel).
clavarium -i, n. (an allowance to soldiers for buying shoe-nails).
clavicula -ae, f. (the tendril by which the vine clings to its prop).
claviger (1) -geri, m. (the club-bearer), of Hercules.
claviger (2) -geri, m. (the key-bearer), of Janus.
clavis -is, f. (a key): 'claves adimere uxori', (to separate from one's wife). Transf., (a, stick for trundling a hoop).
clavus -i, m. (1) (a nail, spike). (2) (a tiller, helm, rudder). (3) (a stripe of purple, on a tunic, worn broad by senators, narrow by
clemens -entis, (mild, kind, merciful); adv. clementer, (gently).
clementia -ae, f. (mildness, gentleness, mercy).
Cleopatra -ae, f. (the queen of Egypt and mistress of Antony, defeated with him at Actium).
clepo clepere clepsi cleptum, (to steal); 'se', (to conceal oneself).
clepsydra -ae, f. (a water clock), esp. as used to measure the time allotted to orators.
cliens -entis, m. (a client, dependent on a patronus (q.v.)); in gen., (a vassal or ally).
clienta -ae, f. (a female client).
clientela -ae, f. (clientship, the relation between client and patron); hence in gen., (dependence). Transf. (gen. pl.) (clients).
clinamen -inis, n. (inclination, swerving aside).
clinatus -a -um, (inclined, leaning).
Clio -us, f. (the Muse of history).
clipeatus -a -um, (armed with a shield); m. pl. as subst., (soldiers with shields).
clipeus -i, m. and clipeum -i, n. (a (round) shield). Transf., (the disk of the sun; a, medallion portrait).
clitellae -arum, f. pl. (a pack-saddle, pair of panniers, saddle-bag).
clivosus -a -um, (hilly, steep).
clivus -i, m. (a slope, rise, gradient).
cloaca -ae, f. (a sewer, drain).
Cloacina -ae, f. (the cleanser, surname of Venus).
Clodius, = Claudius; q.v.
Clotho, f. (the spinner, one of the Parcae).
clueo -ere, (I hear myself called, am named).
clunis -is, m. and f. (the buttocks).
Clusium -i, n. (a town of Etruria); adj. Clusinus -a -um,
Clytaemnestra -ae, f. (wife of Agamemnon who killed her husband, and was killed by her son, Orestes).
Cnidus (-os), or Gnidus (-os), -i, f. (a town in Caria, famous for the worship of Venus);, adj. Cnidius -a -um.

Cnossus, = Gnossus; q.v.
coacervatio -onis, f. (a heaping up).
coacervo -are, (to heap up, accumulate).
coacesco -acescere -acui, (to become sour).
coacto -are, (to compel).
coactor -oris, m. (a collector of money); 'coactores agminis', (the rear-guard).
coactu, abl. sing. m. (by force, under compulsion).
coactum -i, n. subst. from cogo; q.v.
coaedifico -are, (to build on).
coaequo -are, (to level, make even).
coagmentatio -onis, f. (a connection, binding together).
coagmento -are, (to join together); 'pacem', (to conclude).
coagmentum -i, n. (a joining, joint).
coagulum -i, n. (rennet or curds).
coalesco -alescere -alui -alitum, (to grow together; to take root, grow); hence (to become established or, firm).
coangusto -are, (to limit, confine).
coarcto, etc. = coarto, etc.; q.v.
coarguo -uere -ui, (to show clearly, demonstrate fully); esp. (to prove wrong or false).
coartatio -onis, f. (a confining in a small space).
coarto -are, (to confine, draw together); of discourse, (to compress); of time, (to, shorten).
coccinatus -a -um, (clad in scarlet).
coccinus -a -um, (scarlet-colored); n. pl. as subst., (scarlet clothes).
coccum -i, n. (the berry of the scarlet oak); hence (scarlet dye); sometimes (scarlet, cloth or garments).
coclea (cochlea) -ae, f. (a snail or snail-shell).
cocleare (cochleare) -is, n. (a spoon).
coclearium -i, n. (a spoon).
Cocles, (Roman cognomen, esp. of Horatius Cocles, the Roman who defended the bridge, over the Tiber against Porsenna).
coctilis -e, (baked); 'muri', (made of burnt brick).
Cocytus and -os, -i, m. (a river of the lower world).2
coda, see cauda.
codex (caudex) -dicis, m. (the trunk of a tree); as a term of abuse, (dolt, blockhead). Transf., (a, book (made up of wooden tablets,
covered with wax)); esp. (an account-book, ledger).
codicarius -a -um, (made of tree trunks).
codicilli -orum, m. (little trunks, logs). Transf., (small tablets for memoranda); hence (a, letter, petition, codicil, rescript).
coel-, see cael-.
coemo -emere -emi -emptum, (to buy up).
coemptio -onis, f. (a form of marriage; a fictitious sale of an estate).
coen-, see caen-.
coeo -ire -ii or -ivi -itum, (to go or come together, assemble); of enemies, (to engage); of friends, etc., (to unite, combine); transit.
'societatem coire', (to form an alliance); of, things, (to unite, come together); of blood, (to curdle); of water, (to, freeze).
coepio coepere coepi coeptum, (only the perfect-stem tenses are class.: see incipio), (to begin, commence)., N. of partic. as subst.
coeptum -i, (a thing begun or undertaken).
coepto -are, (to begin or undertake (eagerly)).
coeptus -us, m. (only in plur.), (a beginning).
coerceo -cere -cui -citum, (to enclose, shut in, confine, restrain); 'vitem', (to prune).
coercitio -onis, f. (confining, restraint); hence (punishment).
coeruleus, = caeruleus; q.v.
coetus (coitus) -us, m. (meeting together, union, assembly).
cogitatio -onis, f. (thinking, conception, reflection, reasoning); sometimes a particular, (thought, idea or intention).

cogito -are, (to turn over in the mind, to think, reflect); sometimes (to intend, plan)., Hence partic. cogitatus -a -um, (considered,
deliberate); n. pl. as subst., (thoughts, reflections, ideas). Adv. cogitate, (thoughtfully).
cognatio -onis, f. (relationship, connection by blood); meton. (persons related, kindred, family); in gen., (connection, agreement,
cognatus -a -um, (related, connected by blood); m. and f. as subst. (a relation either on the, father's or the mother's side). Transf.,
(akin, similar).
cognitio -onis, f. (getting to know, study, knowledge, acquaintance; recognition; legal, inquiry, investigation); in plur., (ideas).
cognitor -oris, m. (a knower); legal, (a witness or an attorney); in gen., (a supporter).
cognomen -inis, n. (a surname, family name).
cognomentum -i, n. (a surname, a name).
cognominatus -a -um, (of the same meaning); 'verba', (synonyms).
cognominis -e, (having the same name).
cognosco -gnoscere -gnovi -gnitum, (to become acquainted with, get to know, learn); in perf. tenses, (to know; to, know again,
recognize); of judges, (to examine, hear, decide). Hence partic., cognitus -a -um, (known, proved).
cogo cogere coegi coactum, (to bring, drive, or draw to one point, to collect; to bring close together, compress); of liquids, etc. (to
thicken, curdle); milit., 'agmen cogere', (to, bring up the rear). Transf., (to restrict, confine; to compel). Hence partic., coactus -a -um,
(constrained); n. as subst. (thick cloth, felt).
cohaerentia -ae, f. (coherence).
cohaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum: of a whole, (to cohere, hold together); of one thing (or person), (to cling, adhere, be, connected
to) another.
cohaeresco -haerescere -haesi, (to hang together).
coheres -edis, m. (a coheir).
cohibeo -ere -ui -itum, (to hold in, hold together); hence (to confine, restrain, hold back, repress).
cohonesto -are, (to do honor to).
cohorresco -horrescere -horrui, (to shudder or shiver).
cohors -tis, f. (an enclosure, yard). Transf., (a troop, company, throng); milit., (a, cohort, the tenth part of a legion); 'praetoria cohors',
(the retinue of the, governor of a province).
cohortatio -onis, f. (exhortation, encouragement).
cohortor -ari, dep. (to encourage, incite, exhort).
coitio -onis, f. (a coming together, meeting; a faction, coalition, conspiracy).
coitus -us, see coetus.
colaphus -i, m. (a cuff, box on the ear).
Colchis -idis, f. (Colchis, a country on the Black Sea); adj. Colchicus and Colchus -a -um;, f. adj. Colchis -idis.
coleus -i, see culleus.
coliphia (colyphia) -orum, n. (a food used by athletes).
colis, see caulis.
Collatia -ae, f. (a town in Latium); adj. Collatinus -a -um.
collinus -a -um, (hilly, relating to a hill); 'porta Collina', (a gate of Rome near the, Quirinal Hill).
collis -is, m. (hill, high ground).
collum -i, n. (collus -i, m.) (neck).
collybus -i, m. (exchange of money, or rate of exchange).
collyrium -i, n. (eye-salve).
colo colere colui cultum, (to cultivate, till, tend; to dwell in, inhabit) a place; in gen., (to take, care of, attend to, foster, honor,
worship, court). Hence cultus -a -um, (cultivated, tilled, planted); n. pl. as subst., (cultivated land). Transf., physically, (tidy, well-
dressed, smart); mentally, (refined). Adv. culte, (elegantly).
colocasia -orum, n. pl. (the Egyptian bean).
colona -ae, f. (a country-woman).
colonia -ae, f. (a farm, estate; a colony); meton., (colonists).

colonicus -a -um, (relating to agriculture or to a colony).
colonus -i, m. (a farmer, sometimes a tenant farmer; a colonist, inhabitant of a colony).
color (colos) -oris, m. (color, tint, hue); esp. (complexion); sometimes (beautiful complexion, beauty). Transf., (outward show,
external appearance; cast, character, tone;, an artful excuse).
coloro -are, (to color); partic. coloratus -a -um, (colored); of complexion, (tanned, dark).
colosseus -a -um, (colossal, gigantic).
colossicus -a -um, (colossal, gigantic).
colossus -i, m. (a colossus, statue larger than life); esp. that of Apollo at Rhodes.
coluber -bri, m. (serpent, snake).
colubra -ae, f. (female serpent).
colubrifer -fera -ferum, (snake-bearing, snaky-haired (of Medusa)).
colum -i, n. (colander, sieve, strainer).
columba -ae, f. (a pigeon, dove).
columbinus -a -um, (belonging to a pigeon).
columbus -i, m. (a male dove or pigeon).
columella -ae, f. (a little column).
columen -inis, n. (a height, summit, ridge); of buildings, (roof, gable). Transf., (chief, summit, crown; support, pillar).
columna -ae, f. (pillar, column); columnae,(pillars as signs of booksellers' shops in, Rome); 'columnae Herculis', (the pillars of
Hercules). Transf., (a support, pillar of the state; a water-spout).
columnarium -i, n. (a tax on pillars).
columnarius -i, m. (a rascal, thief).
colus -i and -us, f. or m., (a distaff).
coma -ae, f. (the hair of the head). Transf., (leaves; rays of light).
comans -antis, (hairy); 'galea', (crested); 'stella', (a comet).
comatus -a -um, (hairy); Gallia Comata, (a name for Transalpine Gaul); 'comata silva', (in, full leaf).
combibo (1) -bibere -bibi, (to drink in, suck up).
combibo (2) -onis, m. (a comrade in drinking).
comburo -urere -ussi -ustum, (to burn up); hence (to ruin or consume).
comedo -esse -edi -esum or -estum, (to eat up, consume); of property, (to waste, squander).
comes -itis, c. (a fellow-traveller); hence (a companion, comrade); sometimes (attendant);, in plur., comites, (retinue).
cometes -ae, m. (a comet).
comicus -a -um, (of comedy, comic); esp. (represented in comedy). M. as subst. (an actor in, comedy or writer of comedy). Adv.
comice, (in the manner of comedy).
cominus, = comminus; q.v.
comis -e, (courteous, kind, friendly, obliging); adv. comiter.
comissabundus -a -um, (revelling, rioting).
comissatio -onis, f. (a revel, riotous procession).
comissator -oris, m. (a reveller).
comissor -ari, dep. (to revel).
comitas -atis, f. (courtesy, friendliness, civility).
comitatus -us, m. (train, retinue, following).
comiter, adv. from comis; q.v.
comitia, see comitium.
comitialis -e, (relating to the comitia).
comitiatus -us, m. (the assembly of the people in the comitia).
comitium -i, n. (a place of assembly, esp. one in the forum at Rome); plur. comitia, (the, assembly of the Roman people for the
election of magistrates, etc.): hence, (elections).
comito -are, (to accompany);esp. as partic. comitatus -a -um,(accompanied).
comitor -ari, dep. (to attend, accompany, follow).
commaculo -are, (to pollute).
commanipularis -is, m. (a soldier belonging to the same company).
commeatus -us, m. (free passage, going and coming); milit., (leave of absence, furlough);, also (often pl.)

(supply of provisions, food, forage).
commeditor -ari, dep. (to practice, represent).
commemini -isse, (to remember fully).
commemorabilis -e, (worthy of mention, memorable).
commemoratio -onis, f. (reminding, mention).
commemoro -are, (to call to mind, recollect; to remind another, to mention, relate, recount).
commendabilis -e, (commendable, praiseworthy).
commendaticius -a -um, (giving recommendation).
commendatio -onis, f. (recommendation; that which recommends, excellence).
commendator -oris, m. (one that commends).
commendatrix -icis, f. (one that commends).
commendo -are, (to commit to the care or protection of anyone). Hence, in gen., (to commit;, to recommend; to set off, render
commensus, partic. of commetior; q.v.
commentariolum -i, n. (a short treatise).
commentarium -i, n. (a memorandum, notebook); as the title of a book, (a memoir) (usually, plur.); legal, (a brief).
commentarius -i, m. (a memorandum, notebook); as the title of a book, (a memoir) (usually, plur.); legal, (a brief).
commentatio -onis, f. (reflection, careful consideration; practice).
commenticius -a -um, (invented, fictitious).
commentor (1) -ari, dep. (to consider thoroughly; to practice, prepare; to invent, compose, write).
commentor (2) -oris, m. (an inventor).
commeo -are, (to go up and down, come and go).
commercium -i, n. (trade, commerce); meton. (the right to trade, or an article of traffic, merchandise, or a place of trade, depot).
Hence in gen., (intercourse, communication).
commercor -ari, dep. (to buy up).
commereo -ere (also commereor, dep.) (to deserve fully; to commit a fault).
commetior -metiri -mensus, dep. (to measure); sometimes (to measure one thing against another, compare).
commeto -are, (to go frequently).
commigro -are, (to move in a body, migrate).
commilitium -i, n. (companionship in war or military service); in gen., (fellowship).
commilito -onis, m. (a fellow-soldier).
comminatio -onis, f. (threatening, threat).
commingo -mingere -minxi -mictum, (to urinate on, defile).
comminiscor -minisci -mentus, dep. (to think out, contrive, invent). Perf. partic. in passive sense, commentus -a -um, (feigned,
invented); n. as subst. commentum -i, n. (fiction, invention, contrivance).
comminor -ari, dep. (to threaten).
comminuo -uere -ui -utum, (to make small, break up, diminish, weaken).
comminus, (hand to hand, esp. in close combat); in gen., (close up, close at hand).
commisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, (to mix together, mix up).
commiseratio -onis, f. (pity); rhet. (the exciting of pity).
commiseresco -ere, (to pity).
commiseror -ari, dep. (to pity, bewail); of a speaker, (to excite pity).
commissio -onis, f. (a setting together): hence (the start of games, contests, etc.).
commissura -ae, f. (a joining together, connection, joint).
committo -mittere -misi -missum, (1) (to unite, connect, combine); esp. (to bring together in a contest, to, match): hence (to
compare). (2) (to begin, set on foot, initiate): with ut and, the subj., (to bring it about that); esp. of crimes, etc., (to commit,
perpetrate), and of penalties, (to incur). (3) (to entrust, commit), esp. with, reflex. N. partic. as subst. commissum -i, (an undertaking;
a crime, fault; a, trust, secret).
commoditas -atis, f. (proportion, fitness); hence (a fit occasion), also (convenience, advantage); of persons, (kindness).
commodo -are, (to make fit, adapt); hence (to adapt oneself to a person; to please, oblige, serve); with

acc. (to furnish, lend, give).
commodus -a -um, (to measure, in full, complete); hence (proper, fit, appropriate); of persons, character, etc., (friendly, obliging,
pleasant). N. as subst. commodum -i, (suitable time, opportunity, convenience; use, advantage, interest;, remuneration; loan). N.
acc. as adv. commodum, (at the right time, opportunely; just then). Adv. commode, (rightly, properly, fitly; pleasantly, comfortably,
commolior -iri, dep. (to set in motion).
commonefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to remind, warn) a person, or (to call to mind) a thing.
commoneo -ere, (to remind, warn) a person, or (to call to mind) a thing.
commonstro -are, (to show fully).
commoratio -onis, f. (delaying, lingering).
commoror -ari, dep. (to linger, stay); transit., (to delay).
commotio -onis, f. (violent movement, excitement).
commoveo -movere -movi -motum, (to move violently, shake, disturb, carry about or away); 'nummum', (to employ, in commerce);
esp. of the mind or passions, (to excite, influence, upset); of, abstract things, (to start up, produce, cause). Hence partic. commotus -
a -um, (insecure, unsteady; excited, upset).
communicatio -onis, f. (communicating, imparting).
communico -are, (1) (to share out, give a share in); hence (to communicate, impart) a matter;, without object, (to take counsel,
confer with) a person. (2) (to join, unite)., (3) (to take a share in, participate).
communio (1) -ire, (to fortify thoroughly).
communio (2) -onis, f. (sharing, mutual participation).
communis -e, (shared, common, universal, public); 'loca', (public places); 'loci', (commonplaces); of persons, (approachable, affable).
N. as subst. commune, (common property), esp. in plur.; (state, commonwealth); 'in commune', (for, the public good), also (in
general). Adv. communiter, (jointly, generally).
communitas -atis, f.(community, fellowship; sense of fellowship, affability).
commurmuror -ari, dep. (to mutter, murmur).
commutabilis -e, (changeable).
commutatus -us, m. (change, alteration).
commuto -are, (to change, alter; to exchange, barter, interchange).
como comere compsi comptum, (to put together, make tidy, arrange, adorn); esp. of the hair. Hence partic., comptus -a -um,
(formed, framed; adorned, neat).
comoedia -ae, f. (comedy).
comoedus -a -um, (comic); m. as subst., (a comic actor).
comosus -a -um, (hairy); of plants, (leafy).
compactio -onis, f. (joining together).
compactum or compectum -i, n. (an agreement).
compages -is, f. (a joining together, connection): hence (something that joins, a joint, seam), or (something joined together, a
compago -inis, f. (a joining together).
compar -paris, as subst., (an equal, companion, mate); as adj. (like, similar).
comparabilis -e, (capable of comparison, comparable).
comparatio (1) -onis, f. (preparing, providing).
comparatio (2) -onis, f. (a putting together); hence (comparison).
comparativus -a -um, (relating to comparison, comparative).
comparco (comperco) -parcere -parsi or -persi, (to scrape together, save up).
compareo -parere -parui, (to appear, be visible; to be present, be in existence).
comparo (1) -are, (to prepare, get ready, provide); hence (to arrange, settle).
comparo (2) -are, (to couple together), esp. for a contest, (to match). Transf., (to liken, compare).
compasco -pascere -pastum, (to feed (cattle) together).
compascuus -a -um, (of common pasturage).
compellatio -onis, f. (accosting, rebuking).
compello (1) -pellere -puli -pulsum, (to drive together, collect; to force, compel).
compello (2) -are, (to address, accost); esp. (to reproach, rebuke); legal, (to accuse before a, court).
compendiarius -a -um, (short); f. and n. as subst., (a short cut).

compendium -i, n. (saving, profit, advantage; shortening, abbreviation); 'compendi facere', (to make short); in plur., (short ways, short
compensatio -onis, f. (balancing, compensation).
compenso -are, (to weigh together, balance).
comperco, = comparco; q.v.
comperendinatio -onis, f. (a putting off to the next day but one).
comperendinatus -us, m. (a putting off to the next day but one).
comperendino -are, (to remand to the next day but one).
comperio -perire -peri -pertum, (to find out, discover, gain certain information of). Esp. used in perf., partic. compertus -a -um (1)
(known, undoubted). (2) Of persons, (convicted).
compes -pedis, f. (a fetter or foot shackle).
compesco -pescere -pescui, (to hold in, restrain, curb, check).
competitor -oris, m. (a rival, competitor).
competo -petere -petivi and -petii -petitum, (to come together, to meet). (1) (to agree, coincide in point of time). (2), (to be equal
to, match); absol., (to be competent, capable).
compilatio -onis, f. (a pillaging); hence (a compilation of documents).
compilo -are, (to bundle together); hence (to pack up and take off, to plunder, rob).
compingo -pingere -pegi -pactum, (to put together, construct); (to confine, lock up, conceal). Hence partic., compactus -a -um,
(constructed, built); hence (firm, compact).
compitalicius -a -um, (relating to the Compitalia).
compitalis -e, (relating to or belonging to the crossroads); 'Lares', (the deities who, presided over crossroads). N. as subst. Compitalia
-ium and -orum, (the, festival in honor of these deities).
compitum -i, n. (a place where two roads meet, crossroads).
complaceo -cere -cui or -citus sum, (1) (to please several persons at once). (2) (to please exceedingly).
complano -are, (to level, raze).
complector -plecti -plexus, dep. (to embrace, surround, encompass). Transf., (to hold fast, master; to, attach oneself to, esteem); of
the mind, (to embrace, grasp, comprehend; to, unite in oneself, to include).
complementum -i, n. (a complement).
compleo -plere -plevi -pletum, (to fill up); milit., (to man, or to bring up to strength); of a sum, (to make, up); of fate, etc., (to fulfill);
of a task, (to finish). Hence partic., completus -a -um, (perfect, complete).
complexio -onis, f. (connection, combination); in rhetoric, (a summary or a period); in logic, (the statement of a syllogism or a
complexus -us, m. of persons, (embrace, grasp), either in love or in combat; of things, (compass or connection).
complico -are, (to fold together);'complicata notio',(confused, intricate).
comploratio -onis, f. (lamentation).
comploratus -us, m. (lamentation).
comploro -are, (to bewail, lament).
complures -ium, (several).
compluvium -i, n. (roofless space in the center of a Roman house).
compono -ponere -posui -positum, (1) (to put together); esp. of unlike persons or things, either (to match as, opponents), or (to
compare). (2) (to make up a whole, compose). (3) (to put in, place, arrange, settle); of enemies, (to reconcile). Hence partic.
compositus, -a -um, (constructed, put together; arranged in order, settled); hence, (adapted) to a purpose. Adv. composite, (in an
orderly way).
comporto -are, (to bring together, collect).
compos -potis, (having control of, possessed of, sharing in).
compositio -onis, f. (putting together); of opponents, (matching; composing, compounding;, orderly arrangement, settlement).
compositor -oris, m. (an arranger, adjuster).
compositura -ae, f. (connection, joining).
compositus -a -um, partic. from compono; q.v.
compotatio -onis, f. (drinking party).

compotor -oris, m. (a drinking companion).
compotrix -icis, f. (a drinking companion).
compransor -oris, m. (a dinner companion).
comprecatio -onis, f. (supplication).
comprecor -ari, dep. (to pray to or for, supplicate).
comprehendo -prehendere -prehendi -prehensum and comprendo -prendere -prendi, prensum, (to grasp; to take together, unite);
hence (to embrace, include; to take, firmly, seize); 'ignem', (to catch fire); often of persons, (to capture, arrest); of criminals, (to
catch red-handed). Transf., (to comprehend, perceive).
comprehensibilis -e, (comprehensible).
comprehensio -onis, f. (1) (a taking together, uniting); rhet., (a period). (2) (seizing, arrest)., Transf., (comprehending,
comprendo, = comprehendo; q.v.
compressio -onis, f. (an embrace; compression of style, conciseness).
compressu, abl. sing. m. (by pressing together; by embracing).
comprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, (to press together; to press tightly); hence (to embrace; to check, restrain, suppress). Hence
compar. adv. compressius, (more (or rather) concisely).
comprobatio -onis, f. (approval).
comprobator -oris, m. (one who approves).
comprobo -are, (1) (to approve fully). (2) (to confirm, prove, establish).
compromissum -i, n. (reference to arbitrator).
compromitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to agree to refer a cause to arbitration).
comptus (1) -a -um, partic. from como; q.v.
comptus (2) -us, m. (a head-dress; a band, tie).
compungo -pungere -punxi -punctum, (to prick, puncture); hence (to tattoo).
computo -are, (to reckon together, calculate, compute).
computresco -ere, (to rot, putrefy).
Comum -i, n. (a lake-side town in Cisalpine Gaul) (now Como).
conamen -minis, n. (effort, endeavor); concr., (a support).
conatum -i, n. (an undertaking).
conatus -us, m. (an exertion, effort); sometimes (impulse, inclination; an undertaking).
concaedes -ium, f. pl. (a barricade of trees).
concalefacio -facere -feci -factum, (pass. concalefio), (to warm thoroughly).
concalesco -calescere -calui, (to become thoroughly warm).
concallesco -callescere -callui, (to become thoroughly hard); hence (to become practiced or callous).
concavo -are, (to hollow out, make concave).
concavus -a -um, (hollow, vaulted, arched, concave); 'aqua', (swelling).
concedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, intransit., (to retire, withdraw); 'concedere vita', (to die); hence (to, yield, submit, give way to), with
dat.: 'concedere naturae', (to die a natural, death); transit., (to yield, grant, give up); of faults, (to pardon, overlook); of actions, (to
permit, allow).
concelebro -are, (to visit often, or in large companies; to pursue an occupation eagerly; to, celebrate a festivity); also (to praise,
extol) a person or thing.
concenatio -onis, f. (supping together).
concentio -onis, f. (singing together, harmony).
concentus -us, m. (singing together, harmony); hence (agreement, unity, concord).
conceptio -onis, f. (conception, becoming pregnant; drawing up of legal formulae).
conceptus -us, m. (conceiving, pregnancy; collecting, or a collection).
concerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum, (to tear to pieces).Transf.,(to abuse).
concertatio -onis, f. (contest, strife, dispute).
concertator -oris, m. (a rival).
concertatorius -a -um, (relating to a contest).
concerto -are, (to strive eagerly).
concessio -onis, f. (yielding, granting).
concessu, abl. sing. m. (by permission, with leave).

concha -ae, f. (a sea-shell); hence (a shell-fish, esp. mussel or pearl-oyster or the fish, yielding purple dye); poet., (a pearl or purple
dye). Transf., (a vessel like, a shell, e.g. a saltcellar or trumpet).
conchyliatus -a -um, (dyed with purple or dressed in purple).2
conchylium -i, n. (a shell-fish, esp. a mussel or oyster, or the shell-fish which yielded the, purple dye): meton. (purple dye or a
purple garment).2
concido (1) -cidere -cidi, (to fall down). Transf., (to sink, perish); of winds, (to subside); of, persons, (to be ruined, fail), esp. at law.
concido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to cut up, cut down, destroy). Transf., (to ruin, strike down). Hence partic., concisus -a -um, (cut up
small, brief, concise). Adv. concise.
concieo -ciere -civi -citum and concio -ire, (1) (to collect, bring together). (2) (to move violently, excite, arouse, stir, up).
conciliabulum -i, n. (a place of assembly).
conciliatio -onis, f. (a bringing together, uniting, conciliating, causing of good-will);, sometimes (inclination).
conciliator -oris, m. (one who brings about a result).
conciliatrix -icis, f. (she who unites); hence (a match-maker).
conciliatu, abl. sing. m., (by union, by connection).
concilio -are, (to bring together, unite, reconcile, win over); hence of results, (to bring, about, cause). Hence partic. conciliatus -a -
um, (won over, inclined, favorable).
concilium -i, n. (bringing together, connection, assembling, union); esp. (an assembly for, deliberation, a council).
concinnitas -atis, f. (elegance, harmony), esp. of style.
concinnitudo -inis, f. (elegance, harmony), esp. of style.
concinno -are, (to put together carefully, to arrange): hence (to produce, cause).
concinnus -a -um, (well put together); hence (pleasing, elegant, neat), esp. of style. Adv., concinne, (elegantly).
concino -cinere -cinui, intransit., (to sing in chorus, play together); hence (to agree in saying) and, in gen. (to agree); transit., of
songs, (to sing together); of festivals, (to, celebrate); of the future, (to prophesy).
concio (1), = concieo; q.v.
concio (2) -onis, = contio; q.v.
concipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, (1) (to take together, contain, hold); of ideas, (to express in a certain form, of words). (2) (to take
completely in, absorb); of fluids, (to suck in); of, fire, (to catch); of air, (to draw in); often also (to conceive). Transf., (to, take in, grasp
by the senses or intellect; to conceive, imagine); of passions, (to begin to feel); of action, (to devise), esp. in bad sense.
concisio -onis, f. (the breaking up of a clause into divisions).
concisus -a -um, partic. from concido (2); q.v.
concitatio -onis, f. (violent movement). Hence (tumult, sedition); also (disturbance of mind, passion).
concitator -oris, m. (one who stirs up).
concito -are, (to move violently, stir up, excite); 'equum calcaribus', (to spur to a, gallop); 'aciem', (to move forward the army). Hence
in gen., (to stir up, incite); of results, (to cause, produce). Hence partic. concitatus -a -um, (quick, rapid; excited, violent, passionate).
Adv. concitate, (excitedly).
concitor -oris, m. (one who stirs up).
conclamatio -onis, f. (loud or combined shouting).
conclamo -are, (1) (to shout together or loudly); with ut, (to demand loudly that); with acc., of a dead person, (to bewail). (2) (to call
conclave -is, n. (a room, chamber).
concludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, (to shut up, enclose, confine). Hence (to include, comprise; to bring to an, end); in logic, (to argue,
infer). Adv. from partic., concluse, (with well-, turned periods).
conclusio -onis, f. (a shutting, closing); milit. (a blockade). Transf., (a close, conclusion);, rhet., (the conclusion of a speech, peroration
or a period); in logic, (a, conclusion, consequence).
conclusiuncula -ae, f. (a foolish inference).
concolor -oris, (similar in color).
concoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, (to boil or cook thoroughly); hence (to digest). Transf., (to bear, endure,

stomach; to consider well, deliberate upon).
concordia -ae, f. (agreement, union, harmony).
concorditer, adv. from concors; q.v.
concordo -are, (to agree, be in harmony).
concors -dis, one mind or opinion, agreeing, harmonious).Adv. concorditer.
concrebresco -brescere -brui, (to increase).
concredo -credere -credidi -creditum, (to entrust, commit).
concremo -are, (to burn down, burn entirely).
concrepo -are -ui -itum, intransit., (to rattle, creak, clash); 'digitis concrepare', (to snap the, fingers); transit., (to rattle, strike upon).
concresco -crescere -crevi -cretum, (to grow, collect, be formed; to become stiff, congeal, harden). Hence perf., partic. concretus -a -
um, (compounded, congealed, stiff).
concretio -onis, f. (a growing together, congealing; matter).
concrucio -are, (to torture violently).
concubina -ae, f. (a concubine).
concubinus -i, m. (a man living with a concubine).
concubitus -us, m. (lying or reclining together); hence (copulation).
concubius -a -um, in the phrase 'concubia nocte', (at the time of first sleep, at dead of, night).
conculco -are, (to tread down, trample under foot).
concumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, (to lie or recline together (at table); to lie with, have intercourse with).
concupisco -piscere -pivi or -pii -pitum, (to desire eagerly, covet, aim at).
concurro -currere -curri (or -cucurri) -cursum, (to assemble hurriedly, flock to one spot; to rush together, clash); esp. (to, meet in
conflict, engage).
concursatio -onis, f. (running together, concourse); hence (coincidence); in gen., (running, about); milit., (skirmishing).
concursator -oris, m. (a skirmisher).
concursio -onis, f. (running together, concourse); rhet., (frequent repetition of a word).
concurso -are, (to run about, rush to and fro); milit., (to skirmish).
concursus -us, m. (running together, concourse, union; a rushing together, clashing; a, hostile encounter).
concussu, abl. sing. m. (by shaking, by concussion).
concutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, (to shake together, agitate, disturb).Hence, physically, (to shatter, impair);, of persons, (to shake the
clothes of), and so (to examine); mentally, (to, alarm, trouble, excite).
condecoro -are, (to adorn carefully).
condemnator -oris, m. (one who causes condemnation, an accuser).
condemno -are, (to condemn); of an accuser, (to urge or effect the condemnation of a person);, in gen., (to blame, disapprove).
condenseo -ere, (to make thick, press close together).
condenso -are, (to make thick, press close together).
condensus -a -um, (dense, thick).
condicio -onis, f. (an arrangement, agreement). Hence (1) (a condition, stipulation, provision; esp. conditions of marriage, marriage
contract). (2) (state, condition, place, circumstance).
condico -dicere -dixi -dictum, (to make arrangements, agree, fix, settle; esp. to agree to dine with a, person).
condignus -a -um, (very worthy); adv. condigne.
condimentum -i, n. (spice, seasoning, sauce, condiment).
condio -ire: of fruits, etc., (to pickle, preserve); of corpses, (to embalm); in gen., (to season, temper). Hence partic. conditus -a -um,
(seasoned, savory).
condiscipula -ae, f. (a schoolfellow).
condiscipulus -i, m. (a schoolfellow).
condisco -discere -didici, (to learn thoroughly).
conditio (1), = condicio; q.v.
conditio (2) -onis, f. (pickling or seasoning).

conditor -oris, m. (a founder); hence, in gen., (contriver, composer, author).
conditorium -i, n. (the place in which a corpse or its ashes are preserved).
condo -dere -didi -ditum, (1) (to build, found; form, establish); of literary work, (to compose, write), a poem, etc., and also (to write
of) a subject. (2) (to put up, put away, safely, store, to hide, withdraw); of corpses, (to bury); of time, (to pass, dispose of).
condocefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to train, instruct, teach).
condolesco -dolescere -dolui, (to suffer severely, feel much pain).
condonatio -onis, f. (a giving away).
condono -are, (to give away, present, give up, sacrifice); of debts, (to excuse); of faults, (to overlook, forgive); sometimes (to forgive
an injury for the sake of a, third party (dat.)).
conduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, transit., (to bring or lead together, collect, unite, connect); as commercial, term, (to hire), also (to
contract for, farm); intransit., (3rd person only), (to be of use, to profit, serve), (with dat.).
conducticius -a -um, (hired).
conductio -onis, f. (a bringing together, uniting); commerc., (hiring, farming).
conductor -oris, m. (one who hires; a contractor).
conduplico -are, (to double).
conduro -are, (to harden).
conecto -nectere -nexui -nexum, (to fasten, tie together, connect, join, unite). Hence partic. conexus -a -um, (joined, connected); n.
as subst. (logical connection).
conexio -onis, f. (binding together; logical sequence).
conexus -us, m. (connection, union).
confabulor -ari, dep. (to talk, converse).
confarreatio -onis, f. (a Roman form of marriage).
confarreo -are, (to marry by the ceremony of confarreatio).
confatalis -e, (determined by the same fate).
confectio -onis, f. (1) (production, completion); 'tributi', (complete exaction). (2), (consumption).
confector -oris, m. (one who produces or completes; a destroyer, consumer).
confercio -fercire -fertum, (to press close together, compress, cram together); usually in perf. partic., confertus -a -um, (compressed,
dense); of troops, (in close formation); with, abl., (stuffed with, full of); adv. confertim, (compactly).
confero -ferre -tuli -latum, (1) (to bring or put together, collect, concentrate); of money, etc. (to, contribute); milit., (to bring into
contact or collision); 'pedem (cum pede)', (to fight foot to foot); 'signa conferre', (to engage); of speech and ideas, (to interchange,
discuss); of diverse things, (to compare). (2) (to bring to), a particular place, sphere, task, etc.; 'se conferre', (to betake oneself, or, to
devote oneself); in time, (to put off, postpone); of responsibility, (to, impute, attribute).
confertus, see confercio.
confervefacio -facere, (to make very hot, melt).
confervesco -fervescere -ferbui, (to begin to boil or glow).
confessio -onis, f. (a confession, acknowledgment).
confessus -a -um, partic. from confiteor; q.v.
confestim, (immediately, without delay).
conficio -ficere -feci -fectum, (1) (to finish, make ready, bring about, accomplish); of arrangements, (to, conclude, settle); of time or
space, (to complete, pass through); of results, (to produce, cause). (2) (to get together, obtain, win over). (3) (to use up, exhaust,
consume); of food, (to chew, eat) and also (to digest); of property, (to waste); of living creatures, (to destroy, kill); in gen., (to
weaken, wear, out), esp. of persons. Hence partic. conficiens -entis, (productive, efficient).
confictio -onis, f. (a fabrication, invention).
confidens, confidenter; see confido.
confidentia -ae, f. (confidence); in bad sense, (impudence, boldness).
confido -fidere -fisus sum, (to have complete trust in, be assured). Hence partic. confidens -entis, (confident, self-reliant); in bad
sense, (bold, self-assured); adv., confidenter.
configo -figere -fixi -fixum, (to fasten together; to pierce through,transfix, pin down).
confingo -fingere -finxi -fictum, (to construct, fashion, fabricate).

confinis -e, (having the same boundary, adjacent); m. as subst. (a neighbor). Transf., (closely allied, similar).
confinium -i, n. (a confine, boundary, border).
confirmatio -onis, f. (a thorough strengthening); of an institution, (a securing, making firm);, of a person,(consolation, encouragement,
support); of a fact or statement, (confirmation, verification).
confirmator -oris, m. (one who confirms).
confirmo -are, (to make firm, strengthen, support); 'se confirmare', (to recover strength);, polit. (to ratify); of persons, (to strengthen
in mind, encourage); of, assertions, either (to corroborate, establish) or (to affirm, state, positively). Hence partic. confirmatus -a -
um, (encouraged, emboldened); of, things, (certain).
confisco -are, (to lay up, preserve in a chest; to appropriate to the imperial treasury, to, confiscate).
confisio -onis, f. (confidence, assurance).
confiteor -fiteri -fessus, dep. (to confess, admit, acknowledge; to reveal, make known). Hence partic., confessus -a -um: in act. sense,
(having confessed); pass., (undoubted, acknowledged, certain).
conflagro -are, (to blaze up, be well alight).
conflictio -onis, f. (collision, conflict).
conflicto -are, pass. or intransit., (to collide, contend); transit., (to harass); pass. (to, be harassed or tormented).
conflictu, abl. sing. m. (by striking together).
confligo -fligere -flixi -flictum, transit., (to strike or throw together; to bring together in order to, compare); intransit., (to collide,
clash, come into conflict).
conflo -are, (to blow up, blow into flame); of metals, (to melt or forge); of money, (to, coin). Transf., (to excite; to forge, fabricate,
put together).
confluo -fluere -fluxi, (to flow, stream or flock together). Partic. confluens -entis, (flowing, together); m. sing. of pl. as subst. (the
confluence of two rivers); as a, place-name Confluentes, f. pl. (Coblenz).
confodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, (to dig thoroughly; to stab, pierce through).
conformatio -onis, f. (form, shape); 'vocis', (expression); 'verborum', (arrangement);, philosoph., (an idea); rhet., (a figure of speech).
conformo -are, (to form, to put together, to adapt one thing to another).
confragosus -a -um, (rugged, uneven); n. pl. as subst., (uneven places).
confragus -a -um, = confragosus; q.v.
confremo -fremere -fremui, (to murmur, make a noise).
confrico -fricare -fricui -fricatum, (to rub hard).
confringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, (to break to pieces; to destroy).
confugio -fugere -fugi, (to fly, take refuge; to have recourse to).
confugium -i, n. (a place of refuge).
confulcio -fulcire -fultus, (to prop up).
confundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, (to pour; to pour together, mingle, mix, join); hence (to confuse, throw into, disorder, trouble,
disturb, upset). Hence partic. confusus -a -um, (disorderly, confused); mentally, (embarrassed, troubled). Adv. confuse.
confusio -onis, f. (blending, union; confusion, disorder).
confuto -are, (to check, repress); by speech, (to put down, silence).
congelo -are, transit., (to freeze, harden, thicken); intransit., (to freeze up, become, inert).
congemino -are, (to redouble).
congemo -gemere -gemui, intransit., (to sigh or groan loudly); transit., (to bewail, lament).
conger -gri, m. (a sea or conger eel).
congeries -ei, f. (a heap, mass, esp. of wood); rhet., (accumulation).
congero -gerere -gessi -gestum, (to bring together, collect, pile up, accumulate); esp. (to build up); in, discourse, (to bring together,
comprise); of benefits, abuse, etc., (to heap, upon) a person.
congesticius -a -um, (heaped up).
congestus -us, m. (a heaping together); of birds, (the building of nests). Transf., (a heap, mass).
congiarium -i, n. (a donation) (originally of wine, oil, etc.).
congius -i, m. (a Roman liquid measure) (= six sextarii).

conglacio -are, intransit. (to freeze, be inert); transit. (to turn to ice).
conglobatio -onis, f. (a heaping or crowding together).
conglobo -are, (to form into a ball, press tightly together).
conglomero -are, (to roll, twist, entangle).
conglutinatio -onis, f. (cementing together, connection).
conglutino -are, (to cement together, connect, bind closely).
congratulor -ari, dep. (to wish joy to, congratulate).
congredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to meet), esp. in conflict; in words, (to dispute, argue).
congregabilis -e, (sociable, inclined to collect).
congregatio -onis, f. (an assembling, society, union).
congrego -are, (to collect into a flock or swarm); of men, (to gather together); with, reflex., or in pass., (to swarm, assemble).
congressio -onis, f. (meeting, intercourse, association).
congressus -us, m. (a meeting); either (a friendly meeting, social intercourse) or (a hostile, encounter, combat).
congruentia -ae, f. (agreement, symmetry, proportion).
congruo -uere -ui, (to run together, come together, meet); in time, (to coincide); in gen., (to, be suited to, correspond with, agree).
Hence partic. congruens -entis, (agreeing, fit, appropriate, suitable); 'concentus', (harmonious, uniform);, 'clamor', (unanimous). Adv.
congruenter, (agreeably, suitably).
congruus -a -um, (agreeing, fit, suitable).
conicio -icere -ieci -iectum, (to throw together; to cast lots); mentally, (to put two and two together, conjecture, guess; to interpret
dreams, etc.); in gen., (to throw, hurl); 'se, conicere', (to betake oneself, flee); of abstract things, (to bring up, bring, in); of money,
(to throw away).
coniectio -onis, f. (hurling, throwing; conjectural interpretation).
coniecto -are, (to throw together); hence (to put two and two together; conclude, infer, guess).
coniector -oris, m. (an interpreter).
coniectura -ae, f. (a guess, conjecture, inference; interpretation of dreams and omens, divination).
coniecturalis -e, (conjectural).
coniectus -us, m. (a throwing or throwing together).
conifer -fera -ferum, (cone-bearing).
coniger -gera -gerum, (cone-bearing).
conitor -niti -nisus or -nixus, dep. (to lean or press hard; to make a great effort, physical or mental);, transit., of offspring, (to bring
forth with difficulty).
coniugalis -e, (of marriage, conjugal).
coniugatio -onis, f. (etymological connection of words).
coniugator -oris, m. (one who connects).
coniugialis -e, (of marriage, conjugal).
coniugium -i, n. (a close connection, union); esp. (marriage, wedlock); meton. (a husband or, wife).
coniugo -are, (to bind together, connect).
coniunctio -onis, f. (uniting, joining together, connection). grammat., (a connecting particle, conjunction); of persons, (union,
association, connection (esp. by blood or, marriage)).
coniungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, (to join together, connect, unite); 'amicitias', (to form); esp. (to unite, persons by marriage,
friendship, alliance, etc.). Hence partic. coniunctus -a, -um, (connected, joined, agreeing, allied); of place, with dat. (bordering on,
near); of time, (contemporary); of persons, (connected) by blood or marriage, or friendship. N. as subst., (an inherent property or
quality); rhet., (connection). Adv. coniuncte, (conjointly, in connection; intimately, on, friendly terms); coniunctim, (conjointly, in
coniunx (coniux) -iugis, c. (a husband or wife); poet., (a betrothed virgin, bride).
coniuratio -onis, f. (a union confirmed by an oath); in bad sense, (conspiracy, plot); meton., (conspirators).
coniuro -are, (to take an oath together);in bad sense, (to plot, conspire); perf. partic., (in act. sense) coniuratus -a -um, (sworn, united
by oath); m. pl. as subst., (conspirators).
coniux, = coniunx; q.v.
coniveo -nivere -nivi or -nixi, (to close the eyes, wink, blink). Transf., (to wink at, let pass).
conlabefacto -are, (to cause to totter, to soften up).

conlabefio -fieri -factus, (to be made to totter, to be softened or broken).
conlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (to fall or sink down, collapse; to fall down in a swoon or death).
conlaceratus -a -um, (much lacerated or torn).
conlacrimatio -onis, f. (a weeping together).
conlacrimo -are, (to weep together or weep much); transit., (to weep for).
conlacteus -i, m. (a foster-brother).
conlactea -ae, f. (a foster-sister).
conlatio -onis, f. (a bringing together); 'signorum', (a battle); of money, (a contribution, collection). Transf. (a comparison, simile,
conlatus -a -um, partic. from confero; q.v.
conlaudatio -onis, f. (strong praise).
conlaudo -are, (to praise very much).
conlaxo -are, (to widen, extend).
conlecta -ae, f. (a contribution in money).
conlecticius -a -um, (gathered together); 'exercitus', (quickly levied).
conlectio -onis, f. (a gathering together, collection); rhet. (a brief recapitulation); in, logic, (a conclusion, inference).
conlega -ae, m. (a colleague, partner in office); in gen.(an associate).
conlegium -i, n.; abstr., (colleagueship); concr., (persons united as colleagues, a body, guild, corporation, college).
conlibertus -i, m. (a fellow-freedman).
conlibet or conlubet -bere -buit or -bitum est, impers., (it pleases, is agreeable).
conlido -lidere -lisi -lisum, (to strike or dash together, to bring into hostile collision).
conligatio -onis, f. (a binding together, connection).
conligo (1) -ligere -legi -lectum, (to gather or bring together, collect); poet., (to gather into a smaller, space, contract); 'conligere se'
or 'animum' or 'mentem', (to compose oneself, gain courage); in the mind, (to put together), hence (to infer, conclude).
conligo (2) -are, (to bind, tie, fasten together, connect); sometimes (to detain, hinder, tie, down).
conlineo -are, (to direct in a straight line).
conlino -linere -levi -litum, (to besmear, bedaub).
conliquefactus -a -um, (liquefied, melted).
conlocatio -onis, f. (a placing, arrangement); esp. (a giving in marriage).
conloco -are, (to place, lay, set, arrange); of time, money, etc. (to lay out, employ, spend); of persons, (to settle, place); of troops, (to
billet, quarter); of, women, (to settle in marriage).
conlocupleto -are, (to enrich).
conlocutio -onis, f. (conversation).
conloquium -i, n. (talk, conversation, conference).
conloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. (to speak to, converse with, to treat or negotiate with).
conluceo -ere, (to shine on all sides, be completely illuminated).
conludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, (to play with; to have a secret understanding with, to act in collusion).
conluo -luere -lui -lutum, (to wash thoroughly, rinse).
conlusio -onis, f. (secret understanding).
conlusor -oris, m. (a play-fellow; a fellow-gambler).
conlustro -are, illuminate on all sides; to survey, look at on all sides).
conluvio -onis, f. (collection of impurities, filth); of people, (scum, rabble).
conluvies -ei, f. (collection of impurities, filth); of people, (scum, rabble).
conm-, see comm-.
conn-, see con-.
conopeum or conopium -i, n. (a mosquito net).
conor -ari, dep. (to undertake, try, strive).
conp-, see comp-.
conquassatio -onis, f. (a violent shaking).
conquasso -are, (to shake thoroughly, shatter).
conqueror -queri -questus, dep. (to complain loudly (of)).

conquestio -onis, f. (a loud complaint).
conquestu, abl. sing. m. (by loud complaint).
conquiesco -quiscere -quievi -quietum, take rest, repose, be still, stop).
conquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, (to seek out, get together). Hence partic. conquisitus -a -um, (carefully, sought out, chosen,
conquisitio -onis, f. (search, collection); of soldiers, (levying, conscription).
conquisitor -oris, m. (a recruiting officer).
conr-, see corr-.
consaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum, (to fence round, hedge in); n. of partic. as subst. consaeptum -i, (an, enclosure).
consalutatio -onis, f. (mutual salutation).
consaluto -are, (to greet (mutually), hail, salute).
consanesco -sanescere -sanui, (to become healthy, get well).
consanguineus -a -um, (related by blood, brotherly, sisterly); m. as subst., (brother); f., (sister); m. plur., (relations).
consanguinitas -atis, f. (relationship by blood, consanguinity).
conscelero -are, (to defile with crime); partic. consceleratus -a -um, (villainous, depraved).
conscendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, (to ascend, mount, go up); 'equum', (to mount on horseback); naut. (with or, without
'navem', etc.), (to go on board ship, embark).
conscensio -onis, f. (embarkation).
conscientia -ae, f. (knowledge shared with others, ”being in the know”, joint knowledge;, knowledge shared with oneself, i.e.
consciousness, esp. of right and wrong, a, good or a bad conscience).
conscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, (to tear to pieces).
conscio -ire, (to be conscious of evil).
conscisco -sciscere -scivi and -scii -scitum, (to agree on, resolve, decree; to inflict upon oneself (with or without, 'sibi')).
conscius -a -um, (sharing knowledge with others, privy to a thing, cognizant of); m. or f. as, subst., (an accomplice, fellow-conspirator);
(sharing knowledge with oneself, i.e. conscious, esp. of right and wrong).
conscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, (to enter on a list, enroll); of troops, (to levy); 'patres conscripti', ('patres et conscripti'),
(senators); (to write, compose); of physicians, (to, prescribe; to write all over an object).
conscriptio -onis, f. (writing, composition).
conseco -secare -secui -sectum, (to cut up, dismember).
consecratio -onis, f. (dedication, consecration); of dead emperors, (apotheosis).
consecro -are, (to consecrate); sometimes (to dedicate to the gods below, to curse); of, persons, (to deify); in gen., (to make holy or
consectarius -a -um, (following logically, consequent); n. pl. as subst., (logical conclusions, inferences).
consectatio -onis, f. (eager pursuit, striving after).
consectatrix -icis, f. (an eager pursuer, devoted friend).
consectio -onis, f. (cutting to pieces).
consector -ari, dep. (to follow, pursue eagerly; to make for, try to join, imitate, attain);, in hostile sense, (to chase, hunt).
consecutio -onis, f.: philosoph., (an effect, consequence); rhet., (order, connection, arrangement).
consenesco -senescere -senui, (to become old, lose one's strength, decay).
consensio -onis, f. (agreement, harmony, consent); in bad sense, (plot, conspiracy).
consensus -us, m. (agreement, concord); abl. consensu, (unanimously); in bad sense, (secret, agreement, conspiracy).
consentaneus -a -um, (agreeing, fit, suitable); 'consentaneum est', (it is reasonable or, suitable).
consentio -sentire -sensi -sensum; of physical sensation, (to feel together); of thought or sentiment, (to agree, assent, resolve,
unanimously); with acc. 'bellum', (to resolve upon war); in bad sense, (to, plot, conspire); of things, (to agree, harmonize). Hence
partic. consentiens, -entis, (harmonious).
consepio, = consaepio; q.v.
consequentia -ae, f. (a consequence, succession).

consequia -ae, f. = consequentia; q.v.
consequor -sequi -secutus, dep. (1) (to follow, go after); in hostile sense, (to pursue; to follow in, time, follow logically, result). (2) (to
follow right up, reach, obtain, catch, get); of states and events, (to befall, happen to) a person; in speech, or thought, (to understand,
grasp). Hence partic. consequens -entis, (appropriate, consequent); n. as subst. (a logical consequence).
consero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, (to sow, plant). Transf., (to cover).
consero (2) -serere -serui -sertum, (to connect, join, twine together); milit., (to join in conflict), esp. 'manum, (or manus) conserere',
(to engage). Hence, from partic., adv. conserte, (connectedly).
conserva -ae, f. (fellow slave).
conservatio -onis, f. (preservation, keeping, laying up).
conservator -oris, m. (preserver).
conservo -are, (to keep, preserve, maintain). Pres. partic. as adj., conservans -antis, (preserving).
conservus -i, m. (fellow slave).
consessor -oris, m. (one who sits near, a neighbor); in court, (an assessor).
consessus -us, m. (assembly).
consideratio -onis, f. (consideration, contemplation).
considero -are, (to look at, regard carefully, contemplate); mentally, (to consider, reflect, upon). Hence partic. consideratus -a -um;
pass.,(well weighed, deliberate);, act. of persons, (cautious, circumspect). Adv. considerate, (thoughtfully, carefully).
consido -sidere -sedi -sessum, (to sit down, to settle); esp. (to sit down in an assembly or court); milit., (to take up one's position or
encamp). Transf., of things,(to settle, sink, subside; to be overcome or neglected); of ideas, (to sink in); of feelings, (to subside)
consigno -are, (to seal; to vouch for, authenticate; to record).
consiliarius -a -um, (deliberating); m. as subst. (an adviser, assessor, interpreter).
consiliator -oris, m. (counsellor, adviser).
consilior -ari, dep. (to consult, take counsel; to give counsel, advise).
consilium -i, n. (1) (deliberation, consultation); meton., (persons in consultation, an, assembly, council);as a quality, (judgement,
understanding). (2) (a, resolution, plan); abl., consilio, (intentionally, designedly). (3) (advice, suggestion).
consimilis -e, (exactly similar).
consipio -sipere, (to be in one's right mind).
consisto -sistere -stiti -stitum, (to take one's stand, place oneself; to stand still, stop; to be posted or to, halt). Transf., of things, (to
fall to, come upon, rest on; to stop, stay; to, stand firm); with abl. etc., (to consist, be formed of).
consitio -onis, f. (sowing, planting).
consitor -oris, m. (sower, planter).
consitura -ae, f. (sowing, planting).
consobrina -ae, f. (cousin (on the mother's side)).
consobrinus -i, m. (cousin (on the mother's side)).
consociatio -onis, f. (union, connection).
consocio -are, (to unite, connect, share, make common). Hence paric. consociatus -a -um, (united, harmonious).
consolabilis -e, (consolable).
consolatio -onis, f. (consolation, encouragement, alleviation; consoling words).
consolator -oris, m. (consoler).
consolatorius -a -um, (consolatory).
consolor -ari, dep.: of persons, (to console, comfort, encourage); of things, (to alleviate, lighten).
consono -sonare -sonui, (1) (to sound together); hence (to harmonize, agree). (2) (to resound, echo).
consonus -a -um, (sounding together, harmonious, accordant, suitable).
consopio -ire, (to lull to sleep, stupefy).
consors -sortis, act., (sharing in, partaking of); as subst., (brother or sister); as adj., (brotherly, sisterly); pass., (shared).
consortio -onis, f. (companionship, partnership).
consortium -i, n. (partnership, participation).

conspectus (1) -a -um, partic. form conspicio; q.v.
conspectus (2) -us, m.: act., (seeing, looking, sight, view); hence (mental view, survey); pass., (appearance).
conspergo -spergere -spersi -spersum, (to sprinkle or moisten by sprinkling).
conspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, (to catch sight of, behold, perceive; to look at with attention, watch);, pass., conspici, (to attract
notice, be gazed at). Transf., (to see mentally, understand). Hence partic. conspectus -a -um, (visible; striking, remarkable,
conspicuous). Gerundive conspiciendus -a -um, (worth looking at, notable).
conspicor -ari, dep. (to catch sight of, perceive).
conspicuus -a -um, (visible; remarkable, striking, conspicuous).
conspiratio -onis, f. (blowing or breathing together; harmony, agreement, union); in bad sense, (conspiracy, plot).
conspiro -are, (to blow or breathe together); of instruments, (to blow together, sound, together). Transf., (to agree, harmonize in
opinion and feeling); in bad, sense, (to conspire). Hence partic. conspiratus -a um, (sworn together, united, by oath); m. as subst., (a
consponsor -oris, m. (a joint surety).
conspuo -spuere, (to spit upon).
conspurco -are, (to cover with dirt, defile).
consputo -are, (to spit upon).
constans -antis, partic. from consto; q.v.
constantia -ae, f. (steadiness, firmness).
consternatio -onis, f. (fear, alarm, dismay, confusion; mutiny, tumult).
consterno (1) -sternere -stravi -stratum, (to strew, scatter, cover by strewing). Hence partic. constratus -a -um, esp., 'constrata navis',
(a decked ship); n. as subst., (flooring, deck).
consterno (2) -are, (to throw into confusion, alarm, frighten; to stampede).
constipo -are, (to press, crowd together).
constituo -stituere -stitui -stitutum, (to cause to stand, set up, place, establish, settle); milit., (to post, station, arrange, bring to a
halt; to settle people in homes or quarters; to, found, set up buildings, etc.). Transf., (to appoint a person to an office; to, settle, fix
upon an amount, time, etc.: to decide about a fact, decide that;, to decide on a course of action, decide to). Hence partic.
constitutus -a -um, (arranged, settled); n. as subst., (anything arranged, settled or agreed, upon).
constitutio -onis, f. (the act of settling; settled condition, disposition; a regulation, order, ordinance); rhet., (the issue, point in
consto -stare -stiti -statum, (1) (to stand together); hence (to be composed, consist; to depend upon, rest, upon; to correspond, be
consistent (with dat.)); with abl., (to cost). (2) (to, stand firm, stand still; to remain the same, be unaltered); of resolves, (to, be fixed,
firm); of evidence, facts, etc., (to be established, sure, well-, known); impers. constat, (it is agreed); in gen., (to exist). Hence partic.,
constans -antis, (steady, firm, unchanging, constant, consistent, resolute);, adv. constanter, (steadily, firmly).
constringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, (to bind together, bind fast, confine, restrain); in speech, (to compress, abbreviate).
constructio -onis, f. (putting together, building, construction).
construo -struere -struxi -structum, (to heap up together; to construct, build up; to arrange).
constuprator -oris, m. (a ravisher, debaucher).
constupro -are, (to debauch, ravish, corrupt).
consuasor -oris, m. (an adviser).
consuefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to accustom, habituate).
consuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum, transit., (to accustom, habituate); intransit., (to accustom oneself); in, perf., consuevi, (I am
accustomed); 'cum homine', (to cohabit with a person)., Hence partic. consuetus -a -um: of persons, (accustomed to); of things,
(accustomed, usual).
consuetudo -inis, f. (custom, usage, habit); of relations with persons, (intimacy, familiar, acquaintance); of lovers, (intrigue).
consuetus -a -um, partic. from consuesco; q.v.
consul -sulis, m. (a consul); plur., consules, (the consuls, the two chief magistrates at, Rome under the

Republic); 'consul designatus', (consul elect); 'pro consule', (an officer in the place of a consul, a proconsul, e.g. a governor of a,
consularis -e, (1) (relating to a consul, consular). (2) (having been a consul); m. as, subst., (an ex-consul, or provincial governor of
consular rank). Adv., consulariter, (in a manner worthy of a consul).
consulatus -us, m. (the office of consul, consulship).
consulo -sulere -sului -sultum, (1) (to reflect, consider, consult); with dat., (to look to the interests of);, as a result of deliberation, (to
come to a conclusion, to take measures);, 'boni (or optimi) consulere', (to take in good part). (2) (to ask the advice, of, consult).
Hence partic. consultus -a -um: of things, (well considered, deliberated upon); of persons, (experienced (with genit.)). N. as subst.,
consultum -i, (the act of deliberation, reflection, consideration; the result, of deliberation, a resolution, plan, decision; esp. a
decree of the senate at, Rome). Abl. as adv. consulto, (deliberately, designedly). Adv. consulte, (advisedly, after consideration).
consultatio -onis, f., (a full consideration, deliberation; an asking for advice, inquiry).
consulto -are, (1) (to consider maturely, weigh, ponder); with dat., (to look to the, interests of). (2) (to consult, ask advice of).
consultor -oris, m. (1) (an adviser). (2) (one who asks advice, esp. legal advice; a client).
consummatio -onis, f. (a summing up, adding up; a finishing, completion).
consummo -are, (to add together, sum up; to form a whole, complete, perfect). Hence partic., comsummatus -a -um, (complete,
consumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, (to spend, employ) on a purpose; in gen., (to use up, finish, waste away, destroy).
consuo -suere -sui -sutum, (to stitch or put together; to form).
consurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, (to rise up, stand up), esp. to speak, or as a mark of respect. Transf., of, persons, (to be aroused
to action); of things, (to arise, break out).
consurrectio -onis, f. (a general standing up).
contabesco -tabescere -tabui, (to waste away gradually).
contabulatio -onis, f. (planking, floor, story).
contabulo -are, (to cover with boards, equip with floors or storys).
contactus -us, m. (contact, touching; contagion).
contages -is, f. (touch, contact).
contagio -onis, f. (touching, contact); hence (contagion, infection).
contagium -i, n. (touching, contact); hence (contagion, infection).
contamino -are, (to pollute, infect); of authors, (to blend (and so to spoil) Greek plays).
contego -tegere -texi -tectum, (to cover, shield).
contemno -temnere -tempsi -temptum, (to think meanly of, despise, contemn). Hence partic. contemptus -a -um, (despised;
despicable, contemptible).
contemplatio -onis, f. (surveying, contemplation).
contemplor -ari, dep. (to mark out); hence (to look at attentively, survey, regard; to consider, carefully).
contemptim, (contemptuously).
contemptio -onis, f. (contempt, scorn, disdain).
contemptor -oris, m. (a despiser).
contemptrix -ricis, f., adj. and subst., (a despiser, contemptuous).
contemptus (1) -a -um, partic. from contemno; q.v.
contemptus (2) -us, m. (contempt, disdain).
contendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, (to strain, stretch, exert); of missiles, (to shoot, cast); intransit., (to, strive, strain, exert oneself,
hasten); of statement, (to assert with, confidence, maintain).In relation to another: transit., (to compare, contrast); intransit., (to
compete). Hence partic. contentus -a -um, (strained, stretched, tense; eager, zealous). Adv. contente, (eagerly, earnestly).
contente (1), adv. from contendo; q.v.
contente (2), adv. from contineo; q.v.
contentio -onis, f. (exertion, effort, straining, striving). In relation to another, (contrast, comparison); or (combat, contest, strife).
contentus (1) -a -um, partic. from contendo; q.v.
contentus (2) -a -um, partic. from contineo; q.v.

conterminus -a -um, (bordering upon, adjacent, near).
contero -terere -trivi -tritum, (to rub away, grind, pound); in gen., (to wear away, destroy, obliterate); of, time, (to consume, spend).
conterreo -ere, (to terrify, frighten much).
contestor -ari, dep. (to call to witness); 'litem', (to start an action by calling witnesses);, partic. contestatus -a -um, in pass. sense,
(witnessed to, approved).
contexo -texere -texui -textum, (to weave or twine together, connect, unite, construct, form). Hence partic., contextus -a -um,
(interwoven, connected, united). Adv. contexte, (in close, connection).
contextus (1) -a -um, partic. from contexo; q.v.
contextus (2) -us, m. (uniting, connection).
conticesco (conticisco) -ticescere -ticui, (to become silent, be stilled, abate).
contignatio -onis, f. (floor of planks).
contigno -are, (to floor with planks).
contiguus -a -um, (touching, contiguous, near); with dat., (within reach of).
continens -entis, partic. from contineo; q.v.
continentia -ae, f. (self-control, moderation, temperance).
contineo -tinere -tinui -tentum, (1) (to hold together, keep together); hence (to connect, join). (2) (to keep, in, surround, contain,
confine); hence (to include, comprise). (3) (to hold, back, constrain).Hence pres. partic. continens -entis. (1) (lying near, adjacent). (2)
(hanging together, unbroken, continuous); f. as subst., (a, continent); n. as subst., rhet., (a main point). (3) (self-controlled,
temperate, continent). Adv. continenter, (without break, continuously;, continently, temperately). Partic. contentus -a -um,
(contented, satisfied), (with abl.).
contingo -tingere -tigi -tactum, transit., (to touch, reach, grasp; to touch with something, smear or sprinkle, with); hence (to affect,
infect) (esp. in perf. partic.); geograph. (to border, on); intransit., (to happen, befall), usually of good luck (with dat.).
continuatio -onis, f. (unbroken continuance or succession); rhet., (a period).
continuitas -atis, f. (continuity, unbroken succession).
continuo (1), adv. from continuus; q.v.
continuo (2) -are, (to connect up, unite, make continuous, form into a series); 'verba', (to make, into a sentence);'magistratum', (to
continuus -a -um, up, hanging together, continuous, uninterrupted). N. abl. as adv. continuo, (immediately, at once);in
argument,(necessarily, as an immediate, consequence).
contio -onis, f. (an assembly, public meeting). Transf. (a speech made in such an assembly, or the speaker's platform).
contionabundus -a -um, (haranguing, speaking in public).
contionalis -e, (relating to a public assembly).
contionarius -a -um, (relating to a public assembly).
contionator -oris, m. (a popular orator, demagogue).
contionor -ari, dep. (to attend an assembly); esp. (to speak in a public assembly).
contiuncula -ae, f. (a short harangue).
contorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, twist, whirl, turn violently, contort; to whirl) a spear, etc. in throwing, and so (to hurl). Hence
partic. contortus -a -um. (1) (intricate, confused, complicated). (2) (whirling); so (powerful, vigorous). Adv., contorte,(intricately).
contortio -onis, f. (whirling, twisting, intricacy).
contra, Adv., (opposite, over against, on the opposite side); of equivalence, (in, return, back); of difference, (otherwise); of
opposition,(against). Prep. with, acc., (opposite to, over against; against, in opposition to).
contractio -onis, f. (drawing together, contraction); 'orationis', (abbreviation); 'animi', (anxiety, depression).
contractus -a -um, partic. from contraho; q.v.
contradico -dicere -dixi -dictum, (to gainsay, contradict).
contradictio -onis, f. (a speaking against, contradiction).
contraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, (1) (to draw together, collect, unite; to conclude or complete) any, arrangement; in gen., (to
cause, bring on, bring about); 'aes alienum', (to, contract debt). (2) (to

shorten, narrow, contract, reduce); 'frontem', (to, frown); 'vela', (to furl one's sails); of the spirits, (to depress). Hence, partic.
contractus -a -um, (contracted, narrowed, straitened); of persons, (retired, quiet).
contrarius -a -um, (opposite, opposed, contrary); 'vulnera', (wounds in front); with genit. or, dat. (opposed to); in gen.
(hostile,injurious). N. as subst. contrarium -i, (the opposite); 'ex contrario', (on the other side). Adv. contrarie, (in an, opposite
direction or manner).
contrectatio -onis, f. (touching, handling).
contrecto -are, (to touch, feel, handle); of familiar handling, (to violate); mentally, (to, consider).
contremisco -tremiscere -tremui, intransit., (to tremble, quake); transit., (to tremble before, be afraid of).
contremo -ere, (to tremble, quake).
contribuo -tribuere -tribui -tributum, (to brigade with, incorporate, unite); of contributions, (to bring in).
contristo -are, (to make sad or gloomy).
contritus -a -um, partic. from contero; q.v.
controversia -ae, f. (a dispute) esp. at law; 'sine controversia', (indisputably).
controversiosus -a -um, (strongly disputed).
controversus -a -um, (disputed, controverted).
contrucido -are, (to cut in pieces, hew down, slay).
contrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum, (to thrust, push together).
contrunco -are, (to cut in pieces).
contubernalis -is, c. (1) (a messmate, comrade). (2) (a young staff-officer).
contubernium -i, n. Concrete, (a soldier's tent; the common dwelling of a male and female, slave). Abstract, (comradeship,
companionship, intimacy; concubinage; junior, staff duties).
contueor -tueri -tuitus, dep. (to see, survey, look at attentively);mentally, (to consider, reflect, upon).
contuitu (contutu), abl. sing. m., (by surveying).
contumacia -ae, f. (firmness, stubbornness, obstinacy).
contumax -acis, (firm, stubborn, obstinate); adv. contumaciter.
contumelia -ae, f. (outrage, physical violence); of speech, (insult, affront).
contumeliosus -a -um, adj. (outrageous, insulting, abusive); adv. contumeliose.
contumulo -are, (to bury, inter).
contundo -tundere -tudi -tusum, (to bruise, crush, pound, beat up, break up, demolish).
contuor -i, = contueor; q.v.
conturbatio -onis, f. (disorder, confusion).
conturbo -are, (to throw into disorder, disturb, distress; to ruin, make bankrupt).
contus -i, m. (a pole used in boating; a long spear or pike).
conubium -i, n. (marriage; intermarriage).
conus -i, m. (a cone; the apex of a helmet).
convalesco -valescere -valui, (to become strong, establish oneself); esp. (to recover from a disease, get, well).
convallis -is, f. (an enclosed valley).
convaso -are, (to pack up baggage).
convecto -are, (to bring together, collect).
convector -oris, m. (a fellow-traveller).
conveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, (to bring together, carry into one place).
convello -vellere -velli -vulsum, (to pluck up, pull away, wrench off); milit., 'convellere signa', (to decamp);, in gen., (to weaken,
overthrow, destroy).
convena -ae, c.: adj., (coming together); as subst., in plur., (a concourse, assembled, multitude).
convenientia -ae, f. (agreement, harmony, conformity).
convenio -venire -veni -ventum, (1) (to meet): intransit.,(to come together, assemble); legal, 'convenire in, manum', of the wife, (to
come into the power of her husband); transit., (to, visit, meet, call upon). (2) (to be fit, be suitable, be congenial); impers.,
'convenit', (it is fitting). (3) (to agree); usually in pass. sense, (to be, agreed upon); impers., 'convenit', (it is agreed). Hence partic.
conveniens, -entis, (agreeing, unanimous, concordant; fit, appropriate, suitable); adv., convenienter, (agreeably, suitably). N. of perf.
partic. as subst., conventum, -i, (an agreement, compact).
conventiculum -i, n. (a coming together, assembly, association; a place of meeting).

conventio -onis, f. (assembly; agreement, compact).
conventum, see convenio.
conventus -us, m. (coming together, assembly, union, congress); 'conventus agere', (to hold, assizes); in gen., (agreement).
converro -verrere -verri -versum, (to sweep together, brush up; to beat thoroughly; to scrape together).
conversatio -onis, f. (frequent use); esp. (frequent sojourn in a place, or regular dealings with, a person).
conversio -onis, f. (a turning round, alteration, or periodical return); rhet., (rounding off, of a period, or repetition of word at the
end of a clause).
converso -are, (to turn round often); pass., in middle sense, (to live, consort, have, dealings).
converto -vertere -verti -versum, (1) (to turn round, whirl round); 'se convertere, (to revolve, to turn back);, milit., 'signa convertere',
(to wheel round); 'terga', or 'se', convertere., (to flee). Transf., (to change, alter); of books, (to translate). (2) (to turn, in any direction,
direct); 'conversus ad', (facing). Transf., (to direct, devote) (esp. with reflex.; rarely intransit.); 'pecuniam publicam domum', (to,
convestio -ire, (to clothe; cover, surround).
convexus -a -um, (1) (vaulted, arched, convex); n. as subst., (arch). (2) (sloping downward).
conviciator -oris, m. (a railer, reviler).
convicior -ari, dep. (to rail, revile).
convicium -i, n. (a loud cry, shout, clamor); esp. (abuse, reproach, insult); hence, in, gen., (censure, reproof).
convictio -onis, f. (intercourse, familiarity); meton., (familiar friends).
convictor -oris, m. (a constant associate).
convictus -us, m. (living together, intercourse; entertainment, feast).
convinco -vincere -vici -victum, (to convict of a crime; to prove mistaken); of things, esp. crimes or, mistakes, (to prove anything
conclusively, to demonstrate).
conviso -ere, (to examine carefully); poet. (to beam upon).
conviva -ae, m. (guest).
convivalis -e, (of a feast).
convivator -oris, m. (a host).
convivium -i, n. (a feast, entertainment, banquet); meton., (the company assembled, guests).
convivo -vivere -vixi -victum, (to live with, feast with).
convivor -ari, dep. (to feast) (as a guest).
convocatio -onis, f. (calling together).
convoco -are, (to call together, assemble, convoke).
convolo -are, (to fly together, run together).
convolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, (to roll together or roll round; to intertwine).
convomo -ere, (to vomit all over).
convulsus -a -um, partic. of convello; q.v.
cooperio -operire -operui -opertum, (to cover up, envelop, overwhelm); 'lapidibus', (to stone to death).
cooptatio -onis, f. (election of a colleague, co-optation); 'censoria', (filling up of the, senate by the censors).
coopto -are, (to choose, elect, co-opt).
coorior -oriri -ortus, dep. (to arise, come forth together); of things, (to appear, to break out); of, people, (to rise for insurrection or
coortus -us, m. (arising, breaking forth).
Coos, (Cous) = Cos; q.v.
cophinus -i, m. (basket, hamper).
copia -ae, f. (plenty, abundance) (of persons or things); milit., (supplies, provisions);, also (troops, forces) (esp. plur.). Transf., (means,
opportunity); with genit., of person, (access to).
copiosus -a -um, (richly provided, wealthy; plentiful, abundant); of speech, (copious, eloquent). Adv. copiose, (abundantly,
plentifully, copiously).
copo, copona = caupo, caupona; q.v.
copula -ae, f. (a link, bond, tie, connection; a rope, a leash); plur. (grapnels).
copulatio -onis, f. (union, connection).

copulo -are, (to join together, unite, connect). Hence partic. copulatus -a -um, (connected, united, coupled).
coquo coquere coxi coctum, cook, prepare food; to burn, ripen; to digest); mentally,(to think of, meditate, contrive) a thing; (to
harass) a person.
coquus (cocus) -i, m. and coqua -ae, f. (a cook).
cor cordis, n. (the heart); often as seat of emotions or thought, (heart, mind, judgment);, meton., (a person).
coram, Adv. (personally, openly, face to face). Prep. with abl., (in the presence, of).
corbis -is, m. and f. (a wicker basket).
corbita -ae, f. (a slow-sailing merchant vessel).
corculum -i, n. (little heart).
Corcyra -ae, f. (Corcyra, an island in the Ionian Sea).
cordatus -a -um, (prudent, wise); adv. cordate.
Corduba -ae, f. (a town in Hispania Baetica) (now Cordova).
Corinthus -i, f. (Corinth, a city of Greece).
Corioli -orum, m. pl. (a town of the Volsci in Latium); adj. Coriolanus -a -um.
corium -i, n. (hide, skin, leather; a leather thong, strap).
Cornelius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens, including the Scipios). Adj. Cornelianus -a um.
corneolus -a -um, (horny).
corneus (1) -a -um, (horny, made of horn; like horn, hard).
corneus (2) -a -um, (of cornel tree; of cornel wood).
cornicen -cinis, m. (a horn-blower).
corniculum -i, n. (a little horn; a horn-shaped decoration for soldiers).
corniger -gera -gerum, (horned).
cornipes -pedis, (horn-footed, hoofed).
cornix -icis, f. (crow).
cornu -us, n. (a horn); fig., (strength, courage; anything made of horn, esp. a bow, trumpet, lantern; anything resembling a horn esp.
a hoof, beak, tip of a, helmet, end of a stick or spar, end of a promontory, wing of an army).
Cornucopia -ae, f. (the horn of Amalthea, symbol of plenty).
cornum -i, n. (the cornel-cherry); meton., (a spear of cornel wood).
cornus -i (and -us), f. (the cornel tree); hence (the wood of the cornel tree, a spear of cornel, wood).
cornutus -a -um, (horned).
corolla -ae, f. (a little crown).
corollarium -i, n. (a garland of flowers; a present, gratuity).
corona -ae, f. (garland, chaplet, crown); 'sub corona vendere', (to sell into slavery, prisoners of war (wearing chaplets)). Transf.,
(anything resembling a crown; a, constellation; a circle of people, audience); milit., (besiegers (or, defenders) of a city).
coronarius -a -um, (of a garland).
corono -are, (to wreath, crown with a garland; to surround, enclose in a circle).
corporeus -a -um, (of the body, bodily of flesh).
corpulentus -a -um, (fat, stout).
corpus -poris, n. (body, substance, matter); esp. (the body) of men and animals; (flesh, the, trunk); sometimes (a corpse). Transf., (a
person, 'a body'; the 'body, politic'); in gen., (the main mass) of a thing.
corpusculum -i, n. (a little particle, atom; a small body).
corrado -radere -rasi -rasum, (to scrape or rake together).
correctio -onis, f. (straightening out, improvement, amendment).
corrector -oris, m. (improver, amender, corrector).
correpo -repere -repsi -reptum, (to creep, slink, crawl).
correptius, compar. adv. from corripio; q.v.
corrigia -ae, f. (a shoe-string, boot-lace).
corrigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, (to put straight, set right, reform, amend).
corripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, (to seize, snatch up); 'pecuniam', (to steal); 'viam', (to hasten on a,

journey); 'se', (to hurry off). Transf., of disease, etc., (to attack); of the, passions, (to overcome); of persons, (to blame, rebuke, accuse,
bring to, trial); in time, (to shorten); hence, from partic., compar. adv. correptius, (more shortly).
corroboro -are, (to strengthen, invigorate).
corrodo -rodere -rosi -rosum, (to gnaw away).
corrogo -are, (to get together, collect by begging).
corrugo -are, (to wrinkle up).
corrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, (1) (to break up, annihilate, destroy). (2) (to spoil, make worse, weaken); of, documents, (to
falsify); of characters, (to corrupt); 'corrumpere pecunia', (to bribe). Hence partic. corruptus -a -um, (spoilt, damaged, corrupt); adv.,
corrupte, (corruptly, incorrectly).
corruo -ruere -rui: intransit, (to fall to the ground, sink down, be ruined); transit. (to throw down, overthrow).
corruptela -ae, f. (corruption, bribery, seduction); meton., (a corruptor).
corruptio -onis, f. (corrupting; a corrupt state).
corruptor -oris, m. (corrupter, seducer, briber).
corruptus -a -um, partic. from corrumpo; q.v.
cors, see cohors.
Corsica -ae, f. (the island of Corsica); adj. Corsus and Corsicus -a -um.
cortex -ticis, m. and f. (bark, rind, shell); esp. (the bark of the cork tree, cork).
cortina -ae, f. (a round kettle or cauldron); esp. (the cauldron-shaped Delphic tripod):, 'cortina Phoebi', (the oracle of Delphi).
corulus, = corylus; q.v.
corus, = caurus; q.v.
corusco -are, transit., (to move quickly, swing, shake); intransit., (to tremble, flutter);, of light, (to twinkle, flash).
coruscus -a -um, (shaking, trembling); of light, (twinkling, flashing).
corvus -i, m. (a raven); perhaps also (a rook).
Corybantes -ium, m. pl. (the priests of Cybele).
corycus -i, m. (a sand-bag, a punch-ball).
coryletum -i, n. (a hazel copse).
corylus -i, f. (a hazel tree).
corymbus -i, m. (a bunch of flowers or fruit), esp. (a cluster of ivy berries).
coryphaeus -i, m. (a leader, chief).
corytus or corytos -i, m. (a quiver).
cos cotis, f. (any hard, flinty stone); esp. (a whetstone, grindstone).
Cos or Cous (Coos) Coi, f. (a small island in the Aegean Sea); adj. Cous -a -um; n. sing. as subst., (Coan wine); n. plur., (Coan garments).
cosmeta -ae, m. (a woman's valet).
cosmicos -a -um, (of the world); m. as subst. (a citizen of the world).
costa -ae, f. (a rib or side).
costum -i, n. (an eastern aromatic plant).
cothurnatus -a -um, (in buskins); hence (tragic, elevated).
cothurnus -i, m. (a large hunting boot; a boot or buskin worn by tragic actors); hence, (tragedy, elevated style).
cotid., = cottid.; q.v.
cottana (cotona, coctona, coctana) -orum, n. pl. (a kind of small fig).
coturnix -icis, f. (a quail).
covinnarius -i, m. (a soldier in a war chariot).
covinnus -i, m. (a war-chariot; a travelling-chariot).
coxa -ae, f. (the hip-bone).
coxendix -icis, f. (the hip).
crabro -onis, m. (a hornet).
crambe -es, f. (cabbage).
crapula -ae, f. (drunkenness; its aftereffects, 'hangover').

cras, adv. (tomorrow).
crassitudo -inis, f. (thickness, density).
crassus -a -um, (thick, dense, solid); 'aer', (misty, heavy); of intellect, (dull or, uneducated). Adv. crasse, (roughly, rudely).
Crassus -i, m. (name of a family in the gens Licinia); q.v.
crastinus -a -um, (of tomorrow); n. as subst. (the morrow).
cratera -ae, f. and crater -eris, m. (a bowl, esp. for mixing wine with water; the crater, of a volcano; a constellation, the Bowl).
cratis -is, (a wicker frame, hurdle, a harrow); milit. (fascines); 'favorum', (honeycomb);, 'spinae', (the joints of the backbone).
creatio -onis, f. (choice, election).
creator -oris, m. (maker, founder; parent).
creatrix -icis, f. (maker, founder; parent).
creber -bra -brum; of space, (thick, crowded together, close, numerous); with abl., (crowded with, full, of); of time, (repeated,
numerous, frequent); of persons, to signify repeated, action, e.g. 'creber pulsat', (he beats frequently). Adv. crebro, (repeatedly,
crebresco (crebesco) -escere -ui, (to become frequent, increase, gather strength).
crebritas -atis, f. (frequency).
crebro, adv. from creber; q.v.
credibilis -e, (credible, worthy of belief); adv. credibiliter, (credibly).
creditor -oris, m. (a creditor).
credo -dere -didi -ditum, (to trust): with acc. and dat., (to entrust, commit), esp. of secrets and, money; n. of perf. partic. as subst.,
creditum, (a loan); with dat., (to trust, in, rely upon); also with dat., (to believe, give credence to); with acc., (to, believe as a fact, to
accept as true); in gen., (to believe, think, be of the, opinion).
credulitas -atis, f. (credulity).
credulus -a -um, (believing easily, credulous, confiding).
cremo -are, (to burn, consume with fire).
cremor -oris, m. (juice, pulp, cream).
creo -are, (to make, create, produce; to elect to an office); of parents, (to beget, bear).
crepida -ae, f. (sandal).
crepidatus -a -um, (wearing sandals).
crepido -inis, f. (a base, foundation, pedestal; a quay, pier, dam).
crepitacillum -i, n. (a rattle).
crepitaculum -i, n. (a rattle).
crepito -are, (to rattle, creak, crackle, rustle).
crepitus -us, m. (rattling, creaking, rustling, clattering); 'digitorum', (snapping of the, fingers).
crepo -are -ui -itum, intransit., (to creak, rattle, rustle, crackle); 'digiti crepantis signa', (a, snapping of the fingers); transit., (to make
resound; to chatter about).
crepundia -orum, n. pl. (a child's plaything; a rattle or amulet).
crepusculum -i, n. (twilight).
cresco crescere crevi cretum, (1) (to come into existence, spring forth, arise); past partic. cretus, (sprung (from)). (2) of what exists,
(to grow, grow up, increase in size, height, etc.); 'luna crescens', (waxing); fig., (to increase in fame, power, etc.).
Creta -ae, f. and Crete -es, f. (Crete). Hence m. adj. and subst. Cres -etis; f. adj. and, subst. Cressa -ae; adj. Cretensis -e, and Creticus -a
-um, (Cretan).
creta -ae, f. (chalk, or fuller's earth).
cretatus -a -um, (chalked); hence (in white).
cretio -onis, f. (a declaration by an heir accepting an inheritance).
cretosus -a -um, (abounding in chalk).
cretula -ae, f. (white clay for sealing).
Creusa -ae, f. (wife of Aeneas).
cribrum -i, n. (a sieve).
crimen -inis, n. (1) (an accusation, charge): 'esse in crimine', (to be accused); meton., (an object of

reproach). (2) (fault, guilt, crime); meton., (cause of crime).
criminatio -onis, f. (accusation, calumny, charge).
criminator -oris, m. (accuser, calumniator).
criminor -ari, dep.: with acc. of person, (to accuse, charge); esp. (to calumniate); with, acc. of offence, (to complain of, bring up).
criminosus -a -um, (reproachful, calumnious, slanderous); adv. criminose, (by way of accusation, reproachfully).
crinalis -e, (of or for the hair); n. as subst. (a hair-band).
crinis -is, m. (hair); esp. in pl.; of a comet, (the tail).
crinitus -a -um, (hairy, with long hair); 'stella crinita', (a comet); 'galea', (crested).
crispisulcans -antis, (forked, wavy).
crispo -are, (to curl; to move rapidly, brandish); intransit. partic. crispans -antis, (curly, wavy).
crispulus -a -um, (curly-haired, wavy).
crispus -a -um, (curly, curly-headed; trembling, quaking).
crista -ae, f. (the crest, plume); of a cock, (the comb).
cristatus -a -um, (with a crest, plume or comb).
croceus -a -um, (of saffron; saffron-colored, golden, yellow).
crocinus -a -um, (of saffron, saffron-colored, yellow); n. as subst., (saffron oil).
crocodilus -i, m. (crocodile).
crocotula -ae, f. (a saffron-colored robe).
crocus -i, m. and crocum -i, n. (the crocus; saffron, prepared from crocus); hence (the, color of saffron, yellow).
Croesus -i, m. (a king of Lydia, famous for his wealth).
crotalia -orum, n. pl. (earrings).
crotalistria -ae, f. (a castanet-dancer).
crotalum -i, n. (a castanet).
Croton -onis, c. (a Greek town near the toe of Italy).
cruciamentum -i, n. (torture).
cruciatus -us, m. (torture, torment).
crucio -are, (to torture, torment).
crudelis -e, adj. (unfeeling, cruel); adv. crudeliter.
crudelitas -atis, f. (cruelty, inhumanity).
crudesco -escere -ui, (to become hard or violent).
cruditas -atis, f. (overloading of the stomach, indigestion).
crudus -a -um, adj. (1) (bleeding). (2) (uncooked, raw); of material, (fresh, not prepared);, of fruit, (unripe); in gen., (green, fresh,
immature, untimely); of food, (undigested); of persons, (stuffed, dyspeptic); of feeling, etc., (hard, cruel); of the voice, (harsh).
cruento -are, (to make bloody, stain with blood).
cruentus -a -um, (bloody, bloodthirsty; blood-red).
crumena -ae, f. (a pouch, purse; store of money, funds).
cruor -oris, m. (blood, gore; murder, slaughter).
crus cruris, n. (the shin, shinbone, leg); of a bridge, (pier, support).
crusta -ae, f. (1) (crust, rind, shell, bark). (2) (inlaid work, bas-relief, embossing).
crustulum -i, n. (a little cake).
crustum -i, n. (bread, cake).
crux crucis, f. (a cross); hence (torment, trouble); as a term of abuse, (gallows bird).
crypta -ae, f. (covered galley, vault, grotto).
crystallinus -a -um, (of crystal); n. pl. as subst., (crystal vases).
crystallus -i, f. and crystallum -i, n. (crystal; a crystal drinking vessel; a precious stone, looking like crystal).
cubicularis -e, (of a bedchamber).
cubicularius -a -um, (of a bedchamber); m. as subst. (a chamberservant).
cubiculum -i, n. (a bedroom).
cubile -is, n. (bed); esp. (marriage-bed); of animals, (lair, den, nest); of bees, (hives); in gen., (seat,

resting place).
cubital -talis, n. (an elbow cushion).
cubitalis -e, (one cubit long).
cubito -are, (to lie down often).
cubitum -i, n. (the elbow; a cubit).
cubitus -us, m. (lying down).
cubo -are -ui -itum, (to lie down, recline), esp. at table or in bed; (to be ill in bed); 'cubitum, ire', (to go to bed); of things, (to lie);
partic. cubans, (sloping).
cucullus -i, m. (a hood, cowl).
cuculus -i, m. (cuckoo).
cucumis -meris, m. (cucumber).
cucurbita -ae, f. (a gourd; a cupping-glass).
cudo -ere, (to beat, pound, thresh); of metals, (to forge, stamp, coin).
cuias -atis, (of what country).
cuicuimodi, (of whatever kind).
cuius (quoius) -a -um, interrog., (whose?); relat., (whose); 'quoia causa', (wherefore).
cuiuscemodi, (of whatever kind).
cuiusdammodi, (of a certain kind).
cuiusmodi, (of what kind?).
cuiusquemodi, (of every kind).
culcita -ae, f. (bolster, pillow).
culeus, = culleus; q.v.
culex -icis, m. (gnat, midge).
culina -ae, f. (kitchen); meton., (food, fare).
culleus (culeus) -i, m. (a leather sack).
culmen -inis, n. (top, summit; the ridge of a roof; a stalk).
culmus -i, m. (stalk, haulm, thatch).
culpa -ae, f. (fault, blame); esp. (the fault of unchastity); meton., (a cause of error, or sin).
culpo -are, (to blame, find fault with, disapprove).
cultellus -i, m. (a little knife).
culter -tri, m. (a knife; a plowshare, coulter).
cultio -onis, f. (cultivation, agriculture).
cultor -oris, m. (a cultivator, planter, husbandman); with genit., (an inhabitant, occupier), of a place; (a friend, supporter) of a person;
(a worshipper) of gods.
cultrix -icis, f. (she who tends or takes care; an inhabitant).
cultura -ae, f. (tilling, culture, cultivation, husbandry); 'animi',
(mental culture, cultivation); 'potentis amici', (courting of).
cultus (1) -a -um, partic. from colo; q.v.
cultus (2) -us, m. (tilling, cultivation, tending); in gen., (care, careful treatment);, 'deorum', (reverence); 'animi', (training, education);
culullus (culillus) -i, m. (a drinking-vessel).
cum, (1) prep. with abl., (with, together with; at the same time as); 'cum eo, quod','ut', or 'ne', (on condition that).
cum, (2) (older form quom) conj., (when; whenever; since; although); cum...tum..., (both...and...).
Cumae -arum, f. pl. (a city of Campania); adj. Cumanus and Cumaeus -a -um.
cumba (cymba) -ae, f. (small boat, skiff).
cumera -ae, f. (a corn-bin).
cuminum -i, n. (a herb, cummin).
cumprimis, see primus.
cumque (cumque, quomque), adverb, usually found added to a relative, with the force of -ever, -sover.
cumulo -are, (to heap up, pile up, increase, heighten; to fill up, overload); 'cumulatus, laude', (loaded with praise); also (to crown,
bring to perfection). Hence, partic. cumulatus -a -um, (heaped up, increased, enlarged; crowned, perfected). Adv. cumulate,
(abundantly, fully).
cumulus -i, m. (heap, pile, mass; addition, increase, finishing touch).

cunabula -orum, n. pl. (cradle).
cunae -arum, f. pl. (cradle); of young birds, (nest).
cunctabundus -a -um, (loitering, dilatory).
cunctatio -onis, f. (delay, lingering, hesitation).
cunctator -oris, m. (one who delays).
cunctor -ari, dep. (to delay, linger, hesitate);of things,(to move slowly). Hence partic., cunctans -antis, (lingering, slow); adv.
cunctus -a -um, (all, all collectively, the whole).
cuneatim, (in wedge formation).
cuneo -are, (to secure with wedges; to shape like a wedge). Hence partic. cuneatus -a -um, (pointed like a wedge).
cuneus -i, m. (a wedge; troops in wedge formation; any triangular figure); often of (the, wedge-shaped compartments into which the
seats of a theater were divided).
cuniculosus -a -um, (full of rabbits (or caverns)).
cuniculus -i, m. (1) (a rabbit, cony). (2) (an underground passage);milit., (a mine).
cupa -ae, f. (cask, butt).
cupiditas -atis, f. (eager desire, passionate longing). Esp. (ambition; avarice, factiousness, party spirit).
cupido -inis, f. and poet. m., (longing, desire). Esp. (desire for power, ambition, avarice); (physical desire, love). Personified, Cupido -
inis, m. (Cupid, god, of love); plur. Cupidines, (Cupids); adj. Cupidineus -a -um.
cupidus -a -um, (desirous, eager, keen). Esp. (eager for power, ambitious; avaricious);, physically, (desirous, passionate); towards
persons, (attached, partial). Adv., cupide, (eagerly, passionately).
cupio cupere cupivi or -ii -itum, (to desire, long for,wish for). Hence partic. cupiens -entis, (longing, eager); as adj., with genit.; adv.
cupitor -oris, m. (one who desires).
cuppedia (1) -ae, f. (taste for delicacies).
cuppedia (2) -orum, n. pl. (delicacies, tid-bits).
cuppedinarius -i, m. (a confectioner).
cuppedo, = cupido; q.v.
cupressetum -i, n. (a cypress wood).
cupresseus -a -um, (made of cypress wood).
cupressifer -fera -ferum, (cypress-bearing).
cupressus -i (-us), f. (the cypress; a casket of cypress wood).
cur (quor), (why? wherefore?).
cura -ae, f. (care); (1) (care taken, carefulness, pains, attention, minding of things, or persons); of business, (management,
administration); meton., (an object of, care, or a guardian, caretaker). (2) (care felt, anxiety, worry, disquiet).
curalium -i, n. (coral, esp. red coral).
curatio -onis, f. (care, attention; esp. medical attention, healing, curing); of business, (management, administration); 'frumenti',
(commission to buy corn); 'agraria', (commission to divide land).
curator -oris, m. (guardian, overseer).
curatus, partic. from curo; q.v.
curculio -onis, m. (a weevil, corn-worm).
Cures -ium, f. (a town of the Sabines); adj. Curensis -e.
Curetes -um, m. (ancient inhabitants of Crete); adj. Curetis -idis= (Cretan).
curia -ae, f. (1) (a curia, a division of the Roman patricians); meton., (the meeting, place of a curia). (2) (the meeting place of the
senate, senate-house); at, Athens, (the Areopagus).
curialis -e, (belonging to the same curia).
curiatim, (by curiae).
curiatus -a -um, (relating to curiae); 'comitia curiata', (the original assembly of the Roman, people).
curio -onis, m. (the priest of a curia; a herald, crier).
curiositas -atis, f. (inquisitiveness).
curiosus -a -um, (1) (careful, attentive). (2) (inquisitive). (3) (wasted by cares). Adv., curiose, (carefully; inquisitively).

curis or quiris, f. (a spear).
curo -are, (to care for, pay attention to, trouble about); with gerundive, (to see to) a, thing being done; of business, (to manage,
administer); physically, (to, minister to, cure, rest); of business, (to provide or procure money); 'curare, Romae', (to be in charge at
Rome). Hence partic. curatus -a -um, (cared for;, showing care). Compar. adv. curatius, (more carefully).
curriculum -i, n. (running; a contest in running, race; raceground, course, lap; a racing, chariot).
curro currere cucurri cursum, (to run, hasten); esp. (to run in a race); at sea, (to sail); of time, (to, pass).
currus -us, m. (a chariot, car); esp. one used in racing, or war, or at a triumph; meton., (a triumph). Transf., (a plow with wheels; a
cursim, (hastily, quickly).
cursito -are, (to run up and down).
curso -are, (to run hither and thither).
cursor -oris, m. (a runner; a courier, messenger; a running footman).
cursus -us, m. (running, rapid motion; course, direction, movement, journey).
curto -are, (to shorten, abbreviate).
curtus -a -um, (shortened, mutilated, defective); esp. (gelded).
curulis -e, (relating to a chariot); 'equi', (horses provided for the Circus); 'curulis, (sella)', (the curule chair), official seat of consuls,
praetors, and curule, aediles.
curvamen -inis, n. (curving, arching).
curvatura -ae, f. (curving, arching).
curvo -are, (to bend, arch, curve; to influence).
curvus -a -um, (bent, bowed, arched, curved, winding); morally, (crooked).
cuspis -idis, f. (point, esp. of a spear); hence (a spear, lance; a trident, a spit).
custodia -ae, f. (watching, guarding, custody, care); milit., (keeping guard, watch); of, prisoners, (custody, safekeeping); 'custodia
libera', (house-arrest). Transf., (persons guarding, guards, sentinels; the station of the guard, post, prison;, persons guarded,
custodio -ire, (to guard, watch, keep, take care of; to keep in sight, observe; to keep in, prison, hold captive).
custos -odis, c. (guardian, watchman, keeper, attendant; a jailer, sentinel, guard, spy).
cuticula -ae, f. (skin, cuticle).
cutis -is, f. (skin, hide, leather).
cyathus -i, m. (a ladle for filling goblets with wine); as measure of capacity = one, twelth of a sextarius.
cybaea -ae, f. (with or without navis) (a merchantman).
Cybele or Cybebe -es, f. (a Phrygian goddess, worshipped at Rome).
cyclas -adis, f. (a female robe of state).
Cyclas -adis, f., plur., Cyclades, (a group of islands in the Aegean Sea).
cyclicus -a -um, (cyclic).
Cyclops -clopis, m. (a Cyclops), gen. plur., Cyclopes, (the Cyclopes, a gigantic one-eyed, race); adj. Cyclopius -a -um.
cycneus or cygneus -a -um, (belonging to the swan).
cycnus, = cygnus; q.v.
cygnus -i, m. (the swan).
cylindrus -i, m. (a cylinder, a roller).
Cyllene -es and -ae, f. (a mountain in Arcadia, where Mercury was born). Adj. Cylleneus and, Cyllenius -a -um.
cymba -ae, f. = cumba; q.v.
cymbalum -i, n. (a cymbal).
cymbium -i, n. (a small drinking-vessel).
Cynicus -a -um, (Cynic, of the Cynic school).
cynocephalus -i, m. (the dog-faced baboon).
Cynosura -ae, f. (the constellation Ursa Minor).
Cynthus -i, m. (a mountain in Delos, birthplace of Apollo and Diana); hence adj. as, subst., m. Cynthius -i, (Apollo), f. Cynthia -ae,
Cyparissus, f. = cupressus; q.v.

Cyprus or Cypros -i, f. (the island of Cyprus); adj. Cyprius -a -um, (Cyprian); f. as subst., (Venus).
Cyrene -es and Cyrenae -arum, f. (a city of northeastern Africa); adj. Cyrenaeus and Cyrenaicus -a -um, (Cyrenaic); m. pl. as subst., (the
Cyrenaic philosophers).
Cythera -orum, n. pl. (the island Cythera, sacred to Venus); adj. Cythereus and Cytereius -a, -um, (Cytherean); f. as subst. = Venus.
cytisus -i, c. (clover or lucerne).
Daci -orum, m. pl. (the Dacians, a warlike people on the Lower Danube). Dacia -ae, f., (their country).
dactylicus -a -um, (dactylic).
dactyliotheca -ae, f. (a casket for rings).
dactylus -i, m. (a metrical foot, a dactyl).
daedalus -a -um, act., (skilful); '(natura) daedala rerum', (quaint artificer); pass., (curiously wrought, variegated).
Daedalus -i, m. (mythical Athenian, builder of the Cretan labyrinth); adj. Daedaleus and, Daedalius -a -um.
Dalmatae (Delmatae) -arum, m. pl. (the Dalmatians, inhabitants of Dalmatia).
Damascus -i, f. (Damascus, capital of Syria); adj. Damascenus -a -um, (Damascene); 'pruna', (damsons).
damma (older dama) -ae, f. or m. (a fallow-deer, chamois, antelope); as meat, (venison).
damnatio -onis, f. (condemnation).
damnatorius -a -um, (condemnatory).
damno -are, (to cause loss or injury to); at law, (to condemn, sentence, punish) (offence, usually genit., punishment genit. or abl.);
'damnari inter sicarios', (to be, condemned as an assassin); in gen., (to condemn, disapprove of); of deities, 'damnari voti' or 'voto', (to
grant a person's wish, and compel him to, discharge his vow); also (to assign, devote, make over).
damnosus -a -um, act. (causing loss or damage, detrimental); pass. (damaged, injured); middle, sense, (self-injuring). Adv. damnose,
damnum -i, n. (loss, damage, injury); at law, (a fine).
Danae -es, f. (mother of Perseus).
Danaus -i, m. (son of Belus, who left Egypt for Argos); adj. Danaus -a -um, (Argive, Greek); m. pl. Danai -orum, (the Greeks); Danaides -
um, f. (the fifty, daughters of Danaus).
danista -ae, m. (money-lender).
dano, = old form of do; q.v.
Danuvius -i, m. (the river Danube).
Daphne -es, f. (daughter of Peneus, changed into a laurel tree).
daphnon -onis, m. (a grove of laurels).
daps dapis, f. (a sacrificial feast, religious banquet); in gen., (meal, feast, banquet).
dapsilis -e, (sumptuous, plentiful).
Dardani -orum, m. pl. (a warlike Illyrian people).
Dardanus -i, m. (son of Jupiter, mythical ancestor of the royal family of Troy); adj., Dardanus and Dardanius -a -um, (Trojan); subst.
Dardania -ae, f. = Troy;, Dardanides -ae, m. (a male descendant of Dardanus); Dardanis -idis, f. (a, Trojan woman).
Dareus -i, m. (name of several Persian kings).
datio -onis, f. (a giving); legal, (right of alienation).
dativus -a -um, (to do with giving); '(casus) dativus', (the dative case).
dato -are, (to give away).
dator -oris, m. (giver).
Daunus -i, m. (a mythical king of Apulia, ancestor of Turnus); adj. Daunius -a -um, (Daunian); f. subst. Daunias -adis, (Apulia).
de, prep. with abl. (1) in space, (down from, away from). Transf., (coming from), an origin; (taken from) a class or stock, (made from) a
material, (changed, from) a previous state; of information, (from) a source. (2) in time, (following from, after; in the course of,
during). (3) (about) a subject; (on, account of) a cause; (according to) a standard.
dea -ae, f. (goddess).
dealbo -are, (to whitewash, plaster).
deambulo -are, (to take a walk).

dearmo -are, (to disarm).
debacchor -ari, dep. (to rave, revel furiously).
debellator -oris, m. (a conqueror).
debello -are, intransit. (to fight to the end, finish a war); transit. (to fight out) a, fight; (to conquer) an enemy.
debeo -ere -ui -itum, (to owe). Lit. of money, etc.: n. of perf. partic. pass. as subst., debitum, -i, (a debt). Transf., (to be indebted to)
somebody for anything; with infin., (to be due to do a thing, be morally bound to or be bound by logic or, necessity or law to; to
have to pay because of fate, to be destined to give).
debilis -e, (feeble, weak).
debilitas -atis, f. (weakness, feebleness).
debilitatio -onis, f. (weakening, disabling).
debilito -are, (to weaken, enfeeble, disable; to enervate, break down).
debitio -onis, f. (owing, debt).
debitor -oris, m. (one who owes, a debtor).
debitum -i, subst. from debeo; q.v.
decanto -are, transit. (to sing or say repeatedly); intransit. (to leave off singing).
decedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (1) (to move away, withdraw, retire); milit., (to march away). Transf., (to, retire, give up); with dat.,
(to yield to, retire in favor of), esp. (to, depart from life, to die). (2) of things, (to retire, abate, cease); 'sol, decedens', (setting). (3)
(to go astray, deviate).
decem, indecl. (ten).
December -bris, adj. (of December) (originally the tenth Roman month); December (mensis), (December).
decempeda -ae, f. (a ten-foot ruler).
decempedator -oris, m. (a land-surveyor).
decemprimi -orum, m. pl. (the ten chief men in the senate of a municipium or colonia).
decemvir -i, m.; usually plur., (a board of ten commissioners at Rome for various, purposes).
decemviralis -e, (relating to the decemvirs).
decemviratus -us, m. (the office of decemvir).
decennis -e, (of ten years).
decentia -ae, f. (propriety, comeliness).
decerno -cernere -crevi -cretum, (to decide, determine; to settle that) a thing is so; and of action, (to, decide to do or give) a thing;
of a body, (to decide, decree); as a member of, a body, (to move, propose); of combatants, (to settle by fighting). Hence, partic.
decretus -a -um; m. as subst. decretum -i, (a resolve, decree);, philosoph. (doctrine, principle).
decerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum, (to pluck off, pluck away). Transf., (to gather; to derive; to take away).
decertatio -onis, f. (contest).
decerto -are, (to contend, fight to a finish).
decessio -onis, f. (a withdrawing, departure); esp. (of a governor retiring from his, province). Transf., (deduction, diminution).
decessor -oris, m. (one who retires from an office, a predecessor).
decessus -us, m. (withdrawal, departure). Esp. (the retirement of an official; death); of, water, (ebb).
decet -ere -uit, (it is proper, it is fitting (physically or morally)). Hence partic. decens, -entis, (proper, fit); adv. decenter.
decido (1) -cidere -cidi, (to fall down, to fall dead, die); in gen., (to sink, fall).
decido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to cut down, cut off; to cut short, to settle, to arrange).
decies and deciens, (ten times).
decim-, see also decum-.
decimus (older decumus) -a -um, (tenth); decimum, (for the tenth time).
decipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, (to catch); hence (to cheat, deceive, beguile (esp. of time)).
decisio -onis, f. (a settlement, decision).
Decius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens); adj. Decianus -a -um.
declamatio -onis, f. (loud, violent speaking, declamation; practice in oratory, or a theme for, such practice).
declamator -oris, m. (a declaimer).

declamatorius -a -um, (of declamation, rhetorical).
declamito -are, (to speak loudly, declaim); esp. (to practice speaking in public); 'causas', (to plead for practice).
declamo -are, (to speak loudly); esp. (to practice speaking in public); with object, (to, declaim).
declaratio -onis, f. (making clear, open expression).
declaro -are, (to make clear, explain, reveal, declare); of appointments, (to proclaim) a, person as chosen.
declinatio -onis, f. (bending away, turning aside). Transf., (an avoiding, declining); rhet. (a, digression); grammat. (inflexion,
declino -are, transit., (to bend aside, turn away, deflect). Transf., (to avoid, shun);, intransit., (to deviate, swerve, digress).
declivis -e, (inclined downwards, sloping); n. as subst. declive -is, (a slope, declivity).
declivitas -atis, f. (a declivity).
decocta -ae, f. subst. from decoquo; q.v.
decoctor -oris, m. (spendthrift, bankrupt).
decollo -are, (to behead).
decolo -are, (to trickle away).
decolor -oris, (off-color, pale).
decoloratio -onis, f. (discoloring).
decoloro -are, (to discolor).
decoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, (to boil thoroughly; to boil down, boil away); of metals, (to melt away); of, property, (to waste);
commerc., (to ruin oneself, become bankrupt). Hence, partic. decoctus -a -um, (boiled down); of style, (insipid); f. as subst. (a, cold
decor -oris, m. (grace, comeliness, beauty).
decoro -are, (to embellish, beautify, adorn).
decorus -a -um, physically, (graceful, beautiful, comely); morally, (proper, fit, becoming)., N. as subst. decorum -i, (propriety, grace).
Adv. decore, (fitly, becomingly).
decrepitus -a -um, (infirm, decrepit).
decresco -crescere -crevi -cretum, (to grow down, become smaller, decrease).
decretum -i, subst. from decerno; q.v.
decuma (decima) -ae, f. (a tenth part tithe) (as an offering, tax, or largesse).
decumanus (decimanus) -a -um, (of the tenth).(1) (relating to the provincial tax of a tenth); m. as subst., (the farmer of such a tax). (2)
(belonging to the tenth legion); m. pl. as, subst. (its members). (3) (belonging to the tenth cohort).
decumates -ium, pl. adj. (relating to tithes).
decumbo -cumbere -cubui, (to lie down, fall, fall down).
decumo (decimo) -are, (to take a tithe); milit. (to decimate troops).
decuria -ae, f. (a body of ten men; a class, division, esp. of jurors); (a party, club).
decuriatio -onis, f. (a dividing into decuriae).
decuriatus -us, m. (a dividing into decuriae).
decurio (1) -are, (to divide into bodies of ten, or into classes of ten).
decurio (2) -onis, m. (head of a body of ten); milit. (company commander in the cavalry); polit., (a senator of a municipium or
decurro -currere -cucurri or -curri -cursum, (to run down, hasten down); milit. (to move down or to manoeuvre). Transf., (to run in a
race); transit. (to run through, traverse) a set course; (to have, recourse to, take refuge in); of ships, (to sail downstream or to land);
of, water, (to run down).
decursio -onis, f. milit., (a manoeuvre or charge).
decursus -us, m. (a running down); milit. (a manoeuvre, a charge, attack). Transf., (the, completion of a course); rhet., (rhythmical
decurtatus -a -um, (mutilated) (of style).
decus -oris, n. (distinction, honor, glory, grace; moral dignity, virtue); of persons, (pride, glory); plur., decora, (distinguished acts).
decutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, (to shake down, shake off, knock off).
dedecet -decere -decuit, (it is unbecoming, unsuitable, unfitting).
dedecoro -are, (to dishonor, bring shame upon).

dedecorus -a -um, (shameful, dishonorable).
dedecus -oris, n. (shame, dishonor, disgrace; a dishonorable action, crime, vice).
dedicatio -onis, f. (consecration).
dedico -are, (to dedicate, consecrate; to specify, indicate).
dedignor -ari, dep. (to think unworthy, scorn, reject).
dedisco -discere -didici, (to unlearn, forget).
dediticius -a -um, (relating to surrender); m. plur., dediticii, (subjects of Rome without, rights).
deditio -onis, f. (unconditional surrender, capitulation).
dedo dedere -didi -ditum, (to give up, surrender) esp. of the conquered. Transf., (to give up to, dedicate, devote). Hence partic.
deditus -a -um, (devoted to, addicted to);, 'dedita opera', (intentionally).
dedoceo -ere, (to cause to unlearn, to unteach; teach not to).
dedoleo -dolere -dolui, (to make an end of grieving).
deduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (to lead or bring down); in time, from the past, (to trace downwards) to the, present; in amount, (to
reduce); from an amount, (to subtract); in gen., (to, lead or draw away; to lead forth colonists, to found a colony; to escort a, person
to a place); of persons and things,(to bring out of one state, opinion, etc. into another); in weaving, (to draw threads); hence, (to
draw out, spin, out) in speech or writing.
deductio -onis, f. (a leading down; a reduction; a leading away of colonists, etc.).
deerro -are, (to wander from the right path, go astray).
defatigatio -onis, f. (exhaustion, fatigue).
defatigo -are, (to weary, fatigue).
defatiscor, = defetiscor; q.v.
defectio -onis, f. (failure). Hence (defection, rebellion; weakening, failing, vanishing)., Partic. defectus -a -um, (failing, deficient).
defector -oris, m. (rebel, deserter).
defectus (1) -a -um, part. of deficio; q.v.
defectus (2) -us, m. (a failing, disappearance); esp. (a failing of light, eclipse).
defendo -fendere -fendi -fensum, (1) (to repel, repulse, ward off, drive away) (2) (to defend, protect); esp., (to defend in court); in
argument, (to maintain a proposition or statement);, (to sustain a part).
defensio -onis, f. (2) (a warding off). (3) (defence).
defensito -are, (to defend frequently).
defenso -are, (to defend vigorously).
defensor -oris, m. (1) (one who wards off or averts). (2) (a defender, protector) esp. in, court.
defero -ferre -tuli -latum, (to bring down, carry down); in gen., (to bring or carry away), esp. to a, particular place; 'deferre rationes',
(to hand in accounts); fig., (to offer, hand over, refer); of news, (to communicate, report), esp. to authority;, legal, 'deferre nomen',
(to inform against a person, indict); 'deferre, crimen', (to bring a charge).
defervesco -fervescere -fervi or -ferbui, (to cease boiling); of passion, (to cease to rage).
defetiscor (defatiscor) -fetisci -fessus, dep. (to become tired, grow weary); esp. in perf. partic. defessus -a -um, (weary, tired).
deficio -ficere -feci -fectum, intransit. (to do less than one might, to fail); hence, (to desert, rebel, revolt); of things, (to fail, run
short); of sun or moon, (to become, eclipsed); of fire, (to go out); of water, (to ebb); of strength, etc., (to, fail, become weak); 'amimo
deficere', (to lose heart); transit. (to abandon, leave, fail); rarely pass. defici, (to be failed). Hence partic. defectus -a, -um, (feeble),
esp. because of age.
defigo -figere -fixi -fixum, (to fasten down, fix in); in gen., (to secure, plant firmly); of sight or, thought, (to concentrate, fix upon);of
persons, (to fix, make motionless), with astonishment, etc.: partic. defixus -a -um, (astounded); of enchantment, (to bind by a spell).
defingo -fingere -finxi, (to form, mold).
definio -ire, (to limit, bound, mark out; to set limits to a thing, confine; to set as a, limit, appoint, assign); (to interpret) ideas or
words in terms of each other, (to understand) one thing by another; in logic, (to define). Hence partic., definitus -a -um, (definite,
distinct); adv. definite.
definitio -onis, f. (limiting, prescribing); in logic, (a definition).
definitivus -a -um, (definitive, explanatory).

defit (as from defio), (fails).
deflagratio -onis, f. (burning, destruction by fire).
deflagro -are, (to be burnt down, destroyed by fire); in gen., (to be destroyed); of, passions, (to cease burning, abate, cool). Partic. in
pass. sense, deflagratus, -a -um, (burnt down, destroyed).
deflecto -flectere -flexi -flexum, transit. (to bend down or aside); intrans. (to turn aside, turn away); in, speech, (to digress).
defleo -flere -flevi -fletum, (to bewail, weep for).
defloccatus -a -um, (bald).
defloresco -florescere -florui, (to shed blossoms, fade, wither).
defluo -fluere -fluxi, (1) (to flow down, slip down, descend); abstr., (to come down), esp. of the, gifts of heaven. (2) (to flow away,
disappear, be lost).
defodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, (to dig down into; to form by digging, excavate; to dig in, cover, bury, conceal).
deformatio -onis, f. (deforming, disfiguring; degradation).
deformis -e, (1) (deformed, misshapen, ugly, disgusting). Transf., (foul, shameful). (2), (formless, shapeless). Adv. deformiter, (in an
ugly fashion).
deformitas -atis, f. (deformity, ugliness; disgrace, dishonor).
deformo -are, (1) (to form, fashion; to delineate). (2) (to put out of shape, disfigure; to, disgrace, dishonor).
defraudo (defrudo) -are, (to deceive, cheat); 'genium suum', (to deprive oneself of pleasure).
defrenatus -a -um, (unbridled, unrestrained).
defrico -fricare -fricui -frictum, (to rub down); fig. (to satirize, lash).
defringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, (to break down, break off).
defrutum -i, n. (new wine boiled down).
defugio -fugere -fugi, intransit., (to flee away); transit., (to fly from, avoid).
defundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, (to pour down, pour out).
defungor -fungi -functus, dep. (to perform, discharge, have done with); '(vita) defungi', (to die).
degener -eris, (fallen away from one's origin, unworthy of one's race, degenerate, unworthy, ignoble).
degenero -are, intransit. (to become unlike one's kind, to fall off, go bad, degenerate);, transit. (to cause to degenerate, or disgrace
by degeneracy).
degero -ere, (to carry off).
dego degere degi, (to pass time); absol., (to live).
degrandinat, impers. (it hails violently, or (perhaps) it ceases to hail).
degravo -are, (to weigh down, bring down, lower).
degredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to step down, march down).
degusto -are, (to take a taste from, taste); of fire, (to lick); of a weapon, (to graze); in, gen., (to try, make a trial of, sound).
dehinc, (from here, hence; from this time, henceforth; immediately after that
time, thereupon).
dehisco -ere, (to gape, open, split down).
dehonestamentum -i, n. (blemish, deformity, disgrace).
dehonesto -are, (to dishonor, disgrace).
dehortor -ari, dep. (to discourage, dissuade).
deicio -icere -ieci -iectum, (to throw, cast, hurl down); with reflex., (to rush down); of upright things, (to throw to the ground, fell);
of persons, (to kill, bring down). In gen., (to fling away or aside); naut., deici, (to be thrown off course); milit., (to, dislodge);(to eject,
dispossess; to shift) a person from an opinion, attitude;, (to disappoint). Hence partic. deiectus -a -um, (low-lying; dispirited,
deiectio -onis, f. (throwing down; eviction from property).
deiectus (1) -a -um, -partic. from deicio; q.v.
deiectus (2) -us, m. (a throwing down; a declivity, steep slope).
deiero -are, (to swear).
dein, see deinde.
deinceps, (one after the other, successively).
deinde, and abbrev. dein: of space,(from that place); of time, (thereafter, thereupon, then, afterwards); in

enumerations, (next, and then).
Deiotarus -i, m. (a king of Galatia, defended by Cicero).
deiungo -ere, (to disconnect).
delabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (to glide down, fall down, sink); of liquids, (to flow down). Transf., (to sink to, come down to)
circumstances, etc.; (to proceed from, be derived, from) an origin; (to fall unawares) among people.
delacero -are, (to tear to pieces).
delamentor -ari, dep. (to bewail, lament).
delasso -are, (to weary, tire out).
delatio -onis, f. (reporting, giving information against, denunciation).
delator -oris, m. (an informer, denouncer).
delectabilis -e, (delightful, pleasant).
delectamentum -i, n. (delight, amusement).
delectatio -onis, f. (delight, pleasure).
delecto -are, (to divert, attract, delight); in pass. with abl., (to take delight in); in, pass. with infin., (to delight in).
delectus -us, m. (choosing, choice).
delegatio -onis, f. (assignment of a debt).
delego -are, (to transfer, commit, assign; to impute, attribute, ascribe).
delenimentum -i, n. (what soothes or charms).
delenio (delinio) -ire, (to soften down; to soothe or charm).
delenitor -oris, m. (one who soothes or cajoles).
deleo -lere -levi -letum, (to blot out, efface); in gen., (to destroy, annihilate).
deliberabundus -a -um, (carefully considering, deliberating).
deliberatio -onis, f. (consideration, consultation).
deliberativus -a -um, (relating to deliberation).
deliberator -oris, m. (one who deliberates).
delibero -are, (to weigh carefully, consider, consult about; to ask advice), esp. of an, oracle; as a result of deliberation, (resolve).
Hence partic. deliberatus -a, -um, (resolved, determined).
delibo -are, (to take a little from, to taste); in gen. (to extract, derive; to take from, so as to enjoy; to take from so as to lessen or
delibro -are, (to peel the bark off).
delibutus -a -um, (steeped).
delicatus -a -um, (soft, tender); in bad sense, of things, (luxurious); of persons, (spoilt, effeminate); of tastes, (fastidious, dainty, nice).
Adv. delicate, (luxuriously).
deliciae -arum, f. pl. (allurements, charms, delights, fancies); 'esse in deliciis', (to be a, favorite); concr., (darling, sweetheart).
deliciolae -arum, f. pl. (a darling).
delictum -i, n. (a fault, crime).
deligo (1) -ligere -legi -lectum, (to pick, pluck; to choose, select).
deligo (2) -are, (to fasten, bind up).
delingo -ere, (to lick off, lick up).
delinquo -linquere -liqui -lictum, (to fail, be wanting), esp. (to fail in duty, commit a crime).
deliquesco -liquescere -licui, (to melt, dissolve; to vanish, disappear).
deliquo and delico -are, (to clarify; to explain).
deliratio -onis, f. (folly, silliness, dotage).
deliro -are, (to act crazily, rave).
delirus -a -um, (silly, crazy, doting).
delitesco -litescere -litui, (to conceal oneself, lie hid, take refuge).
delitigo -are, (to scold furiously).
Delos -i, f. (a small island in the Aegean Sea, birthplace of Apollo and Diana); adj., Deliacus and Delius -a -um, (of Delos); as subst.
Delius -i, m. = Apollo;, Delia -ae, f. = Diana.
Delphi -orum, m. pl. (a town in Phocis, famous for its oracle of Apollo); adj. Delphicus -a, -um.
delphinus -i and delphin -inis, m. (dolphin).

delubrum -i, n. (a shrine, temple).
deluctor -ari, dep. and delucto -are, (to wrestle).
deludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, (to mock, cheat).
delumbo -are, (to lame, enervate, weaken).
demadesco -madescere -madui, (to become wet through).
demando -are, (to entrust, commit).
demens -entis, (out of one's mind, insane, senseless); adv. dementer.
dementia -ae, f. (senselessness, insanity); in plur., (mad actions).
dementio -ire, (to be mad, rave).
demereo -ere and demereor -eri, dep. (to earn thoroughly, to deserve well) of a person, (to oblige).
demergo -mergere -mersi -mersum, (to sink, plunge into, dip under); 'aere alieno demersus,' (over head and ears, in debt).
demetior -metiri -mensus, dep. (to measure out); partic. demensus -a -um, in pass. sense, with n. as, subst., (an allowance).
demeto -metere -messui -messum, (to mow, reap, cut down or off).
demigro -are, (to emigrate, depart). Transf., (to die).
deminuo -minuere -minui -minutum, (to take away from, diminish, lessen); 'capite se deminuere', (to suffer a, loss of civil rights).
deminutio -onis, f. (lessening, diminution); 'sui', (loss of prestige); 'capitis', (loss of, civil rights); (right of alienation).
demiror -ari, dep. (to wonder at).
demissio -onis, f. (sinking, lowering); 'animi', (dejection).
demitigo -are, (to make mild, soft).
demitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to send down, lower, put down); 'tunica demissa', (hanging loosely); 'demissi, capilli', (growing long);
milit. (to lead down); naut., (to lower gear, or, bring a vessel downstream or to land). Transf., (to sink, bury, plunge); of, spirits, (to
lower). Hence partic. demissus -a -um, (hanging down);of dress, and hair, (long, loose); of places, (low-lying). Transf., (feeble, weak;,
unassuming, modest; downcast, dispirited). Adv. demisse, (low, near the, ground). Transf., (modestly, humbly, meanly).
demo demere dempsi demptum, (to take away, subtract).
Democritus -i, m. (a philosopher of Abdera (c. 460-370 B.C.)). Hence adj. Democriticus -a, -um.
demolior -iri, dep. (to throw down, demolish).
demolitio -onis, f. (throwing down, demolition).
demonstratio -onis, f. (pointing out, indication, explanation, description); rhet., (oratory, concerned with praise and censure).
demonstrativus -a -um, (demonstrative); rhet., of oratory, (concerned with praise and censure).
demonstrator -oris, m. (one who points out or indicates).
demonstro -are, (to indicate, explain, describe).
demorior -mori -mortuus, dep. (to die, die off); with acc. of person, (to die for love of).
demoror -ari, dep.: intransit., (to delay, loiter); transit., (to stop, delay, retard).
Demosthenes -is (also -i), (the Athenian orator (384-322 B.C.)).
demoveo -movere -movi -motum, (to move away, remove); 'hominem de sententia', (to make a person change his, opinion).
demugitus -a -um, (filled with the noise of lowing).
demulceo -mulcere -mulsi, (to stroke down, caress by stroking).
demum, of time, (at length, at last); in enumerations, (finally, in short); 'id, demum', (that and that alone).
demurmuro -are, (to murmur or mutter over).
demutatio -onis, f. (change, alteration), esp. for the worse.
demuto -are, transit., (to change, alter) a thing, esp. for the worse; intransit., (to, change one's mind or become different).
denarius -a -um, (containing ten); 'denarius nummus', or 'denarius' alone, (a Roman silver, coin).
denarro -are, (to narrate, tell, relate).
denato -are, (to swim down).
denego -are, (to deny, say no; to deny, refuse, reject a person).

deni -ae -a, (ten by ten, ten at a time, by tens).
denicalis -e, (releasing from death); 'feriae', (a funeral ceremony).
denique: in time, (at last, finally); in enumerations, (again, further or finally); (in short, in fine).
denomino -are, (to name).
denormo -are, (to make crooked).
denoto -are, (to mark out for another, designate precisely; to take note of).
dens dentis, m. (a tooth). Transf., things resembling a tooth, e.g., (a mattock or sickle);, abstr., of anything biting, sharp, destructive.
denseo -ere, (to make thick, condense, press together).
denso -are, (to make thick, condense, press together).
densus -a -um, (thick, close, dense); in time, (frequent); in degree, (intense, vehement); in, style, of work or author, (condensed).
Adv. dense, (densely); of time, (frequently).
dentalia -ium, n. pl. (the share-beam of a plow).
dentatus -a -um, (provided with teeth, toothed; polished by teeth).
dentio -ire, (to cut teeth); of teeth, (to grow).
denubo -nubere -nupsi -nuptum, (to be married off, to marry (of the woman), esp. beneath her).
denudo -are, (to lay bare, uncover, reveal). Transf. (to rob, plunder).
denuntiatio -onis, f. (announcement, declaration, threat).
denuntio -are, (to announce, give notice, declare, threaten); 'bellum denuntiare', (to, declare war); legal, (to give notice, serve a
denuo, (anew, again; a second time).
deonero -are, (to unload, disburden).
deorsum or deorsus, (downwards); 'sursum deorsum', (up and down, backwards and forwards).
depaciscor, = depeciscor; q.v.
depactus -a -um, (fastened down, firmly fixed).
depasco -pascere -pavi -pastum and depascor -pasci, dep. (to feed off); in gen., (to eat up, consume, reduce).
depeciscor -pecisci -pectus, dep. (to make a bargain for or about; to settle for, accept a condition).
depecto -pectere -pexum, (to comb down); in comedy, (to beat soundly).
depeculator -oris, m. (plunderer, embezzler).
depeculor -ari, dep. (to rob, plunder).
depello -pellere -puli -pulsum, (to drive down, or away, expel, remove); milit., (to dislodge); naut., (to, drive off course); in gen., (to
drive away, avert); of persons, (to, dissuade).
dependeo -ere, (to hang down; to depend upon; to be derived from).
dependo -pendere -pendi -pensum, (to weigh out and pay over).
deperdo -perdere -perdidi -perditum, (to lose, waste, destroy); esp. of the effects of love.
depereo -perire -perii, (to perish or be ruined utterly; to be desperately in love).
depilo -are, (to strip of hair or feathers).
depingo -pingere -pinxi -pictum, (to paint, depict, portray).
deplango -plangere -planxi, (to bewail, lament).
deplexus -a -um, (clasping).
deploro -are, intransit., (to weep bitterly, lament); transit., (to lament, bewail; to, regard as lost, give up).
depluit -pluere, (rains down).
depono -ponere -posui -positum, (1) (to lay down, put down); esp. (to lay as wager or prize). (2) for, safekeeping, (to put down,
deposit; to commit, entrust). (3) (to lay aside, have done with). Hence partic. depositus -a -um.(1)(laid out; dying, despaired, of,
dead). (2) (entrusted); n. as subst. (a deposit).
depopulatio -onis, f. (laying waste, ravaging).
depopulator -oris, m. (a ravager).
depopulor -ari, dep.; also depopulo -are, (to lay waste, ravage, destroy).
deporto -are, (to carry down, carry off, take away; to bring home; to banish for life (with, loss of rights and property)).
deposco -poscere -poposci, (to demand), usually for a purpose, esp. for punishment.
depravatio -onis, f. (perverting, distorting); 'animi', (depravity).

depravo -are, (to make crooked, pervert, disfigure); verbally, (to distort, misrepresent);, morally, (to spoil, corrupt). Adv. from partic.,
depravate, (perversely).
deprecabundus -a -um, (earnestly entreating).
deprecatio -onis, f. (1) (an attempt to avert by entreaty, deprecation). (2) (an entreaty, against a person), for his punishment.
deprecator -oris, m. (1) (one that begs off, an intercessor). (2) (one that pleads for).
deprecor -ari, dep. (1) (to try to avert by entreaty, to deprecate; to allege in excuse (so, as to avoid punishment)). (2) (to entreat
against a person, to curse). (3) (to, entreat for, beg for, intercede).
deprehendo and deprendo -endere -endi -ensum, (to seize upon, catch hold of); esp. (to surprise, catch, detect) a person in, a crime
or fault; (to discover, detect, observe) a thing.
deprehensio -onis, f. (detection).
deprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, (to press down, depress); esp. (to plant deep in the ground, dig deep); of, ships, (to sink). Hence
partic. depressus -a -um, (low-lying).
deproelians -antis, (struggling violently).
depromo -promere -prompsi -promptum, (to take down, produce, fetch out).
depropero -are, intransit., (to hasten); transit., (to hasten over, produce in haste).
depudet -pudere -puduit, (ceases to be ashamed, loses all sense of shame).
depugno -are, (to fight hard, fight it out).
depulsio -onis, f. (driving away); rhet. (defence).
depulsor -oris, m. (an averter).
deputo -are, (1) (to prune, cut off). (2) (to count, estimate).
deque, see susque deque.
derelinquo -linquere -liqui -lictum, (to forsake, desert, abandon).
derepente, (suddenly).
derepo -repere -repsi, (to creep, crawl down).
derideo -ridere -risi -risum, (to laugh at, mock, deride).
deridiculus -a -um, (very laughable); n. as subst. (ridicule); 'esse deridiculo', (to be an object, of ridicule).
derigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, (to set straight, direct); of placing (also in form dirigo), (to order, dispose); milit. (to draw up); Transf., (to
direct, aim, guide) abstract, things.
derigui, perf., (grew quite still).
deripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, (to tear down, snatch away).
derisor -oris, m. (a mocker).
derisus -us, m. (mockery, derision).
derivatio -onis, f. (turning away or diversion of water).
derivo -are, (to turn into another channel, divert).
derogo -are, (to modify into a law); in gen. (to diminish, detract from).
derosus -a -um, (gnawed away).
deruncino -are, (to cheat, fleece).
deruo -ruere -rui -rutum, (to cast down, make to fall).
deruptus -a -um, (broken off); hence (precipitous, steep); n. pl. as subst. (precipices).
desaevio -ire -ii -itum, (to rage violently).
descendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, (to climb down, come down, descend); milit., (to march down); of things, (to, sink, pierce,
penetrate); of mountains, (to slope down); of the voice, (to, sink). Transf., of persons, (to lower oneself, stoop); of things, (to sink in,
descensio -onis, f. (going down, descent); 'Tiberina', (voyage down the Tiber).
descensus -us, m. (going down, descent; way down).
descisco -sciscere -scivi or -scii -scitum, (to break away, revolt, withdraw, diverge).
describo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, (1) (to transcribe, copy). (2) (to describe, delineate, represent, portray).
descriptio -onis, f. (1) (a copy). (2) (a representation, description, figure).
deseco -secare -secui -sectum, (to hew off, cut off).
desero -serere -serui -sertum, (to forsake, abandon, leave; to neglect, disregard). Hence partic. desertus -a, -um, (forsaken,
abandoned); n. pl. as subst., (deserts, wildernesses).
desertor -oris, m. (one who forsakes); milit., (deserter).

deservio -ire, (to serve zealously, be a slave to).
deses -sidis, m. (nom. sing. not found), (idle, lazy, inactive).
desideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, (to sit idle, be slothful).
desiderabilis -e, (desirable).
desideratio -onis, f. (desire, longing).
desiderium -i, n. (desire or longing, grief for the absence or loss of) a person or thing; in, gen., (a desire or request).
desidero -are, (to long for what is absent or lost, to wish for; to miss, find a lack of);, milit., (to lose).
desidia -ae, f. (idleness, inactivity, apathy).
desidiosus -a -um, (slothful, idle, lazy); adv. desidiose.
desido -sidere -sedi, (to sink down, subside, settle). Transf., (to deteriorate).
designatio -onis, f. (marking out, designation; appointment to an office).
designator -oris, m. = dissignator; q.v.
designo -are, (to mark out, trace, plan); in gen., (to point out, indicate, signify; to, portray, delineate); polit., (to nominate, elect);
partic. designatus -a -um, (elected, designated).
desilio -silire -silui -sultum, (to leap down); 'ad pedes', (to dismount).
desino -sinere -sii -situm, transit., (to cease, desist from); intransit., (to cease, stop, end); with in, and acc., (to end in).
desipientia -ae, f. (foolishness).
desipio -sipere, (to be foolish, act foolishly).
desisto -sistere -stiti -stitum, (to stand away); from a person, (to withdraw); from action, etc., (to desist, leave off, cease).
desolo -are, (to leave solitary, forsake).
despecto -are, (to regard from above, look down upon; to despise).
despectus (1) -a -um, partic. from despicio; q.v.
despectus (2) -us, m. (a looking down, downward view; an object of contempt).
desperatio -onis, f. (hopelessness, despair).
despero -are, intransit., (to be without hope, despair); transit., (to despair of, give up)., Adv. from pres. partic. desperanter,
(despairingly, hopelessly). Perf. partic., desperatus -a -um; in pass. sense, (despaired of); in middle sense, (desperate).
despicatio -onis, f. (contempt).
despicatus -us, m. (contempt).
despicientia -ae, f. (looking down upon; contempt).
despicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, (to look down, regard from above; to look down upon, despise). Pres. partic., act. despiciens,
(contemptuous). Perf. partic. pass. despectus -a -um, (despised, contemptible).
despicor -ari, (to look down upon, despise). Perf. partic. in pass. sense, despicatus -a -um, (despised, contemptible).
despolio -are, (to plunder, despoil).
despondeo -spondere -spondi -sponsum, (to pledge, to promise, esp. to promise in marriage, betroth); in gen. (to, pledge, devote);
with animum or animos, (to lose heart, despair).
despumo -are, (1) (to skim off). Transf. (to digest). (2) (to drop foam).
despuo -spuere, (to spit down, spit on the ground). Transf. (to reject).
desquamo -are, (to take off the scales, to scale).
desterto -stertere -stertui, (to finish snoring or dreaming).
destillo -are, (to drip down, distill).
destinatio -onis, f. (fixing, determining, appointment).
destino -are, (to make fast, fix down; to fix, determine, settle, appoint); with infin., (to, resolve to do); of persons, (to appoint) to an
office; of things, (to fix, upon, intend to buy). Hence partic. destinatus -a -um, (fixed, determined); n., as subst., (an objective or
intention); '(ex) destinato', (intentionally).
destituo -stituere -stitui -stitutum, (to set down, place); esp. (to leave in the lurch, forsake, desert).
destitutio -onis, f. (forsaking, abandoning).
destringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, (1) (to strip); esp. (to draw or bare) a sword. Transf., (to satirize, censure). (2) (to touch lightly,
graze). Hence partic. destrictus -a -um, (severe).
destruo -struere -struxi -structum, (to pull down, dismantle, destroy, ruin).

desubito (or de subito), (suddenly).
desudo -are, (to sweat violently, exert oneself hard).
desuefio -fieri -factus sum, pass., (to made unaccustomed).
desuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum, (to become unaccustomed); esp. partic. desuetus -a -um; in pass. sense, (disused); in middle
sense, (unaccustomed, unused to).
desuetudo -inis, f. (disuse).
desultor -oris, m. (a leaper, acrobat). Transf. (an inconstant person).
desultorius -a -um, (relating to a 'desultor').
desum -esse -fui, (to be down, fall short, fail, be missing or remiss).
desumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, (to take out, choose, select).
desuper, (from above).
desurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, (to rise and go down or out).
detego -tegere -texi -tectum, (to uncover, lay bare, disclose).
detendo -tendere -tensum, (to unstretch); 'tabernacula', (to strike tents).
detergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum, (1) (to wipe off, clear away, brush off). (2) (to cleanse by wiping).
deterior -ius, genit. -oris, compar. (superl. deterrimus) (lower, inferior, poorer, worse)., Adv. deterius, (worse).
determinatio -onis, f. (boundary, end).
determino -are, (to bound, fix the limits of, determine).
detero -terere -trivi -tritum, (to rub away, wear out; to detract from, weaken).
deterreo -terrere -terrui -territum, (to frighten off, deter, discourage).
detestabilis -e, (abominable, horrible).
detestatio -onis, f. (1) (a cursing, execration).(2) (a warding off, averting).
detestor -ari, dep. (1) (to pray against; to pray for deliverance from) a person or thing, or, (to curse, execrate). (2) of the gods' action,
(to avert, remove).
detexo -texere -texui -textum, (to make by plaiting; to finish, complete).
detineo -tinere -tinui -tentum, (to hold back, detain; to prevent; to engage, occupy exclusively).
detondeo -tondere -totondi and -tondi -tonsum, (to shear, clip).
detono -tonare -tonui, (to cease to thunder or rage).
detorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, (1) (to turn away, bend aside). (2) (to twist out of shape, distort).
detractio -onis, f. (drawing off, withdrawal, taking away); rhet., (ellipsis).
detracto, = detrecto; q.v.
detractor -oris, m. (detractor, disparager).
detraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, (1) (to draw down, drag down; to lower, humiliate). (2) (to draw off, drag, away, remove);
numerically, (to subtract); in speech, (to detract from a, person, disparage, slander).
detrectatio -onis, f. (refusal).
detrectator -oris, m. (disparager, detractor).
detrecto -are, (1) (to decline, refuse, shirk). (2) (to disparage, detract from, depreciate).
detrimentosus -a -um, (detrimental, hurtful).
detrimentum -i, n. (loss, damage, injury); milit., (loss, defeat).
detritus -a -um, partic. from detero; q.v.
detrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum, (to push down, thrust down); milit., (to dislodge); legal, (to dispossess, eject). Transf., of persons, (to
force, compel); of functions, (to put off, postpone).
detrunco -are, (to lop or cut off; to mutilate).
deturbo -are, (to force away, dash down); milit., (to dislodge); legal, (to eject, dispossess).
Deucalion -onis, m. (son of Prometheus, saved in an ark from a great flood, with his wife, Pyrrha).
deunx -uncis, m. (eleven-twelfths of a unit).
deuro -urere -ussi -ustum, (to burn down); of cold, (to destroy, nip).
deus -i, m. (a god, deity); 'di meliora (ferant)', (God forbid).
devasto -are, (to lay waste, devastate).
deveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, (to carry away or down); pass. devehi (sc.navi) (to sail).
devello -vellere -velli -vulsum, (to pluck, tear away).
develo -are, (to unveil, uncover).
deveneror -ari, dep. (1) (to worship, revere).(2) (to avert by prayers).

devenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come to, arrive at, reach).
deverbero -are, (to thrash soundly).
deversor (1) -ari, dep. (to lodge as a guest).
deversor (2) -oris, m. (a guest).
deversoriolum -i, n. (a small lodging).
deversorius -a -um, (fit to lodge in); n. as subst. (an inn, lodging, refuge).
deverticulum (devort-) -i, n. (1) (a by-way, by-path); hence (digression). (2) (an inn, lodging, refuge, resort).
deverto (devorto) -vertere -verti -versum, (to turn aside); esp. (to turn aside to a lodging to put up at, stay with)., Transf., (to digress).
devexus -a -um, (moving downwards, descending, sinking); of position, (sloping down, shelving, steep); of tendency, (inclining to).
devincio -vincire -vinxi -vinctum, (to bind, tie fast, attach, connect). Hence partic. devinctus -a -um, (attached, devoted).
devinco -vincere -vici -victum, (to conquer thoroughly, subjugate, overcome).
devitatio -onis, f. (avoiding).
devito -are, (to avoid).
devius -a -um, (off the beaten track, out of the way, solitary, retired) in mind, (erroneous, unreasonable).
devoco -are, (to call down or away); 'devocare in dubium', (to bring into danger).
devolo -are, (to fly down, hasten down).
devolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, (to roll down); pass., (to roll down, fall headlong, sink back).
devoro -are, (to swallow, devour, seize upon); of words, (to articulate badly, mispronounce); of property, (to consume, waste); of
disagreeable things, (to, swallow, accept, put up with).
devorticulum, see deverticulum.
devortium -i, n. (a by-way, by-path).
devotio -onis, f. (1) (consecrating, devoting). (2) (cursing). (3) (enchantment, incantation).
devoto -are, (to consecrate or devote to death).
devoveo -vovere -vovi -votum, (to consecrate, devote) esp. to a god, or to death; (to curse, execrate; to, bewitch, enchant); in gen.,
(to devote, give up). Hence partic. devotus -a, -um, (devoted; accursed; attached to a person); m. pl. as subst. (faithful, followers).
dextella -ae, f. (a little right hand).
dexter -tera -terum, or -tra -trum; compar. dexterior -ius, superl. dextimus -a -um; (right, on the, right hand, on the right side).Transf.
(dexterous, skillful; propitious, favorable, opportune). F. as subst. dextera or dextra, (the right hand);'(a), dextra', (on the right); esp.
(the right hand as a pledge of faith);, sometimes, in gen., (the hand). Adv. dextere or dextre, compar. dexterius;, (dexterously,
dexteritas -atis, f. (skillfulness, readiness).
dextrorsum and dextrorsus, (on the right, towards the right).
Dia -ae, f. (mother of Mercury).
diadema -atis, m. (a royal headband, diadem).
diaeta -ae, f. (1) (a way of living prescribed by a physician, regimen, diet). (2) (a, living room).
dialecticus -a -um, (of discussion, dialectical); m. as subst., dialecticus -i, (a dialectician, logician); f. dialectica -ae, and dialectice -es,
(the art of dialectic, logic); n. pl. dialectica -orum, (dialectical discussion); adv. dialectice, (dialectically).
dialis -e, (relating to Jupiter); '(flamen) dialis', (the priest of Jupiter).
dialogus -i, m. (a philosophical conversation).
Diana -ae, f. (the virgin goddess of the moon and hunting); adj. Dianius -a -um, (belonging to Diana).
diaria -orum, n. pl. (a day's allowance of food or pay).
dibaphus -a -um, (double-dyed); as f. subst. dibaphus -i, (the purple-striped robe of the, higher magistrates in Rome).
dica -ae, f. (law-suit, action) in a Greek court.
dicacitas -atis, f. (wit, satire, raillery).
dicatio -onis, f. (settling as a citizen in another state).
dicax -acis, (ready of speech; witty, satirical, sarcastic).
dichoreus -i, m. (a double trochee).

dicio -onis, f. (power, sovereignty, authority).
dicis, (genit.); 'dicis causa, dicis gratia', (for form's sake, for the sake of, appearances).
dico (1) -are, (to consecrate, dedicate, devote to the gods; to deify, place among the gods;, to inaugurate). Transf., (to devote, give
up, set apart); 'se civitati', or, 'in civitatem', (to become a citizen).
dico (2) dicere dixi dictum, (to indicate; to appoint); most commonly, (to say, speak, tell, mention); in, pass. with infin., (to be said
to); impersonally, dicitur, (it is said, that);of ideas,(to express, put into words); 'ius', (to administer law, give, rulings); of persons or
things, (to mention, speak of, tell of, relate; to, name, call; to mean, refer to). N. of partic. as subst. dictum -i, (a word, saying,
speech; a witty saying, a bon mot; a prediction; an order, command).
dicrotum -i, n. (a vessel with two banks of oars).
dictamnus -i, f. (dittany, a plant).
dictator -oris, m. (a dictator); in Rome, (an extraordinary magistrate, elected in emergency, and granted absolute power); elsewhere,
(a chief magistrate).
dictatorius -a -um, (belonging to a dictator, dictatorial).
dictatura -ae, f. (the office of dictator, dictatorship).
dictio -onis, f. (saying, speaking, talk, oratory).
dictito -are, (to say often, reiterate, assert repeatedly); 'dictitare causas', (to plead, frequently).
dicto -are, (to say often; to say over, dictate a thing to be written); hence (to get, written down).
dictum -i, n. subst. from dico (2); q.v.
Dido -us, f. (the founder of Carthage), also called Elisa or Elissa.
dido didere dididi diditum, (to divide, distribute, spread round).
diduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (to draw apart, separate); milit., (to divide, distribute), also (to scatter, disperse).
diecula -ae, f. (a little day, a short time).
dierectus -a -um, an abusive expression, like (go and be hanged!).
dies -ei, m. or f. (daytime, day; a day, period of twenty-four hours); 'diem ex die', (from day to day); 'in dies', (daily), esp. of a
continuing process of change;, 'in diem vivere', (to live for the day); meton., (the business or events of, the day); in gen., (time). Esp.
(a particular day, fixed date; a historic day;, day of death; anniversary, esp. birthday).
Diespiter -tris, m. (a name for Jupiter).
diffamo -are, (to spread evil reports about, to defame).
differentia -ae, f. (difference, distinction).
differitas -atis, f. (difference).
differo differre distuli dilatum, Transit., (to carry in different directions, spread abroad, scatter; to spread, news; to harass, disturb,
discredit a person); in time, (to delay, postpone, business, to put off persons). Intrans. (to differ, be different); 'nihil, differt', (there is
no difference).
differtus -a -um, (stuffed full, crammed).
difficilis -e, (difficult); of character, (hard to deal with, morose, obstinate). Adv., difficiliter and difficulter, (with difficulty).
difficultas -atis, f. (difficulty, need, trouble, distress); of character, (obstinacy, moroseness).
diffidentia -ae, f. (want of confidence, distrust, despair).
diffido -fidere -fisus sum, (to have no confidence, mistrust, despair); partic. diffidens -entis, (distrustful, diffident); adv. diffidenter.
diffindo -findere -fidi -fissum, (to split, cleave, open); legal, 'diem', (to postpone business).
diffingo -ere, (to form again, forge anew); fig., (to change).
diffiteor -eri, dep. (to deny, disavow).
difflo -are, (to blow apart).
diffluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, (to flow in different directions, to dissolve, melt away).
diffringo -fringere -fractum, (to shatter).
diffugio -fugere -fugi -fugitum, fly in different directions,to disperse).
diffugium -i, n. (dispersion).
diffundito -are, (to scatter).
diffundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, (to pour in different directions, to spread out, diffuse, extend); esp. (to, make relax, brighten up,
gladden). Hence partic. diffusus -a -um, (spread out, extensive, wide); adv.

diffuse, (copiously, diffusely).
diffusilis -e, (capable of spreading, elastic).
digero -gerere -gessi -gestum, (to carry in different directions, to separate, spread); esp. in orderly, fashion, (to arrange).
digestio -onis, f. (arrangement, distribution).
digestus -a -um, partic. from digero; q.v.
digitulus -i, m. (a little finger; the touch of a finger).
digitus -i, m. (1) (a finger); 'digitus pollex', (the thumb); 'index', (the forefinger);, as a measure, (a finger's breadth, an inch). (2) (a toe).
digladior -ari, dep. (to flourish the sword; to fight, struggle fiercely); in words, (to, dispute).
dignatio -onis, f. (esteem; dignity, reputation, honor).
dignitas -atis, f. (worth, worthiness, merit). Transf., (dignified appearance or style;, dignified position, esteem, honor); esp. (official
rank); plur. dignitates, (persons of rank).
digno -are, and dignor -ari, dep. (to consider worthy); with infinit., (to deign to).
dignosco (dinosco) -noscere -novi, (to recognize as different,to distinguish).
dignus -a -um, (1) (worthy, deserving); esp. of persons, usually with abl. or genit. (2) of, things, (worth having, deserved, suitable,
fitting); 'dignum est', foll. by, infin. (it is proper). Adv. digne.
digredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to go apart, depart, deviate); in speech, (to digress).
digressio -onis, f. (separation, departure); in speech, (digression).
digressus -us, m. (separation, departure); in speech, (digression).
diiudicatio -onis, f. (judging, decision).
diiudico -are, (1) (to judge between parties, to decide, determine). (2) (to distinguish, find a difference between).
diiun-, see disiun-.
dilabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (to glide apart); of solids, (to fall to pieces, fall down, melt, dissolve); of liquids, gases, etc., (to flow apart,
run away); of persons in, groups, (to break up, slip away); in gen., (to break up, vanish); of time, (to, go by).
dilacero -are, (to tear to pieces).
dilamino -are, (to split in two).
dilanio -are, (to tear in pieces).
dilapido -are, (to demolish).
dilargior -iri, dep. (to hand round, give liberally).
dilatio -onis, f. (putting off, postponing).
dilato -are, (to spread out, extend);'litteras', (to pronounce broadly).
dilator -oris, m. (a dilatory person, loiterer).
dilatus, partic. from differo; q.v.
dilaudo -are, (to praise highly).
dilectus (1) -a -um, partic. from diligo; q.v.
dilectus (2) -us, m.: in gen., (choosing, choice, selection); milit., (a levy, recruiting of, troops, conscription); meton., (troops) so
diligens -entis, partic. from diligo; q.v.
diligentia -ae, f. (carefulness, attentiveness, accuracy); esp. (care in management, economy).
diligo -ligere -lexi -lectum, (to choose out; to prize, love, esteem highly). Hence pres. partic. diligens, -entis, (attentive, careful); esp.
(careful in housekeeping, economical, saving); adv. diligenter, (attentively, carefully).
dilorico -are, (to tear open).
diluceo -ere, (to be clear, evident).
dilucesco -lucescere -luxi, (to grow light, become day; to become clear).
dilucidus -a -um, (clear, lucid, plain); adv. dilucide.
diluculum -i, n. (the break of day, dawn).
diludium -i, n. (an interval, breathing-space).
diluo -luere -lui -lutum, (1) (to wash apart, separate, dissolve); of troubles, (to remove, resolve); of, puzzles, (to clear up). (2) (to
dilute, temper; to weaken, lessen, impair).
diluvies -ei, f. (washing away, inundation).

diluvio -are, (to flood, inundate).
diluvium -i, n. (flood, deluge, inundation).
dimano -are, (to flow in different directions, spread abroad).
dimensio -onis, f. (measuring).
dimetior -metiri -mensus, dep. (to measure out).
dimeto -are and dep. dimetor -ari, (to measure out).
dimicatio -onis, f. (a fight, struggle, battle).
dimico -are, (to brandish weapons); hence (to fight, contend, struggle).
dimidiatus -a -um, (halved, divided, half).
dimidius -a -um, (halved, divided in half); 'dimidia pars', (half). N. as subst. dimidium -i, (half); 'dimidio minus', (less by half).
diminutio, see deminutio.
dimissio -onis, f. (1) (a sending out). (2) (a dismissing, discharging).
dimitto -mittere -misi -missum, (1) (to send forth, send in different directions); without object, (to send, (word) round). (2) (to send
away, let go, let fall); milit., (to disband or to, detach); of a gathering, (to break up, dismiss); of places, (to give up, leave); of abstr.
things, (to give up, renounce, abandon).
dimminuo -ere, (to dash to pieces).
dimoveo -movere -movi -motum, (1) (to move asunder, part, divide). (2) (to separate, remove, take away).
dinosco, = dignosco; q.v.
dinumeratio -onis, f. (enumeration).
dinumero -are, (to count, esp. to count money, to pay).
dioecesis -eos and is, f. (a district under a governor).
dioecetes -ae, m. (a revenue official or treasurer).
Diomedes -is, m. (1) (a hero of the Trojan War, son of Tydeus). (2) (king of the Bistones in, Thrace).
Dione -es, and Diona -ae, f. (1) (the mother of Venus); (2) (Venus). Adj. Dionaeus -a, -um.
Dionysus (-os) -i, m. (the Greek name of Bacchus). Hence Dionysia -orum, n. pl. (the feast of, Dionysus).
diota -ae, f. (a two-handled wine jar).
diploma -atis, m. (1) (a letter of introduction given to travellers). (2) (a government, document conferring privileges).
diremptus -us, m. (a separation).
direptio -onis, f. (plundering, pillaging).
direptor -oris, m. (plunderer, pillager).
diribeo -ere -itum, (to sort tablets when taken out of the ballot box).
diribitio -onis, f. (sorting of voting tablets).
diribitor -oris, m. (the officer who sorted voting tablets).
dirigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, (to arrange, direct). Hence partic. directus -a -um, (straight, direct;, straightforward, plain, simple). Abl. as
adv. directo and adv. directe, (straight, directly). See also derigo.
dirimo -imere -emi -emptum, (to part, separate, divide). Transf., (to break off, interrupt, stop), temporarily or permanently.
diripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, (to snatch apart, tear to pieces); of spoil, (to divide). hence, milit., (to, pillage, lay waste; to tear away).
diritas -atis, f. (misfortune, disaster; cruelty, fierceness).
dirumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, (to break apart or to pieces, shatter); of friendships, etc., (to sever, break, up); in pass., dirumpi, (to
burst with envy, grief, anger).
diruo -ruere -ui -utum, (to pull apart, demolish, destroy, break up); financially, (to ruin).
dirus -a -um, (fearful, horrible, frightful, cruel). N. pl. dira -orum, and f. pl. dirae, -arum, as subst., (unlucky omens, curses); Dirae -
arum, a name for (the, Furies).
Dis Ditis, m. (a name of Pluto, god of the Lower World).
dis ditis (contracted from dives), (rich; having or containing or bringing wealth).
discedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (1) (to go asunder, part, separate). (2) (to depart, go away); milit., (to, march away); 'discedere ab
signis', (to break the ranks); 'ab armis', (to lay, down arms; to come out of a contest, to come off); in gen., (to depart, pass, away; to
deviate, swerve, digress); polit., of the senate, 'in sententiam, discedere', (to support a resolution).

disceptatio -onis, f. (debate, discussion, controversy).
disceptator -oris, m. (an arbitrator).
disceptatrix -tricis, f. (an arbitrator).
discepto -are, (1) (to decide, settle, determine). (2) (to dispute, debate, discuss).
discerno -cernere -crevi -cretum, (to sever, separate, set apart). Transf., (to distinguish, discern).
discerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum, (to pluck to pieces, dismember).
discessio -onis, f. (1) (going separate ways, separation); polit., in voting, (a division in, the senate). (2) (a going away, departure).
discessus -us, m. (1) (parting, separation). (2) (departure, going away); milit., (marching, off; banishment).
discidium -i, n. (tearing apart; separation, division; separation in feelings, disagreement).
discido -ere, (to cut in pieces).
discindo -ere -scidi -scissum, (to cleave asunder, split).
discingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum, (to take off the girdle, ungird). Partic. discinctus -a -um, (ungirt; at ease, careless, dissolute).
disciplina -ae, f. (instruction, teaching; training, education); esp. (military training)., Transf., (results of training, discipline, ordered
way of life; that which is, taught, learning, body of knowledge, science; a rhetorical or philosophical, school or system).
discipula -ae, f. (a female pupil).
discipulus -i, m. (a pupil, apprentice).
discludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, (to shut away, separate, divide).
disco discere didici, (to learn, get to know); 'discere fidibus', (to learn to play on the lyre); in, gen., (to receive information, find out;
to become acquainted with, learn to, recognize).
discolor -oris, (of different colors); in gen., (different).
disconvenio -ire, (to disagree, not to harmonize).
discordabilis -e, (disagreeing).
discordia -ae, f. (dissension, disagreement); milit., (mutiny, sedition).
discordiosus -a -um, (full of discord, mutinous).
discordo -are, (to be at discord, disagree, be opposed); milit., (to be mutinous).
discors -cordis, (disagreeing, inharmonious, opposed, different).
discrepantia -ae, f. (disagreement, difference).
discrepatio -onis, f. (disagreement, disunion).
discrepito -are, (to be quite unlike).
discrepo -are -ui, (to differ in sound, be discordant; to disagree, be different); 'res, discrepat', or impers., 'discrepat', (people are not
agreed); with acc. and, infin., (it is inconsistent that).
discribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, (to mark out, arrange, classify, define; to allot, fix, appoint). Hence, partic. discriptus -a -um,
(classified, arranged); adv. discripte.
discrimen -inis, n. (1) (dividing line, distinction, difference, interval). (2) (turning-point, critical moment; crisis, hazard, danger).
discrimino -are, (to separate, sunder, divide).
discriptio -onis, f. (an arrangement, definition, distribution).
discrucio -are, (to torture, torment), esp. mentally.
discumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, (1) (to recline at table). (2) (to go to bed).
discupio -cupere, (colloq.), (to long).
discurro -currere -cucurri and -curri -cursum, (to run about, run to and fro).
discursus -us, m. (a running about, running to and fro).
discus -i, m. (a discus).
discutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, (to shatter). Transf., (to disperse, scatter, break up).
disertus -a -um, (eloquent, expressive); adv. diserte and disertim.
disicio disicere disieci disiectum, (to throw in different directions, cast asunder); of buildings, etc., (to, throw down); of military
formations, (to break up, disperse); of abstract, things, (to break up, frustrate).
disiecto -are, (to toss about).
disiectus (1) -a -um, partic. from disicio; q.v.
disiectus (2) -us, m. (scattering, dispersing).

disiunctio -onis, f. (separation, estrangement); in logic, (a disjunctive proposition).
disiungo (diiungo) -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, (to unbind, loosen, separate, remove, distinguish). Hence partic. disiunctus, -a -um,
(separated, apart, distant, remote); of speech, (disconnected); in, logic, (disjunctive). Compar. adv. disiunctius, (rather in disjunctive,
dispando -pandere -pandi -pansum or -pessum, (to expand, stretch out).
dispar -paris, (unlike, dissimilar, unequal).
disparilis -e, (unlike, dissimilar, unequal).
disparo -are, (to separate, part, divide); n. of partic. as subst., disparatum -i, rhet., (the contradictory proposition).
dispartio, = dispertio; q.v.
dispello -pellere -puli -pulsum, (to drive in different directions, scatter).
dispendium -i, n. (expenditure, expense, loss).
dispenno, = dispando; q.v.
dispensatio -onis, f. (weighing out; management, administration; the office of a treasurer).
dispensator -oris, m. (steward, bailiff, treasurer).
dispenso -are, (to weigh out or pay out); in gen., (to distribute, to arrange).
disperdo -dere -didi -ditum, (to squander, ruin, spoil).
dispereo -ire -ii, (to perish utterly, be squandered, ruined).
dispergo -spergere -spersi -spersum, (to scatter, disperse). Adv. from perf. partic. disperse, (dispersedly, here, and there).
dispertio -ire, and dep. dispertior -iri, (to separate, divide, distribute).
dispicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, (to see clearly), esp. by an effort; (to make out, discern, perceive; to, reflect upon, consider).
displiceo -ere, (to displease); 'displicere sibi'(to be dissatisfied with oneself, be out of, spirits).
displodo -plodere -plosi -plosum, (to burst noisily).
dispono -ponere -posui -positum, (to put in different places, to distribute, put in order); milit., (to station, at intervals). Hence partic.
dispositus -a -um, (arranged, orderly); adv., disposite, (in order, methodically).
dispositio -onis, f. (regular arrangement or order in a speech).
dispositu, abl. sing. m., (in or by arranging).
dispositura -ae, f. (arrangement, order).
dispudet -ere -uit, (it is a great shame).
disputatio -onis, f. (arguing, debating).
disputator -oris, m. (debater, disputant).
disputo -are, (to reckon up; to debate, discuss, argue).
disquiro -ere, (to inquire into, investigate).
disquisitio -onis, f. (inquiry, investigation).
dissaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum, (to hedge off, separate, divide); n. of perf. partic. as subst. dissaeptum -i, (barrier, partition).
disseco -secare -secui -sectum, (to cut up).
dissemino -are, (to spread abroad, disseminate).
dissensio -onis, f. (difference in feeling or opinion; disagreement, variance, conflict, opposition).
dissensus -us, m. (disunion, disagreement).
dissentaneus -a -um, (disagreeing, different).
dissentio -sentire -sensi -sensum, (to be of different feeling or opinion, to be opposed, not to agree).
disserenat -are, impers., (it is clearing up all round), of the weather.
dissero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, (to scatter seed, sow; to spread).
dissero (2) -serere -serui -sertum (to set in order); hence (to examine, treat of, discuss).
disserpo -ere, (to creep about, spread).
dissertio -onis, f. (a severance).
disserto -are, (to treat of, discuss, argue).
dissideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, (to sit apart, be distant, disagree, be opposed); of clothes, (to sit, unevenly).
dissido -sidere -sedi, (to fall apart, disagree).
dissignatio -onis, f. (arrangement).

dissignator -oris, m. (one that arranges, a supervisor).
dissigno -are, (to arrange, regulate, manage).
dissilio -silire -silui, (to leap apart, break asunder).
dissimilis -e, (unlike, dissimilar); adv. dissimiliter, (differently).
dissimilitudo -inis, f. (unlikeness, difference).
dissimulatio -onis, f. (a concealing, dissembling), esp. (of irony).
dissimulator -oris, m. (dissembler, concealer).
dissimulo -are, (1) (to dissemble, disguise, keep secret); pass. with middle force, 'dissimulata deam', (concealing her divinity).(2) (to
ignore, leave, unnoticed).Adv. from pres. partic. dissimulanter,(in a dissembling manner).
dissipabilis -e, (that can be scattered).
dissipatio -onis, f. (scattering).
dissipo or dissupo -are, (to scatter, disperse); milit., (to break up, rout; to break up, destroy, squander). Hence partic. dissipatus -a -
um, (disconnected).
dissitus, partic. from dissero; q.v.
dissociabilis -e, act., (separating); pass. (unable to be united).
dissociatio -onis, f. (separation, parting).
dissocio -are, (to separate, sever, divide); in feeling, (to estrange).
dissolubilis -e, (dissoluble, separable).
dissolutio -onis, f. (breaking up, dissolution, destruction); 'naturae', (death); 'navigii', (shipwreck); 'criminum', (refutation); rhet., (want
of connection).
dissolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum, (to loosen, break up, undo, destroy); 'glaciem', (to melt); 'animam', (to, die); 'criminationem', (to
refute); of debts, (to pay, discharge); (to, release) a person from difficulties, (to unravel, explain) a difficulty. Hence, partic. dissolutus
-a -um, (loose); 'navigium', (leaky); of style, (disconnected); of character, (wanting in energy, lax; profligate, dissolute)., Adv. dissolute,
(disconnectedly, loosely; carelessly, negligently, without, energy).
dissonus -a -um, (discordant, different, disagreeing).
dissors -sortis, (having a different lot or fate).
dissuadeo -suadere -suasi -suasum, (to advise against, oppose by argument).
dissuasio -onis, f. (advising to the contrary, one who speaks against).
dissuasor -oris, m. (one who advises to the contrary, one who speaks against).
dissulto -are, (to leap apart, burst asunder).
dissuo -suere -sui -sutum, (to unstitch, undo).
distaedet -ere, (causes boredom or disgust).
distantia -ae, f. (distance, difference, diversity).
distendo (distenno) -tendere -tendi -tentum, (to stretch apart, expand), esp. (to fill full, distend). Transf., (to, distract, perplex).
Hence partic. distentus -a -um, (distended, full).
distermino -are, (to separate by a boundary, divide).
distichon distichi, n. (a poem of two lines, distich).
distinctio -onis, f. (a distinction, difference; the finding of a difference, the act of, distinguishing, discriminating); rhet. (a division in a
speech; a pause, stop).
distinctus (1) -a -um, partic. from distinguo; q.v.
distinctus (2) -us, m. (difference, distinction).
distineo -tinere -tinui -tentum, (to hold asunder, keep apart, separate). Transf., (to divide in feeling; to, distract; to keep away,
prevent a thing from happening). Hence partic., distentus -a -um, (distracted, occupied).
distinguo -stinguere -stinxi -stinctum, (to mark off, distinguish, divide). Transf., (to separate, distinguish);, gram., (to punctuate); (to
set off, decorate, adorn). Hence partic. distinctus, -a -um,(separate, distinct; set off, diversified, adorned). Adv. distincte, (clearly,
disto -are, (to be apart, be distant; to differ, be distinct); impers., distat, (there is, a difference).
distorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, (to twist apart, distort; to torture). Hence partic. distortus -a -um, (distorted, deformed); of
speech, (perverse).
distortio -onis, f. (distortion).
distractio -onis, f. (pulling apart, separation, disunion).

distraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, (to pull apart or pull to pieces); of associations, (to break up, dissolve);, of persons, (to draw away,
estrange), also (to distract); of property, (to, sell up); gram., (to leave a hiatus in a verse).
distribuo -uere -ui -utum, (to distribute, divide). Adv. from partic. distribute, (methodically, with, logical arrangement).
distributio -onis, f. (division, distribution).
distringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, (to draw apart, stretch out, to engage at different points, divert, occupy)., Hence partic.
districtus -a -um, (occupied, busy, engaged).
disturbatio -onis, f. (destruction).
disturbo -are, (to drive apart in confusion; to destroy, raze to the ground; to bring to, naught, frustrate, ruin).
ditesco -ere, (to become rich).
dithyrambicus -a -um, (dithyrambic).
dithyrambus -i, m. (a dithyrambic poem)(originally in honor of Bacchus).
ditio, = dicio; q.v.
ditior, ditissimus; see dis.
dito -are, (to enrich, make wealthy).
diu, adv. (1) (by day). (2) (for a long time). (3) (a long time ago). Compar., diutius, (longer, too long). Superl. diutissime.
diurnus -a -um, (belonging to a day or lasting for a day); n. as subst., (a journal, account-, book or a daily allowance).
dius -a -um, (divine, god-like); hence (fine, noble); also (apparently) (out of doors, in, the open air).
diutinus -a -um, (lasting a long time, long); adv. diutine.
diutius, diutissime; see diu.
diuturnitas -atis, f. (long duration).
diuturnus -a -um, (lasting a long time, of long duration).
divarico -are, (to stretch apart, spread out).
divello -vellere -velli -vulsum (-volsum), (to pluck apart, tear asunder, break up, destroy, interrupt; to distract, pull, away, remove,
divendo -vendere -venditum, (to sell in separate lots).
diverbero -are, (to strike apart, cleave, divide).
diverbium -i, n. (dialogue on the stage).
diversitas -atis, f. (contrariety, contradiction; difference, diversity).
diversorium, see deversorius.
diverto (divorto) -vertere -verti -versum, (to turn different ways); hence (to differ). Hence partic. diversus -a -um, (turned away,
turned in different directions); of places, (out of the way, remote); of character, (fluctuating, irresolute); in gen., (different, unlike,
opposed, hostile). Adv.
diverse, (differently, diversely).
dives -vitis, (rich, wealthy); with abl. or genit., (rich in).
divexo -are, (to tear asunder);hence (to destroy, plunder, to distract).
dividia -ae, f. (division, trouble).
divido -videre -visi -visum, (1) (to divide up, separate into parts); esp. (to divide among persons, distribute, allot); polit., 'sententiam',
(to divide a resolution into parts, so that each part can be voted on); in music, (to accompany). (2) (to separate, from one another, to
distinguish; to set off, adorn). Hence partic. divisus -a, -um, (separate).
dividuus -a -um, (divisible; divided, parted); fig., (distracted).
divinatio -onis, f. (the gift of prophecy, divination); legal, (the selection of the, prosecutor).
divinitas -atis, f. (divine nature, divinity; the power of prophecy or divination; excellence, surpassing merit).
divinitus, (divinely, by divine influence; by inspiration, by means of divination;, admirably, nobly).
divino -are, (to foretell, prophesy, forebode).
divinus -a -um, (1) (belonging or relating to a deity, divine); 'res divina', (the service of, the gods); n. as subst. (a sacrifice); in plur.
(divine things or attributes)., (2) (divinely inspired, prophetic); 'vates', (a poet); m. as subst., (a seer)., (3) (noble, admirable). Adv.
divine, (divinely, by divine power; by divine,

inspiration, prophetically; admirably, excellently).
divisio -onis, f. (division, distribution).
divisor -oris, m. (a divider; a distributor),esp. of lands; (a hired bribery agent).
divisui, dat. sing. m. (for division).
divitiae -arum, f. pl. (riches, wealth; ornaments, rich offerings); of soil, (richness).
divortium -i, n. (divergence, separation); of things, (a boundary, parting of the ways); or, persons, (separation, divorce).
divorto, see diverto.
divulgo -are, (to make common, publish, spread abroad). Hence partic. divulgatus -a -um, (spread abroad, made common).
divus -a -um, as adj., (divine or deified); as subst., m. (a god) and f. (a goddess) (often, as epithet of dead and deified emperors); 'sub
divo'(neuter), (in the open, air).
do dare dedi datum, (1) (to offer, give, grant, bestow, lend; to hand over, commit, devote); of, letters, (to give for dispatch); 'vela
dare ventis', (to sail); 'poenas', (to, pay a penalty); 'verba', (to give words only, i.e., to cheat); of news, (to, tell, communicate). (2) (to
cause, bring about, put).
doceo docere docui doctum, (to teach, instruct) (with acc. of person and/or thing); with clause, (to, inform that or how); 'docere
fabulam', (to teach a play to the actors, to, bring out, exhibit). Hence partic. doctus -a -um, (taught; learned, instructed, well-
informed; experienced, clever, shrewd). Adv. docte, (learnedly, skillfully; cleverly, shrewdly).
dochmius -i, m. (a metrical foot, the dochmiac).
docilis -e, (teachable, docile).
docilitas -atis, f. (teachableness, docility).
doctor -oris, m. (a teacher).
doctrina -ae, f. (teaching, instruction; knowledge, learning).
doctus -a um, partic. from doceo; q.v.
documen -inis, n. (example, pattern, warning, proof).
documentum -i, n. (example, pattern, warning, proof).
dodrans -antis, m. (three fourths); as a measure of length, (nine inches).
dogma -atis, n. (a philosophical doctrine).
Dolabella -ae, m. (a Roman family name in the gens Cornelia).
dolabra -ae, f. (a pick-axe).
doleo dolere dolui, (to suffer pain), physical or mental, (to be pained, to grieve); of things, (to cause pain). Hence partic. dolens,
(painful);adv. dolenter,(painfully, sorrowfully).
dolium -i, n. (a wine-jar, cask).
dolo (1) -are, (to hew with an axe, to work roughly); 'caput fuste', (to cudgel).
dolo (2) or dolon -onis, m. (1) (a pike, sword-stick). (2) (a small foresail).
dolor -oris, m. (pain), physical or mental; esp. (disappointment, resentment). Transf., (cause of sorrow); rhet., (pathos).
dolosus -a -um, (crafty, deceitful, cunning); adv. dolose.
dolus -i, m. (a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap).
domabilis -e, (tameable).
domesticus -a -um, (1) (belonging to house or family, domestic); m. as subst. esp. plur., (members of one's family). (2) (native);
'crudelitas', (towards citizens);, 'bellum', (civil war).
domicilium -i, n. (place of residence, dwelling).
domina -ae, f. (mistress of a household; wife, mistress, lady); of abstr. things, (ruler, controller).
dominatio -onis, f. (mastery, control; irresponsible power, despotism).
dominator -oris, m. (ruler, governor).
dominatrix -icis, f. (a female ruler, mistress).
dominatus -us, m. (mastery, absolute power).
dominium -i, n. (1) (rule, power, ownership). (2) (a feast, banquet).
dominor -ari, dep. (to rule, be supreme, domineer).
dominus -i, m. (master of a house, lord, master). Transf., (husband or lover; a master, owner, possessor; employer; ruler, lord,
domiporta -ae, f. (one with her house on her back, the snail).

Domitianus -i, m. (son of Vespasian, brother of Titus, emperor from 81 to 96 A.D.).
Domitius -a -um, (name of a plebeian gens in Rome).
domito -are, (to tame, subdue, break in).
domitor -oris, m. (tamer, conqueror, victor).
domitrix -icis, f. (she who tames).
domitus -us, m. (taming).
domo domare domui domitum, (to tame, break in, conquer, subdue).
domus -us, f. (a house, home); locative domi, (at home, in the house); 'domi habere', (to, have at home, to possess); domum, (home,
homewards); domo, (from home)., Transf., (dwelling, abode; native country; household; philosophical school or, sect).
donarium -i, n. (1) (a temple, shrine, altar). (2) (a votive offering).
donatio -onis, f. (giving, donation).
donativum -i, n. (an imperial largess).
donec (older donicum), (1) (up to the time when, until). (2) (so long as, while).
dono -are, (1) 'rem homini', (to give as a present, to present, grant, bestow, give up);, esp. (to remit a debt or obligation; to forgive,
pardon). (2) 'hominem re', (to present with).
donum -i, n. (a gift, present); 'dono dare', (to give as a present); esp. (a votive, offering).
dorcas -adis, f. (gazelle, antelope).
Dores -um, m. (the Dorians, one of the Hellenic tribes); adj. Doricus and Dorius -a -um, (Dorian, Greek). F. Doris -idis: as adj., (Dorian);
as subst., (the country of, the Dorians; the wife of Nereus); meton., (the sea).
dormio -ire, (to sleep; to rest, be inactive).
dormito -are, (to be sleepy, begin to sleep, nod; to dream, be lazy); of a lamp, 'iam, dormitante lucerna', (just going out).
dormitorius -a -um, (for sleeping).
dorsum -i, n. (the back), of men, animals or things; 'immane dorsum mari summo', (a, reef); (a mountain ridge).
dos dotis, f. (a dowry, marriage portion; a gift, quality, endowment).
dotalis -e, (belonging to or forming a dowry).
doto -are, (to provide with a dowry, endow); partic. dotatus -a -um, (richly endowed).
drachma (drachuma) -ae, f. (a drachma, a small Greek coin).
draco -onis, m. (a kind of snake, dragon).
draconigena -ae, c. (dragon-born).
drapeta -ae, m. (a runaway slave).
Drepanum -i, n. and Drepana -orum, plur.(a town on the west coast of Sicily).
dromas -adis, m. (a dromedary).
Druentia -ae, f. (a river in Gaul) (now Durance).
Druides -um and Druidae -arum, m. (the Druids).
Drusus -i, m. (a cognomen of the gens Livia); hence adj. Drusianus and Drusinus -a -um, (of Drusus); subst. Drusilla -ae, f. (the name of
several females of the gens, Livia).
Dryas -adis, f. (a wood nymph, Dryad).
dubitabilis -e, (doubtful, uncertain).
dubitatio -onis, f. (doubt, uncertainty; hesitation, irresolution).
dubito -are, (1)(to doubt, waver in opinion, be uncertain).(2) (to waver as to action, be, irresolute, hesitate). Adv. from partic.
dubitanter, (doubtingly).
dubius -a -um, (doubtful). (1) act., (wavering); in opinion, (doubting; uncertain); as to, action, (hesitating, irresolute). (2) pass.,
(uncertain, doubted, doubtful);, n. as subst.; 'in dubium vocare', (to call in question); 'procul dubio', (without doubt). (3) fig.,
(doubtful, dangerous, critical). Adv. dubie, (doubtfully); 'haud dubie', (certainly).
duceni -ae -a, (a group of two hundred, or two hundred each).
ducentesima -ae, f. (the two hundredth part, one-half percent).
ducenti -ae -a, (two hundred).
ducenties (ducentiens), (two hundred times).
duco ducere duxi ductum, (1) (to draw; to draw along or away); hence (to shape anything long, to,

construct); 'carmina', (to make verses); of time either (to spend or to delay, protract). Transf., (to charm, influence, mislead; to
derive). (2) (to draw, in); 'aera spiritu', (to inhale); 'pocula', (to quaff). (3) (to lead); in, marriage, (to marry a wife); milit., either (to
lead on the march), or (to, command).(4) (to calculate, reckon; to esteem, consider).
ductim, (by drawing; in a stream).
ductito -are, (to lead), esp. (to lead home a wife). Transf. (to cheat).
ducto -are, (to lead), esp. (to lead home a wife). Transf. (to cheat).
ductor -oris, m. (a leader, commander, a guide).
ductus -us, m. (1) (drawing, drawing off). (2) (shaping, shape); 'oris', (the lineaments, of the face); 'muri', (line of a wall). (3) (leading,
command, leadership).
dudum, (some time ago; a little while ago, not long since; a long while ago or for a, long time).
duellum, duellicus, duellator = bellum, bellicus, bellator; q.v.
Duilius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
dulcedo -inis, f. (sweetness, pleasantness, charm).
dulcesco -ere, (to become sweet).
dulciculus -a -um, (somewhat sweet).
dulcis -e, (sweet); 'unda', (fresh water); in gen., (pleasant, delightful, agreeable); of, persons, (friendly, dear). N. acc. dulce and adv.
dulciter, (sweetly).
dulcitudo -inis, f. (sweetness).
dum, (1) adv., joined as an enclitic with other words; 'nondum', (not yet);, 'vixdum', (scarcely yet); 'nedum', (not to say); 'age dum',
(come now); (2), conj.: (while, during the time that; so long as, provided that; until).
dumetum -i, n. (a thorn brake, thicket).
dummodo, (provided that, so long as).
dumosus -a -um, (covered with thorn bushes, bushy).
dumtaxat, (1) (at least, not less than). (2) (at most, not more than).
dumus -i, m. (a thorn bush, bramble).
duo -ae -o, irreg. num. (two).
duodecies (duodeciens), (twelve times).
duodecim, indecl. num. (twelve).
duodecimus -a -um, (twelfth).
duodeni -ae -a, (twelve at a time or twelve each).
duodequadragesimus -a -um, (thirty-eighth).
duodequadraginta, (thirty-eight).
duodequinquagesimus -a -um, (forty-eighth).
duodetricies (duodetriciens), (twenty-eight times).
duodetriginta, (twenty-eight).
duodeviceni -ae -a, (eighteen each).
duodeviginti, (eighteen).
duoetvicesimani -orum, m. (soldiers of the 22nd legion).
duoetvicesimus -a -um, (twenty-second).
duplex -plicis, (double, doubled, twofold). Transf. (1) plur., (both). (2) (two-faced, deceitful, equivocal). Adv. dupliciter, (doubly).
duplicarius -a -um: 'miles', (a soldier who gets double pay).
duplico -are, (to double); of words, (to repeat); also (to form compound words). Transf., (to bend double); in gen., (to lengthen,
duplus -a -um, (twice as much, double); n. as subst. (double), esp. (a double penalty).
dupondius -i, m. (a coin of two asses).
durabilis -e, (lasting, durable).
duramen -inis, n. (hardness).
durateus -a -um, (wooden).
duresco durescere durui, (to grow hard); of water, (to freeze).
duritas -atis, f. (harshness, unfriendliness).
duritia -ae, f. (hardness); fig., (austerity, harshness, severity).

durities -ei, f. (hardness); fig., (austerity, harshness, severity).
duro -are, transit., (to make hard or hardy, to inure); intransit., (to become hard or, dry; to be hard or callous; to endure, hold out;
to last, remain, continue).
durus -a -um, (hard, harsh; tough, strong, enduring); in demeanour or tastes, (rough, rude, uncouth); in character, (hard,
austere),sometimes (brazen, shameless); of, things, (hard, awkward, difficult, adverse). Adv. dure and duriter, (hardly, hardily;
roughly, rudely; harshly, unpleasantly, severely).
duumvir and duovir -viri, m. usually pl., (a pair of magistrates, a commission of two).
dux ducis, c. (1) (a guide, conductor). (2) (a leader, ruler, commander).
dynastes -is, m. (ruler, prince).
Dyrrhachium -i, n. (a port in Illyria).
e, prep. with abl. = ex; q.v.
ea, adv. = abl. of is; q.v.
eadem, (by the same way, likewise).
eatenus, adv. (so far).
ebenus -i, m. = hebenus; q.v.
ebibo -bibere -bibi, (to drink up).
eblandior -iri, dep. (to obtain by flattery).
ebrietas -atis, f. (drunkenness).
ebriolus -a -um, (tipsy).
ebriositas -atis, f. (love of drink, drunkenness).
ebriosus -a -um, (drink-loving).
ebrius -a -um, (drunk, intoxicated).
ebullio -ire, (to boil up; to boast of).
ebulum -i, n. (or -us -i, m.), (the dwarf elder).
ebur -oris, n. (ivory). Transf. (1) (things made of ivory). (2) (the elephant).
eburneolus -a -um, (made of ivory).
eburneus -a -um, (made of ivory, white as ivory).
eburnus -a -um, (made of ivory, white as ivory).
ecastor, see Castor.
ecce, (behold! lo! see!).
eccere, (there you are!).
ecclesia -ae, f. (an assembly of the (Greek) people).
ecdicus -i, m. (a solicitor for a community).
Ecetra -ae, f. (capital of the Volsci).
ecf-, see eff-.
echeneis -idis, f. (a sucking fish, the remora).
echinus -i, m. (1) (an edible sea-urchin). (2) (a copper dish).
echo -us, f. (an echo); personif., (Echo, a wood-nymph).
eclogarii -orum, m. pl. (select passages or extracts).
ecquando, adv. (ever? at any time?).
ecqui, ecquae or ecqua, ecquod, interrog. adj., (is there any...that? does any...?).
ecquis, ecquid, interrog. pron., (is there any that? does anyone?). Hence ecquid or, ecqui, (at all?) or (whether?); ecquo, (whither?).
eculeus -i, m. (a little horse, colt; a rack, instrument of torture).
edacitas -atis, f. (greediness, gluttony).
edax -acis, f. (greedy, gluttonous; destructive, consuming).
edepol, see Pollux.
edico -dicere -dixi -dictum, (to announce, declare); esp. of a magistrate, (to decree, ordain by, proclamation). Hence partic. as subst.
edictum -i, (a decree, edict).
edictio -onis, f. (an edict).
edicto -are, (to proclaim).
edisco -discere -didici, (to learn thoroughly).
edissero -serere -serui -sertum, (to explain, set forth, relate fully).
edisserto -are, (to explain exactly).

editicius -a -um, (announced, proposed); 'iudices', (jurors chosen by a plaintiff).
editio -onis, f. (the publishing of a book; a statement); 'editio tribuum', (a proposal by a, plaintiff for the choice of a jury).
edo (1) edere or esse edi esum, (to eat, devour, consume, waste).
edo (2) -dere -didi -ditum, (to put forth, give out);'animam', (to breathe one's last, die); 'clamorem', (to utter). Esp. (1) (to bring into
the world, to bring forth, give birth to);, of things, (to produce). (2) (to make known): of writings, (to publish); of, ideas and
information, (to divulge, spread); officially, (to proclaim); as, legal t.t., (to fix, determine, nominate). (3) (to bring about, cause,
produce); of magistrates, (to provide games for the people). Hence partic., editus -a -um, (raised, high, lofty); n. as subst. (a high
place, eminence).
edoceo -docere -docui -doctum, (to instruct thoroughly, inform fully).
edomo -domare -domui -domitum, (to tame thoroughly, entirely subdue).
Edoni -orum, (a Thracian people, famed for the worship of Bacchus); adj. Edonus -a -um, and, Edonis -nidis, f. (Thracian).
edormio -ire, (to have one's sleep out); transit., (to sleep off).
edormisco -ere, (to sleep off).
educatio -onis, f. (bringing up, training, education).
educator -oris, m. (one who brings up; a foster-father or tutor).
educatrix -icis, f. (a foster-mother, nurse).
educo (1) -ducere -duxi -ductum, (1) (to draw out, lead out); of time, (to spend); milit., (to march troops, out); legal, (to bring before
a court of law); naut., (to take a ship out of, port). (2) (to raise up) (of persons and buildings); 'in astra', (to praise, sky-high). (3) (to
bring up, rear).
educo (2) -are, (to bring up, raise, rear, educate).
edulis -e, (eatable).
eduro -are, (to last, endure).
edurus -a -um, (very hard).
effarcio, = effercio; q.v.
effatum -i, n. from partic. of effor; q.v.
effectio -onis, f. (practicing). Transf., (an efficient cause).
effector -oris, m. (one who produces, causes, originates).
effectrix -icis, f. (she that causes or produces).
effectus (1) -a -um, partic. of efficio; q.v.
effectus (2) -us, m. (doing, execution, performance; effect, result).
effemino -are, (to make into a woman); in character, (to make effeminate). Hence partic., effeminatus -a -um, (effeminate,
womanish); adv. effeminate.
effercio or effarcio -fercire -fertum, (to stuff full); partic. effertus, (stuffed).
efferitas -atis, f. (wildness, savagery).
effero (1) -are, (to make wild, make savage); partic. efferatus -a -um, (wild, savage).
effero (2) (ecfero) efferre extuli elatum, (1) (to carry out, bring out); 'efferre signa', (to march out). Esp. (to carry, to the grave, bury);
pass. efferri, (to be borne out, buried); of the earth, (to bring forth, bear); (to utter, express, publish) words or ideas. (2) (to, carry off
or away); pass. efferri, (to be carried away) by feelings. (3) (to, raise up, lift up; to praise, extol); 'efferri' or 'se efferre', (to pride,
oneself, be puffed up). (3) (to endure to the end). Hence partic. elatus -a, -um, (elevated, exalted); adv. elate, (loftily).
effertus -a -um, partic. from effercio; q.v.
efferus -a -um, (savage, wild).
effervesco -fervescere -fervi, (to boil up, effervesce); of an orator, (to be passionate).
effervo -ere, (to boil up or over; to swarm forth).
effetus -a -um, (weakened (by giving birth), effete).
efficacitas -atis, f. (efficacy).
efficax -acis, (effective, efficient, efficacious); adv. efficaciter.
efficiens -entis, partic. from efficio; q.v.
efficientia -ae, f. (efficiency).
efficio -ficere -feci -fectum, (to do, produce, effect, make); of results, (to bring about, cause) (esp. with, ut

and the subj.); of numbers, (to make up, amount to); philosoph. (to prove, show); of appointments and changes, (to make). Hence
partic. efficiens -entis, (effective); 'causa', (efficient cause); adv. efficienter, (efficiently, powerfully).
effigia -ae, f. (an image, likeness, effigy; a shade, ghost; an ideal).
effigies -ei, f. (an image, likeness, effigy; a shade, ghost; an ideal).
effingo -fingere -finxi -fictum, (1) (to wipe). (2) (to mold, form, fashion; esp. to form one thing like, another), and so (to copy,
represent, express in words, conceive in, thoughts).
effio (ecf-) -fieri, old pass. of efficio; q.v.
efflagitatio -onis, f. (an urgent demand).
efflagitatu, abl. sing. m., (at an urgent request).
efflagito -are, (to ask earnestly, demand, entreat).
effligo -ere -flixi -flictum, (to destroy).
efflo -are, (to blow out, breathe out); 'animam', (to die).
effloresco -florescere -florui, (to blossom, break into bloom).
effluo (ecfluo) -fluere -fluxi, (to flow out). Transf. (1) (to vanish, drop off).(2) (to pass out of mind, be, forgotten). (3) (to come to light,
become known).
effluvium -i, n. (flowing out, outlet).
effodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, (1) (to dig out, gouge out). (2) (to make by digging, excavate). (3) (to gut, to rummage).
effor (ecfor) -fari -fatus, dep. (to speak out, express, speak); in logic, (to state a proposition); in, religion, (formally to dedicate a
place). Hence partic. effatus -a -um, (pronounced; dedicated).
effrenatio -onis, f. (unbridled impetuosity).
effreno -are, (to unbridle, let loose); partic. effrenatus -a -um, (unbridled, unrestrained, violent); adv. effrenate.
effrenus -a -um, (unbridled, unrestrained).
effringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, (to break open).
effugio -fugere -fugi -fugitum, intransit., (to flee, fly away, escape, get off); transit., (to escape from, avoid, shun).
effugium -i, n. (a flying away, flight; means or opportunity of flight).
effulgeo -fulgere -fulsi, (to shine out, glitter; to be distinguished, conspicuous).
effultus -a -um, (resting upon, supported by).
effundo (ecf-) -fundere -fudi -fusum, (to pour out, pour forth, shed); of solids, (to fling out, empty out); with, violence, (to throw off,
fling down); esp. of horses, (to throw their riders);, of weapons, (to discharge); 'spiritum extremum', (to die); 'se effundere', and,
'effundi', (to stream forth, pour forth), also (to give oneself up to, to, indulge in); of sounds, (to utter); with ideas of generosity,
waste, etc., (to, pour out freely, squander); 'habenas', (to slacken). Hence partic. effusus -a, -um, (poured out); hence (widespread,
extensive; extravagant, wasteful;, unrestrained); adv. effuse.
effusio -onis, f. (a pouring forth; violent movement; extravagance, prodigality; exuberance, of spirits).
effusus, partic. from effundo; q.v.
effutio -ire, (to blab out, chatter).
egelidus -a -um, (with the chill off, lukewarm, tepid).
egens -entis, partic. from egeo; q.v.
egenus -a -um, (needy, destitute); with genit. or abl., (in need of).
egeo -ere -ui, (to want, be in need); with genit. or abl. (to be in want of, to be without, not to have); also (to desire, wish for, want).
Hence partic. egens -entis, (needy, destitute); with genit., (in need of).
Egeria -ae, f. (a nymph, instructress of Numa Pompilius).
egero -gerere -gessi -gestum, (to carry out or off).
egestas -atis, f. (poverty, indigence, need); with genit., (want of).
egestio -onis, f. (wasting).
ego, (I); plur. nos, (we) (often used for sing.); 'alter ego', (my second self);, 'ad me', (to my house); 'apud me', (at my house), also (in
my senses).
egredior -gredi -gressus, dep.: intransit., (to go out, pass out); milit., (to march out); naut.,'egredi, ex navi', (to disembark);in speech,
(to digress); sometimes (to go up, ascend); transit., (to go out of, pass beyond, overstep, pass).

egregius -a -um, (not of the common herd; excellent, extraordinary, distinguished); adv., egregie.
egressus -us, m. (going out, departure); esp. (landing from a ship, disembarkation)., Transf., (a passage out; the mouth of a river); in
speech, (digression).
ehem, (oho! well well!).
eheu, (alas! woe!).
eho, (hi! what's going on!).
ei (hei), (ah! woe!).
eia and heia: expressing joy or surprise, (well!); in exhortation, (come on).
eiaculor -ari, dep. (to throw out, hurl out).
eicio -icere -ieci iectum, (to throw out, cast out); 'vocem', (to utter); 'armum', (to dislocate); 'se, eicere', (to rush out); naut., (to bring
to shore); pass., (to be cast ashore, stranded); 'eiectus', (a ship-wrecked person). Transf. (to drive out, expel, dispossess);'domo', (to
divorce); 'ex patria', (to banish); of feelings, (to, cast out, put aside).
eiectamentum -i, n. (that which is thrown up).
eiectio -onis, f. (banishment, exile).
eiecto -are, (to hurl out, eject).
eiectus -us, m. (casting out).
eiulatio -onis, f. (wailing, lamentation).
eiulatus -us, m. (wailing, lamentation).
eiulo -are, (to wail, lament).
eiuro and eiero -are, (to refuse or deny on oath); 'bonam copiam', (to swear that one is insolvent);, 'forum sibi iniquum', (to declare
that a court is partial); 'magistratum', 'imperium', (to resign, abdicate); in gen., (to give up, disown).
eiusdemmodi, (of the same kind).
eiusmodi, (of this kind, such, so).
elabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (to glide out, slip away, escape, disappear).
elaboro -are, intransit., (to labor hard, strive, take pains); transit., (to labor on, work, out, elaborate), esp. in partic. elaboratus -a -
um, (elaborate, artificial).
elamentabilis -e, (very lamentable).
elanguesco -guescere -gui, (to become weak, be relaxed).
elatio -onis, f. (a lifting up); fig., (exaltation).
elatro -are, (to bark out, cry out).
elatus -a -um, partic. from effero; q.v.
Elea or Velia -ae, f. (town in Lucania, birthplace of Parmenides and Zeno, the founders of the, Eleatic school of philosophy); subst.
Eleates -ae, m. (Zeno); adj. Eleaticus, -a -um, (Eleatic).
electio -onis, f. (choice, selection).
electrum -i, n. (amber); plur. (amber balls; an alloy of gold and silver, resembling, amber).
electus (1) -a -um, partic. from eligo; q.v.
electus (2) -us, m. (choosing, choice).
elegans -antis, (choice, fine, neat, tasteful); in bad sense, (fastidious, fussy); adv., eleganter.
elegantia -ae, f. (taste, refinement, grace); in bad sense, (fastidiousness).
elegi -orum, m. pl. (elegiac verses).
elegia and elegea -ae, f. (an elegy).
elementum -i, n. (an element, first principle); in plur., (physical elements; letters of the, alphabet, beginnings, the elements of any
science or art).
elenchus -i, m. (a pearl pendant worn as an earring).
elephantus -i, c. (an elephant; ivory).
elephas (-ans) -phantis, m. (an elephant; the disease elephantiasis).
elevo -are, (to lift up, raise, elevate; to weaken, impair, disparage; to alleviate, lighten).
elicio -licere -licui -licitum, (to lure out, entice, call forth); 'inferorum animas', (to conjure up).
elido -lidere -lisi -lisum, (1) (to strike, knock, thrust out, expel).
(2) (to dash to pieces, shatter).
eligo -ligere -legi -lectum, (to pick out, choose, select); fig., (to root out). Hence partic. electus -a, -um, (chosen, select);adv. electe,

elimino -are, (to carry out of doors); 'dicta', (to blab).
elimo -are, (to file off, polish, elaborate, perfect).
elinguis -e, (speechless or without eloquence).
Elissa (Elisa) -ae, f. (another name of Dido).
elixus -a -um, (boiled, sodden).
elleborus (hell-) -i, m. and elleborum (hell-) -i, n. (hellebore), a plant considered a remedy for, madness.
eloco -are, (to let, hire out).
elocutio -onis, f. (oratorical delivery, elocution).
elogium -i, n. (a short saying, maxim; an inscription); esp. on a gravestone, (epitaph);, (a clause in a will, codicil; a record of a case).
eloquentia -ae, f. (eloquence).
eloquium -i, n. (eloquence).
eloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. (to speak out, express); esp. (to speak eloquently); partic. eloquens, -entis, (eloquent); adv. eloquenter.
eluceo -lucere -luxi, (to beam forth, shine out, glitter).
eluctor -ari, dep: intransit., (to struggle out); transit., (to struggle out of, surmount a, difficulty).
elucubro -are, and elucubror -ari, dep. (to compose by lamplight).
eludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, intransit., (to finish playing), esp. of the waves of the sea; transit., (to, parry a blow; to ward off, evade; to
beat on opponent in play; to delude, mock).
elugeo -lugere -luxi, (to mourn for the prescribed period).
elumbis -e, (weak, feeble).
eluo -luere -lui -lutum, (to wash out, wash clean, rinse, cleanse). Transf., (to squander; to wash, away, efface, remove). Hence partic.
elutus -a -um, (washed out, watery, insipid).
eluvies -ei, f. (a flowing out, discharge; a flowing over, flood).
eluvio -onis, f. (an inundation).
Elysium -i, n. (Elysium, the abode of the blessed); adj. Elysius -a -um; m. plur. as, subst. (the Elysian fields).
em (1), interj.; = hem; q.v.
em (2), interj. (here! hi!);
emacitas -atis, f. (fondness for buying).
emancipatio -onis, f. (emancipation or transfer).
emancipo (-cupo) -are, (to release or emancipate a son from the 'patria potestas'; to transfer or, make over property; to give up
emano -are, (to flow out; to arise, spring, emanate, spread abroad).
Emathia -ae, f. (a district of Macedonia); adj. Emathius -a -um, and f. Emathis -idis, (Macedonian); Emathides, (the Muses).
ematuresco -turescere -turui, (to become mature, to ripen; to become mild, be softened).
emax -acis, (fond of buying).
emblema -atis, n. (inlaid or mosaic work).
embolium -i, n. (a dramatic interlude).
emendabilis -e, (that may be amended).
emendatio -onis, f. (improvement, emendation, amendment).
emendator -oris, m. (amender, corrector).
emendatrix -icis, f. (amender, corrector).
emendo -are, (to free from errors, correct, improve); partic. emendatus -a -um, (free from, mistakes, correct, faultless); adv.
ementior -iri, dep. (to devise falsely, feign, counterfeit); absol., (to make false, statements).
emercor -ari, dep. (to buy up).
emereo -ere -ui -itum and emereor -eri -itus, dep.(to obtain by service, earn completely; to deserve well of a person);, milit., (to
earn pay, to serve, finish one's time). Hence partic. emeritus -a, -um: m. as subst., (a soldier that has served his time, a veteran); as
adj., (worn out, finished with).
emergo -mergere -mersi -mersum, transit., (to cause to rise up); 'emergere se' or 'emergi', (to rise up, emerge, free oneself);
intransit., (to come forth, come up, emerge, free, oneself, get clear); also (to rise, come to the top; to come to light, appear).

emeritus -a -um, partic. from emereo; q.v.
emetior -iri -mensus, dep. (to measure out). Transf., (to pass over, traverse a distance); partic., emensus -a -um, in pass. sense,
(traversed); (to pass through, live through a, period of time).
emeto -ere, (to reap away).
emico -micare -micui -micatum, (1) (to spring out, leap forth). (2) (to gleam, shine forth, be conspicuous).
emigro -are, (to move from a place, migrate); 'e vita', (to die).
eminentia -ae, f. (standing out, prominence; the lights of a picture).
emineo -minere -minui, (to project, stand out, be conspicuous, be remarkable). Hence partic. eminens, -entis, (outstanding,
projecting; distinguished, eminent).
eminor -ari, (to threaten).
eminus, (at a distance, from a distance).
emiror -ari, dep. (to wonder exceedingly, be astonished at).
emissarium -i, n. (an outlet for water).
emissarius -i, m. (an emissary, spy).
emissio -onis, f. (sending forth, letting loose).
emissus -us, m. (sending forth).
emitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to send forth, send out). Hence (1) (to dispatch, send on a chosen course);, of books, (to publish). (2)
(to let go, let loose, free, let slip).
emo emere emi emptum, (to buy, purchase); 'male' or 'magno', (dear); 'bene' or 'parvo', (cheap)., Transf., (to bribe, buy).
emoderor -ari, dep. (to moderate).
emodulor -ari, dep. (to put to music).
emolior -iri, dep. (to achieve by effort).
emollio -ire -ivi -itum, (to soften, make mild or effeminate).
emolo -ere, (to grind away).
emolumentum -i, n. (result of effort; gain, advantage).
emoneo -ere, (to warn, admonish).
emorior -mori -mortuus, dep. (to die off, perish).
emoveo -movere -movi -motum, (to move out or away, remove).
Empedocles -is, m. (a poet and philosopher of Agrigentum, of the fifth century B.C.); adj., Empedocleus -a -um; n. pl. as subst. (the
doctrine of Empedocles).
empiricus -i, m. (an unscientific physician, empiric).
emporium -i, n. (a place of trade, market).
emptio -onis, f. (buying, purchasing; a purchase).
emptito -are, (to buy up).
emptor -oris, m. (buyer, purchaser).
emugio -ire, (to bellow).
emulgeo -mulgere -mulsum, (to drain out, exhaust).
emungo -mungere -munxi -munctum, (to clean a nose); with reflex. or in pass., (to wipe one's nose). Transf., (to cheat a person).
Hence partic. emunctus -a -um: 'emunctae naris', (with a, clean nose, i.e. shrewd, discerning).
emunio -ire, (to fortify, make safe; to build up); 'paludes', (to clear up).
en, (sometimes em) (lo! behold! see!). Interrog., (look, say); with imperat., (come).
enarrabilis -e, (that can be narrated or told).
enarratio -onis, f. (exposition; scansion).
enarro -are, (to narrate or explain).
enascor -nasci -natus, dep. (to grow out, spring forth, arise).
enato -are, (to swim away, escape by swimming, to extricate oneself).
enavigo -are, (to sail away); 'undam', (over the waves).
endo, archaic = in. q.v.
endromis -idis, f. (a rough cloak worn after exercise).
Endymion -onis, m. (a beautiful young man, loved by the Moon).
eneco (enico) -necare -necui -nectum, (to kill off; to wear out, exhaust, torture).
enervis -e, (powerless, weak).

enervo -are, (to remove the sinews from; to weaken). Hence partic. enervatus -a -um, (weakened, powerless).
enico, = eneco; q.v.
enim, conj. (for; namely, for instance; indeed, truly, certainly); 'at enim', (but, you may object.....); 'sed enim', (but indeed).
enimvero, (to be sure, certainly).
eniteo -ere -ui, (to shine out, shine forth, be conspicuous).
enitesco -ere, (to gleam, shine forth).
enitor -niti -nisus or -nixus, dep. (to work one's way up, struggle up, ascend); with acc. (to climb); in, gen. (to strive, struggle, make an
effort); also transit., (to bring forth, bear). Hence partic. enixus -a -um, (strenuous, eager); adv. enixe.
Enna, see Henna.
Ennius -i, m. Q. (239-169 B.C) (the 'father of Roman poetry').
eno -are, (to swim out, escape by swimming, flee).
enodatio -onis, f. (untying); hence (explanation).
enodis -e, (without knots; clear, plain).
enodo -are, (to free from knots; to make clear, explain); adv. from partic., enodate, (clearly, plainly).
enormis -e, (irregular, unusual; very large, immense, enormous).
enormitas -atis, (irregular shape).
enotesco -notescere -notui, (to become known, be made public).
ensifer -fera -ferum, (sword-bearing).
ensiger -gera -gerum, (sword-bearing).
ensis -is, m. (sword).
enthymema -atis, n. (a thought, line of thought, argument); esp. (a kind of syllogism).
enubo -nubere -nupsi -nuptum, of a woman, (to marry out of her rank).
enucleo -are, (to take out the kernel);hence (to explain in detail);partic. enucleatus -a, -um, (straightforward, simple, clear); adv.
enumeratio -onis, f. (counting up, enumeration; recapitulation).
enumero -are, (to reckon, count up, enumerate); esp. (to pay out); also (to recount, recapitulate).
enuntiatio -onis, f. (an enunciation, proposition).
enuntio -are, (to tell, divulge, announce, express in words); in logic, (to state a, proposition); also (to pronounce clearly). N. of partic.
as subst. enuntiatum, -i, (a proposition).
enuptio -onis, f: 'gentis', (a woman's marrying out of her gens).
enutrio -ire, (to nourish, rear, bring up).
eo, (1) ire ivi and ii itum, (to go); 'cubitum ire', (to go to bed); milit., 'ire, ad arma', (to fly to arms); polit. '(pedibus) ire in sententiam',
(to support, a motion). Transf., (to pass, proceed); in exclamations, 'i', (go to);'melius, ire', (to go better); 'ire in', with acc.(to be
changed to).
eo, (2). (1) old dat., (thither, to that point); of degree, (so far, to such a, pitch). (2) locative, (there); esp. with 'loci' (partitive
genit.).(3) abl., (for that, on that account).
eodem, (1) old dat., (to the same place; to the same point or person). (2) locative, (in the same place; in the same condition).
Eos, f. (dawn);adj. Eous -a -um, (belonging to the morning, or eastern).
epastus -a -um, (eaten up).
ephebus -i, m. (a young man between eighteen and twenty).
ephemeris -idis, f. (a journal, diary).
ephippiatus -a -um, (provided with a saddle).
ephippium -i, n. (a horse-cloth, saddle).
ephorus -i, m. (an ephor, a Spartan magistrate).
epicopus -a -um, (provided with oars).
epicrocus -a -um, (transparent, fine).
Epicurus -i, m. (an Athenian philosopher, founder of the Epicurean school, (342-270 B.C.));, adj. and subst. Epicureus -a -um,
(Epicurean, an Epicurean).
epicus -a -um, (epic).
epidicticus -a -um, (for display).

epidipnis -idis, f. (dessert).
epigramma -atis, n. (an inscription; an epigram).
epilogus -i, m. (a conclusion, peroration, epilogue).
epimenia -orum, n. pl. (a month's rations).
epiredium -i, n. (the strap by which a horse was fastened to a vehicle; a trace).
Epirus -i, f. (a region in northwest Greece); adj. Epirensis -e, (of Epirus); subst., Epirotes -ae, m. (an Epirote).
epistolium -i, n. (a little letter, note).
epistula (or epistola) -ae, f. (a written communication, letter, epistle); ' ab epistulis ', (to do with, correspondence), of secretaries.
Transf., (sending of letters, post).
epitaphium -i, n. (a funeral oration).
epithalamium -i, n. (a nuptial song).
epitheca -ae, f. (addition).
epitoma -ae and epitome -es, f. (abridgment, epitome).
epops -opis, m. (the hoopoe).
epos, n. (an epic poem).
epotus -a -um, (drunk up, drained). Transf. (1) (spent on drink). (2) (swallowed up).
epulae -arum, f. (food, dishes, a banquet, feast).
epularis -e, (belonging to a banquet).
epulo -onis, m. (feaster); 'Tresviri (later Septemviri) epulones', (a college of priests, who had charge of sacrificial feasts).
epulor -ari, dep. (to feast, feast on).
epulum -i, n. (a banquet, feast), esp. on a public occasion.
equa -ae, f. (a mare).
eques -itis, m. (a horseman, rider, cavalryman); polit., equites, (the knights, order, between senate and plebs); also collectively in
equester -stris -stre, (relating to horsemen, equestrian; relating to cavalry); polit., (relating to, the knights).
equidem, (indeed, truly, for my part); concessive, (of course, certainly, admittedly).
equinus -a -um, (relating to horses).
equitatus -us, m. (cavalry).
equito -are, (to ride on horseback); of winds, (to rush).
equuleus, = eculeus; q.v.
equus -i, m. (older forms equos and ecus) (a horse); 'equus bellator', (a war, horse);'equis virisque', (with horse and foot, with all one's
might); 'ad, equum rescribere', (to make a person a knight).
era -ae, f. (mistress, lady).
eradico -are, (to root out).
erado -radere -rasi -rasum, (to scratch out; to destroy, get rid of).
Erato, f. (the Muse of lyric and love poetry).
ercisco, erctum; = hercisco, herctum; q.v.
Erebus -i, m. (a god of the lower world); hence (the lower world). Adj. Erebeus -a -um.
Erechtheus -ei, m. (a mythical king of Athens); adj. Erechtheus -a -um, m. (Athenian); subst., Erechthidae -arum, m. pl. (the
erectus, partic. from erigo; q.v.
erepo -repere -repsi -reptum, (to creep out; to creep up or over).
ereptio -onis, f. (taking by force, seizure).
ereptor -oris, m. (one who takes by force, a robber).
erga, prep. with acc., (towards), esp. of personal relations; more generally, (about).
ergastulum -i, n. (a workhouse for debtors or slaves); in plur. (the inmates of an, ergastulum).
ergo, prep., preceded by genit., (because of, on account of); adv., (therefore, accordingly, then).
Erichthonius -i, m. (a mythical king of Athens); also (a mythical king of Troy); adj., Erichthonius -a -um, (Athenian or Trojan).
ericius -i, m. (hedgehog); milit., (chevaux de frise).
erigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, (to set up, place upright, erect, raise); milit. (to march a body of soldiers, up a height). Transf. (to arouse,
excite; encourage, cheer). Hence partic., erectus -a -um, (raised, upright,

erect; high, elevated, proud; alert, anxious, intent, with minds on the stretch; resolute, cheerful).
erilis -e, (of a master or mistress).
Erinys -yos, f. (one of the Furies); plur. Erinyes, (the Furies). Transf., (scourge, curse).
eripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, (to snatch away, tear out); in good sense, (to free, rescue). Hence partic., ereptus -a -um, (snatched
away or rescued).
erogatio -onis, f. (payment, expenditure).
erogo -are, (to ask for and obtain); used in the sense (to pay out) money, esp. from, public funds.
errabundus -a -um, (wandering).
erraticus -a -um, (wandering, erratic).
erratio -onis, f. (wandering, straying).
erratus -us, m. (wandering, straying).
erro (1) -are, (to wander, stray, rove); transit. (to wander over). Transf., (to waver, to, err, be mistaken). N. of partic. as subst.,
erratum -i, (a fault, error), technically or morally.
erro (2) -onis, m. (a wanderer, vagabond).
error -oris, m. (wandering about). Transf., (wavering, uncertainty, error, mistake; source, of error, deception).
erubesco -rubescere -rubui, (to grow red, blush); with infinit., (to blush to); with acc. (to blush for, to respect); gerundive
erubescendus -a -um, (of which one should be ashamed).
eruca -ae, f. (a colewort).
eructo -are, (to belch forth, throw up, vomit). Transf. (1) (to talk drunkenly about). (2), (to cast out, eject).
erudio -ire, (to free from roughness; to instruct, teach, educate). Hence partic. eruditus, -a -um, (instructed, educated); adv. erudite,
eruditio -onis, f. (teaching, instruction; knowledge, learning).
erumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, transit., (to break open, cause to burst forth; to vent, discharge);, intransit., (to break out, burst
forth); milit., (to rush forth).
eruo -ruere -rui -rutum, (to tear out, dig up); of buildings, (to raze, demolish).
eruptio -onis, f. (a bursting or breaking forth); milit. (sally, attack).
erus -i, m. (master, owner, lord).
ervum -i, n. (bitter vetch).
Eryx -rycis or Erycus -i, m. (a mountain and city on the west coast of Sicily, with a famous temple of, Venus).Adj. Erycinus -a -um; f. as
subst. (Venus).
esca -ae, f. (food, victuals), esp. (as bait).
escarius -a -um, (relating to food or bait).
escendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, intransit., (to climb up, ascend; to go up from the seacoast inland);, transit., (to ascend).
escensio -onis, f. (a movement inland), esp. hostile.
esculentus -a -um, (edible, esculent).
esculetum, esculus; see aesc-.
esito -are, (to keep eating).
Esquiliae -arum, f. (one of the seven hills of Rome, the Esquiline). Hence adj. Esquilius and, Esquilinus -a -um, (Esquiline); f. as subst.
Esquilina, -ae, (the Esquiline, gate).
essedarius -i, m. (a fighter in a British or Gallic war-chariot).
essedum -i, n. (a war-chariot used by Gauls and Britons).
esu, abl. sing. m., (in the eating).
esurio -ire, (to be hungry, desire food); in gen., (to long for).
esuritio -onis, f. (hunger).
et, as adv., (also, even); as conj., (and; and indeed); in narrative, (and then);, occasionally adversative, (and yet); after alius, idem, par,
(as or than);, repeated et....et...., (both....and...); so -que....et....; nec (neque)....et, (not only not....but)
etenim, (for indeed).
etesiae -arum, m. pl. (winds which blow after the dogdays, Etesian winds).
ethologus -i, m. (a mimic).

etiam, (1) (as yet, still); etiam atque etiam, (again and again).(2) (also, besides, even); 'non solum (or modo)...sed (or verum) etiam',
(not only... but also);, with comparatives, (still). (3) in answers, (yes, certainly). (4) in, questions, expressing incredulity, (actually?
really ?).
etiamnum and etiamnunc, (yet, still, till now).
etiamsi, (even if, although).
etiamtum and etiamtunc, (even then, till that time, till then).
Etruria -ae, f. (a district in northwest Italy); hence adj. and subst. Etruscus -a -um, (Etruscan, an Etruscan).
etsi, (even if, although); elliptically, (and yet, notwithstanding).
etymologia -ae, f. (etymology).
eu, (good! well done!).
Euan or Euhan, m. (a name of Bacchus).
euans or euhans -antis, (shouting Euan), of Bacchanals.
euge, (well done!).
eugepae, (well done!).
Euias or Euhias -adis, f. (a Bacchante).
Euius or Euhius -i, m. (a name of Bacchus).
Eumenides -um, f. (Eumenides, the gracious one), euphem. for the Furies.
eunuchus -i, m. (a eunuch).
euoe, euhoe, interj., (shout of the Bacchantes).
Euripides -is, m. (the Athenian tragic poet (c.485-406 B.C.)); adj. Euripideus -a -um.
Euripus -i, m. (a channel, strait), esp. (the strait between Euboea and Boeotia); (a canal, or watercourse).
Europa -ae, f. and Europe -es, f.: myth., (daughter of Agenor, whom Jupiter, in the form, of a bull, carried off to Crete); geograph.,
(the continent of Europe). Adj., Europaeus -a -um, (belonging to Europa or to Europe).
Eurus -i, m. (the southeast or east wind); adj. Eurous -a -um, (eastern).
Euterpe -es, f. (Muse of harmony).
Euxinus -a -um, (an epithet of the Black Sea).
evado -vadere -vasi -vasum, Intransit., (to go out, go forth); esp. (to climb up or out; to escape, get, off). Transit., (to go out or
through, pass over; to climb up; to escape).
evagor -ari, dep.: intransit., (to wander out, stray away); milit., (to wheel right and, left, manoeuvre); transit., (to overstep).
evalesco -valescere -valui, (to grow strong, prevail, come into vogue); in perf., (to have power, be, able).
evanesco -vanescere -vanui, (to vanish, disappear, pass away).
evanidus -a -um, (vanishing, passing away).
evasto -are, (to devastate, lay waste utterly).
eveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, (to carry out or up); with reflex. or pass., of ships, (to sail away); of, riders, (to ride away).
evello -vellere -velli -vulsum, (to tear out, pluck out).
evenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come out). Transf., (to turn out, result; to befall, happen, occur).Hence, n. of partic. as subst.
eventum -i, (issue, consequence, result; event, occurrence, experience).
eventus -us, m. (consequence, issue, result; event, occurrence, experience).
everbero -are, (to strike violently).
everriculum -i, n. (a fishing-net, drag-net); fig., (a clean sweep).
everro -verrere -verri -versum, (to sweep out; to plunder).
eversio -onis, f. (overturning, destruction, ruin).
eversor -oris, m. (overturner, destroyer).
everto -vertere -verti -versum, (to turn out, dislodge, eject; to turn up, stir; to overturn, throw down, demolish, destroy, ruin).
evestigatus -a -um, (tracked out, discovered).
evidens -entis, (visible, clear, plain, evident); adv. evidenter.
evidentia -ae, f. (distinctness of language).
evigilo -are, intransit. (to wake up; to be awake, be vigilant); transit., (to watch, through, pass in watching; to work hard at, to
evilesco -vilescere -vilui, (to become contemptible).

evincio -vincere -vinxi -vinctum, (to bind, bind round).
evinco -vincere -vici -victum, (to conquer entirely, utterly subdue); in gen. (to prevail over, get through, get over); of results, (to
bring about); of conculusions, (to prove, irresistibly).
eviscero -are, (to disembowel, tear in pieces).
evitabilis -e, (that can be avoided).
evito -are, (to avoid, shun).
evocator -oris, m. (one that calls to arms).
evoco -are, (to call out); esp. (to summon the spirits of the dead, or a deity); milit., and polit. (to call out, call up, summon). Transf.,
(to draw out, draw on; to, call forth, produce). M. pl. of partic. as subst., evocati -orum, (veteran, soldiers recalled to the colors).
evoe, see euoe.
evolo -are, (to fly out, fly away; to come out quickly, rush forth, escape).
evolutio -onis, f. (the unrolling and reading of a book).
evolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, (1) (to roll out, roll forth); of news, evolvi, (to spread). (2) (to unroll, roll open); esp. (to unroll a book
to read it). Transf.(to extricate, disentangle, detach; to unravel, disclose, explain).
evomo -ere -ui -itum, (to vomit forth, disgorge).
evulgo -are, (to publish, make known).
evulsio -onis, f. (pulling out).
ex or e, prep. with abl. (1) in space, (from or out of); 'ex equo pugnare', (to fight, on horseback) (operating from it); 'ex adverso',
(opposite). (2) in time, (since); also (immediately after); 'aliud ex alio', (one thing after, another).(3) in other relations: to denote
origin, (from, away from, out of, of); 'ex animo', (heartily); 'ex industria', (on purpose); 'unus ex', (one, of); 'pocula ex auro', (gold cups);
to denote cause or occasion, (from, on, account of, by reason of); 'e vulnere mori', (to die of a wound); to denote, correspondence,
(in accordance with); 'ex re et ex tempore', (according to, time and circumstance); to denote advantage, e.g. 'e republica', (for the,
benefit of the state); in gen. (in regard to); 'ex parte', (in part).
exacerbo -are, (to provoke, exasperate, embitter).
exactio -onis, f. (driving out, expulsion; demanding, exacting), esp. (collecting of debts, tribute, etc.); in gen., (management,
exactor -oris, m. (one who drives out; one who demands or exacts), esp. (a collector of, taxes); in gen., (superintendent, overseer).
exactus -a -um, partic. from exigo; q.v.
exacuo -uere -ui -utum, (to sharpen to a point, make sharp, intensify, stimulate).
exadversum or exadversus, (opposite).
exaedificatio -onis, f. (building up).
exaedifico -are, (to build up, erect, finish).
exaequatio -onis, f. (making equal).
exaequo -are, (1) (to make level or equal,level up, relate). (2) (to equal, be like).
exaestuo -are, (to be hot, boil up, foam up).
exaggeratio -onis, f. (heaping up); hence (elevation, exaltation).
exaggero -are, (to heap up; to enlarge, increase; to heighten, exalt, magnify).
exagitator -oris, m. (a censurer).
exagito -are, (to chase about; to harass, disquiet, disturb; to scold, blame, censure, criticize; to excite, irritate).
exalbesco -bescere -bui, (to grow white, turn pale).
examen -inis, n. (1) (a swarm; a throng, crowd, shoal). (2) (the tongue of a balance;, testing, consideration).
examino -are, (to weigh; to consider).
examussim, (according to rule, exactly).
exanclo -are, (to drain, exhaust; to bear to the end, endure).
exanimalis -e, (dead; deadly).
exanimatio -onis, f. (want of breath), esp. from fright.
exanimis -e, (lifeless, dead); also (breathless), esp. from fright.

exanimo -are, (1) (to take away the breath of, to wind, stun, weaken). (2) (to deprive of, life, to kill).
exanimus -a -um, (lifeless, dead).
exantlo, = exanclo; q.v.
exardesco -ardescere -arsi -arsum, (to blaze up, to become hot, or inflamed); of disturbances, (to break out).
exaresco -arescere -arui, (to dry, become dry or exhausted).
exarmo -are, (to disarm, deprive of arms).
exaro -are, (to plow up, dig up; to produce by plowing); hence (to write on waxen, tablets).
exaspero -are, (to make rough, to irritate).
exauctoro -are, (to dismiss from military service, discharge, cashier).
exaudio -ire, (to hear plainly; to hear favorably, listen to).
exaugeo -ere, (to increase much).
exauguratio -onis, f. (profanation, desecration).
exauguro -are, (to desecrate, profane).
exauspico -are, (to take an augury from).
excaeco -are, (to make quite blind; to stop up) a channel.
excalceo -are, (to take the shoes from); in drama, (to take the tragic cothurnus from an, actor).
excandescentia -ae, f. (heat, irascibility).
excandesco -descere -dui, (to become hot, glow).
excanto -are, (to charm out, bring forth by incantation).
excarnifico -are, (to tear to pieces).
excavo -are, (to hollow out).
excedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, intransit., (to go out, go away, pass out); 'e vita', (to die); (to go beyond), a point or limit; (to attain to,
to result in); transit., (to leave, pass, beyond, exceed).
excellentia -ae, f. (eminence, distinction).
excello -ere, (to stand out, excel, be distinguished); partic. excellens, (high, lofty, eminent, remarkable); adv. excellenter,
excelsitas -atis, f. (height, elevation).
excelsus -a -um, adj., (lofty, high, elevated, eminent). N. as subst. excelsum -i, (a height, eminence). Adv. excelse, (loftily).
exceptio -onis, f. (exception, restriction, limitation); esp. (an exception by the defendant, to the plaintiff's statement of a case).
excepto -are, (1) (to take up, catch); 'auras', (to snuff up). (2) (to take in succession).
excerno -cernere -crevi -cretum, (to separate, sift, sort).
excerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum, (to pick out; to gather out, choose; to put on one side, separate). N. of, partic. as subst.
excerptum -i, (an extract).
excessus -us, m. (departure); from life, (death); from subject, (digression).
excetra -ae, f. (a snake, viper).
excidium -i, n. (overthrow, destruction).
excido (1) -cidere -cidi, (to fall out, fall away, be lost); of words, (to slip out unawares, escape);, of ideas, (to pass from memory or
thought, be forgotten).
excido (1) -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to cut out);'lapides e terra', (to quarry). Transf., (1) (to destroy, demolish); 'portas', (to force open). (2)
(to root out, banish).
excieo and excio -cire -civi and -cii -citum, (to call out, arouse); esp. (to awaken from sleep or to summon for help); in, gen., of
persons, (to excite, arouse); of feelings, (to call forth, excite, produce); of material things, (to stir, shake).
excipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, (1) (to take out); hence, (to rescue; to except). (2)(to take up, catch; to, greet, welcome) a person;(to
pick up) news or ideas by listening; of events, (to come upon) people. (3) passively, (to receive, to take over from, follow, succeed,
come later).
excisio -onis, (destruction).
excito -are, (to arouse, rouse up); of things, (to provoke, call forth, cause); of persons, (to console, cheer, inspire); of buildings, (to
raise, erect); of fire, (to, kindle, inflame). Hence partic. excitatus -a -um, (lively, vigorous, loud).
exclamatio -onis, f. (exclamation).

exclamo -are, (to shout, cry aloud; to exclaim; to call somebody by name).
excludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, (to shut out, exclude, keep away);of things, (to knock out); of birds, (to, hatch).
exclusio -onis, f. (shutting out, exclusion).
excogitatio -onis, f. (contriving, devising).
excogito -are, (to think out, devise, contrive, invent).
excolo -colere -colui -cultum, (to tend or cultivate carefully; to adorn, polish, refine; to serve, honor) a, deity or person.
excoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, (to boil down, boil away; to cook, bake, make hard); fig., (to cook up).
excors -cordis, (foolish, silly, without intelligence).
excrementum -i, n. (excrement); 'oris', (spittle).
excresco -crescere -crevi -cretum, (to grow up, spring up).
excretus -a -um, partic. of excerno, or of excresco.
excrucio -are, (to torture, torment).
excubiae -arum, f. pl. (lying out); milit., (keeping watch, keeping guard). Transf., (watchfires; watchmen, guard).
excubitor -oris, m. (sentinel, watchman, guard).
excubo -bare -bui -bitum, (to lie or sleep out of doors); milit., (to keep watch; to be watchful, vigilant).
excudo -cudere -cudi -cusum, (to strike out, beat out); esp. (to hammer, forge); of birds, (to hatch)., Transf. of bees, (to mold); of
writers, (to compose).
exculco -are, (to trample firm, tread hard).
excuratus -a -um, (carefully seen to).
excurro -currere -cucurri and -curri -cursum, (to run out, hasten forth); milit., (to attack, make a sortie); with acc., (to, run over); fig.,
(to run out, move freely); of places, (to run out, to, project).
excursio -onis, f. (running out; movement forwards); fig., (outset of a speech); milit., (attack, assault, sally).
excursor -oris, m. (scout, skirmisher).
excursus -us, m. (running out); rhet., (digression); milit., (attack, sally, assault).
excusabilis -e, (excusable).
excusatio -onis, f. (an excuse, plea, defence).
excuso -are, (to exempt from blame or accusation; to excuse) a person, (to make excuses, for) a thing; (to allege in excuse, to plead).
Hence partic. excusatus -a -um, (free from blame); adv. excusate, (excusably).
excutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, (1) (to shake out); esp., (to shake out) clothes to find anything hidden;, hence (to search, examine) a
person; fig. (to investigate). (2) (to strike, off, throw out, knock away, shake off).
exec-, see exsec-.
exedo -esse -edi -esum, (to eat up, devour, consume; to wear down, exhaust, destroy).
exedra -ae, f. (a hall for conversation or debate).
exemplaris -e, (serving as a copy); n. as subst. exemplar -aris, (a copy, transcript; a, likeness; a pattern, ideal).
exemplum -i, n. (1) (a sample, example); 'exempli causa (or gratia)', (for instance);, (general character, manner, fashion) (as shown by
examples); (an example to be, followed, model; a precedent; an example of what may happen, warning, object, lesson); hence (a
punishment intended to deter). (2) (a copy, transcript).
exemptus -a -um, partic. of eximo; q.v.
exentero -are, (to torture, exhaust).
exeo -ire -ii (-ivi) -itum, intransit., (to go out, go away, go forth; to pass from) state to state; (to, get out, to become known); of time,
(to come to an end, pass away); transit., (to pass over); also (to ward off).
exeq-, see exseq-.
exerceo -ere -ui -itum, (to keep at work, exercise, train, cultivate); of abstr. things, (to employ, exploit); of feelings, arts, and
processes, (to practice, exercise); of the, mind, (to train); hence (to overwork, harass, trouble). Hence partic., exercitus -a -um,
(trained, schooled; harassed; severe, vexatious).

exercitatio -onis, f. (practice, exercise; experience).
exercitium -i, n. (practice, training).
exercito -are, (to train hard, keep at work). Hence exercitatus -a -um, (trained, practiced, exercised; troubled, harassed).
exercitus (1) -a -um, partic. of exerceo; q.v.
exercitus (2) -us, m. (training; a trained body of soldiers, army); esp. (the infantry); poet. in, gen., (crowd, swarm).
exesor -oris, m. (one who gnaws or eats away).
exhalatio -onis, f. (exhalation, vapor).
exhalo -are, transit., (to exhale, breathe out); intransit., of things, (to steam); of, persons, (to expire).
exhaurio -haurire -hausi -haustum, (1) (to draw out); in gen., (to remove, take out, take away). (2) (to drain, dry, empty out,
impoverish; to finish, bring to an end; to endure, suffer).
exheredo -are, (to disinherit).
exheres -edis, (disinherited).
exhibeo -hibere -hibui -hibitum, (to produce, show, display, exhibit, present; to offer, allow; to produce by, making, to cause).
exhilaro -are, (to make cheerful).
exhorresco -horrescere -horrui, (to shudder exceedingly, be terrified); transit., (to tremble at, to dread).
exhortatio -onis, f. (exhortation, encouragement).
exhortativus -a -um, (of exhortation).
exhortor -ari, dep. (to exhort, encourage).
exigo -igere -egi -actum, (1) (to drive out or away; to force out, exact, demand; to sell). (2) (to, drive through); hence (to complete,
finish; to determine, settle, adjust, regulate; to ascertain, decide). Hence partic. exactus -a -um, (accurate, precise, exact).
exiguitas -atis, f. (littleness, smallness).
exiguus -a -um, (small, little, scanty); of quantity, in size, (small); in number, (scanty);, in time, (short); of quality, (meager). N. as
subst. exiguum -i, (small, extent). Adv. exigue, (sparingly, scantily, scarcely).
exilis -e, (thin, slender, meager); in possessions, (poor); with genit., (without); of, style, (dry, dreary). Adv. exiliter, (thinly, poorly,
exilitas -atis, f. (thinness, meagerness, weakness).
eximius -a -um, (excepted); hence (selected; exceptional, distinguished). Adv. eximie, (uncommonly, exceptionally).
eximo -imere -emi -emptum, (to take out, take away), esp. off a list or out of a group; (to free, release; to take away, remove) an
abstr. thing; of time, (to waste).
exin, = exinde. q.v.
exinanio -ire, (to empty); 'gentes', (to plunder).
exinde (exin, exim): in space, (thence, next); in time, (thereupon, after that, then); in, logic, (consequently, accordingly).
existimatio -onis, f. (the opinion that a man has, judgement; the opinion that others have of a, man), esp. morally, (reputation, good
name, honor, character); in finance, (credit).
existimator -oris, m. (one who forms or gives an opinion, a critic).
existimo (-umo) -are, (to judge a thing according to its value); in gen., (to judge, consider, regard).
exitiabilis -e, (deadly, destructive).
exitialis -e, (destructive, fatal, deadly).
exitio -onis, f. (going out).
exitiosus -a -um, (destructive, fatal, deadly).
exitium -i, n. (going out or away); hence (destruction, ruin); also (a cause of, destruction).
exitus -us, m. (going out, going forth; a means of going out, exit; end, finish; issue, result).
exlex -legis, (bound by no law, lawless, reckless).
exmoveo, = emoveo; q.v.
exobsecro -are, (to entreat earnestly).
exoculo -are, (to deprive of eyes).
exodium -i, n. (a comic afterpiece).
exolesco -olescere -olevi -oletum, (to grow old and weak, decay, fade out); partic. exoletus -a -um, (worn

out);, m. as subst. (a dissolute person).
exonero -are, (to unload, disburden); in gen., (to free, release, relieve).
exopto -are, (to desire eagerly, long for); partic. exoptatus -a -um, (desired, longed, for).
exorabilis -e, (able to be entreated, placable).
exorator -oris, m. (one who entreats successfully).
exordior -ordiri -orsus, dep. (to begin to weave); in gen., (to begin). Partic. in pass. sense exorsus, -a -um, (begun).
exordium -i, n. (the warp of a web); in gen., (a beginning); esp. (the beginning of a, speech).
exorior -oriri -ortus, dep.(to rise, spring up, issue, appear, come forward).
exornatio -onis, f. (adorning, ornament).
exornator -oris, m. (one who adorns, an embellisher).
exorno -are, (to furnish, provide plentifully); also (to ornament, adorn).
exoro -are, (to entreat successfully, obtain a thing by entreaty, prevail upon a person).
exorsus (1) -a -um, partic. of exordior; q.v.
exorsus (2) -us, m. (a beginning).
exortus -us, m. (a rising; the East).
exos -ossis, (without bones).
exosculor -ari, dep. (to kiss).
exosso -are, (to bone, take out the bones).
exostra -ae, f. (a theatrical machine, revealing the inside of a house to the spectators).
exosus -a -um, (hating exceedingly).
exoticus -a -um, (foreign, outlandish, exotic).
expallesco -pallescere -pallui, (to become very pale); with acc.(to dread).
expalpo -are, (to coax out).
expando -ere, (to stretch out, expand, spread out). Transf., (to explain).
expavesco -pavescere -pavi, (to grow very frightened); with acc. (to dread exceedingly).
expedio -ire -ivi and -ii -itum, (to free from a snare, disengage, disentangle, set free; to get things ready, for action); fig., (to release,
clear, set free, set straight); in speech, (to, clear up a point, explain); 'res expedit', or impers. 'expedit', (it is, expedient, useful,
advantageous). Hence partic. expeditus -a -um, (unshackled, unimpeded); milit., (lightly equipped); in gen., (free, ready); n. as subst.,
(clear ground); of abstr. things, (clear, settled, ready). Adv. expedite, (freely, easily).
expeditio -onis, f. (a military operation, expedition).
expello -pellere -puli -pulsum, (to drive out, expel, thrust away).
expendo -pendere -pendi -pensum, (to weigh out); esp. (to weigh out in payment, pay out, put down); sometimes, (to pay a penalty).
Transf., (to value, rate); in gen., (to weigh up, consider). Hence partic. expensus -a -um, (weighed out), hence (paid out);, 'ferre
homini expensum', (to note a thing as paid to a person, to charge to)., N. as subst. expensum -i, (payment).
expergefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to awaken, rouse, excite).
expergiscor -pergisci -perrectus, dep. (to wake up, arouse oneself).
expergo -pergere -pergi -pergitum, (to awaken).
experientia -ae, f.(trial, testing, attempt; knowledge gained by experience).
experimentum -i, n. (experience; proof from experience).
experior -periri -pertus, dep. (to try, test, prove, put to the test); 'experiri ius', (to go to law);, in perf., (to know by having tried,
know by experience; to try to do a thing)., Pres. partic. experiens -entis, (enterprising, venturesome). Perf. partic., expertus -a -um:
pass., (tested, tried, approved); act., (with experience, experienced).
experrectus -a -um, partic. of espergiscor; q.v.
expers -pertis, (having no part in, not sharing in; wanting in, destitute of).
expertus -a -um, partic. from experior; q.v.
expetesso -ere, (to desire, wish for).
expeto -ere -ii and -ivi -itum, transit. (to desire, strive after, make for); of things due, (to demand, require);with infin.(to seek to
do);intransit. (to fall upon).
expiatio -onis, f. (atonement, expiation).
expilatio -onis, f. (plundering, robbing).

expilator -oris, m. (plunderer, robber).
expilo -are, (to plunder, rob).
expingo -pingere -pinxi -pictum, (to paint over); fig., (to describe, depict in writing).
expio -are, (to propitiate, appease) an offending or threatening power; (to purify what is, defiled); (to atone for an offence).
expiscor -ari, dep. (to fish out; to search out, find out).
explanatio -onis, f. (making clear, explanation); rhet., (illustration), also (clear, articulation).
explanator -oris, m. (one who explains; an interpreter).
explano -are, (to make level, smooth out); hence (to explain, make clear; to set out, clearly, or articulate clearly).
explaudo, = explodo; q.v.
explementum -i, n. (filling, stuffing).
expleo -plere -plevi -pletum, (to fill, fill up; to complete) a required amount; (to make good) losses, etc.; in quality, (to complete,
perfect); of time, (to complete, finish); of, duties, (to fulfil, discharge); of wants, (to satisfy, quench, appease). Hence, partic. expletus
-a -um, (perfect, complete).
expletio -onis, f. (satisfying).
explicatio -onis, f. (unfolding, uncoiling). Transf., (explanation, interpretation).
explicator -oris, m. (interpreter, explainer).
explicatrix -icis, f. (interpreter, explainer).
explicatus (1) -a -um, partic. from explico; q.v.
explicatus (2) -us, m. (explanation, exposition).
explico -are -avi -atum and -ui -itum, (to unfold, unroll, disentangle); in gen., (to spread out, extend, expand);, milit., (to extend
ranks, deploy). Transf., (to disentangle, put in order); of, a debt, (to pay off); (to explain, expound, interpret; to set free). Hence,
partic. explicatus -a -um, (ordered, arranged; made plain, clear); also, explicitus -a -um, (straightforward, easy);adv. explicate,
explodo (-plaudo) -plodere -plosi -plosum, (to hiss an actor off the stage); in gen., (to scare off, reject).
exploratio -onis, f. (investigation).
explorator -oris, m. (explorer, scout, spy).
exploro -are, (to search out, investigate, explore); milit., (to spy out, reconnoitre); (to, test, try, put to proof). Hence partic.
exploratus -a -um, (established, confirmed, certain); 'exploratum habeo', (I am sure); adv. explorate, (certainly, surely, definitely).
expolio -ire -ii and -ivi -itum, (to smooth, polish, refine); partic. expolitus -a -um, (smooth, polished).
expolitio -onis, f. (smoothing, polishing).
expono -ponere -posui -positum, (1) (to put outside, cast out); (to expose a child); naut. (to land, disembark). (2) (to put on view,
display, show); in words, (to set forth, explain, exhibit). Hence partic. expositus (expostus) -a -um, (exposed, open, accessible); of
persons, (affable); in bad sense, (vulgar).
exporrigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, (to stretch out, expand, smooth out).
exportatio -onis, f. (exportation).
exporto -are, (to carry out); esp. (to export).
exposco -poscere -poposci, (to implore, entreat earnestly); esp. (to demand the surrender of) a person.
expositio -onis, f. (putting out);hence (statement, exposition, narration).
expostulatio -onis, f. (complaint, expostulation).
expostulo -are, (1) (to demand earnestly), esp. (to demand the surrender of a person). (2) (to, make a claim or complaint, to
expotus, = epotus; q.v.
exprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, (1) (to press out, force out; to extort). (2) (to mold or form) one thing in, imitation of another;
hence (to copy, express, portray, represent); esp., (to, express in words, describe; to translate; to articulate). (3) (to raise up).
exprobratio -onis, f. (reproach, upbraiding).
exprobro -are, (to reproach; to bring up a thing against a person).
expromo -promere -prompsi -promptum, (to bring forth, produce, exhibit, display; to disclose, set forth, state, utter).
expugnabilis -e, (that may be taken by storm).
expugnatio -onis, f. (the taking of a place by storm).

expugnator -oris, m. (taker, capturer); 'pudicitiae', (violator).
expugno -are, (to take by storm, capture); hence (to overcome, subdue; to gain forcibly, extort); with ut and the subj., (bring it about
expulsio -onis, f. (driving out, expulsion).
expulsor -oris, m. (one who drives out).
expultrix -tricis, f. (one who drives out).
expungo -pungere -punxi -punctum, (to prick out); hence (to cancel, expunge).
expurgatio -onis, f. (vindication, justification).
expurgo -are, (to cleanse, purify). Hence (to cure; to purify; to justify, defend).
exputesco -ere, (to rot away).
exputo -are, (to lop away); hence (to consider; to comprehend).
exquiro (-quaero) -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, (1) (to search for, look for, ask for). (2) (to search through, examine)., Hence partic.
exquisitus -a -um, (carefully sought or worked out, choice, exquisite, artificial). Adv. exquisite, (accurately, carefully).
exsaevio -ire, (to rage to an end, cease to rage).
exsanguis -e, (bloodless, without blood; deathly pale); act., (making pale).
exsarcio -sarcire -sartum, (to patch up, make good, repair).
exsatio -are, (to satisfy thoroughly, satiate).
exsaturabilis -e, (that can be satiated).
exsaturo -are, (to satisfy, satiate).
exscen-, see escen-.
exscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, (to tear out; to destroy utterly).
exscreo -are, (to cough out).
exscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, (to write out; to copy; to note down, register).
exsculpo -sculpere -sculpsi -sculptum, (to scratch out, erase; to carve or scoop out).
exseco -secare -secui -sectum, (to cut out, cut away).
exsecrabilis -e, (cursing, execrating).
exsecratio -onis, f. (curse, execration; an oath containing an imprecation).
exsecror -ari, dep. (to curse, execrate; to swear with an imprecation); partic. in pass., sense, exsecratus -a -um, (cursed, accursed).
exsectio -onis, f. (cutting out).
exsecutio -onis, f. (performance, accomplishment); 'exsecutio Syriae', (administration); of, speech, (a discussion).
exsequiae -arum, f. pl. (a funeral procession).
exsequialis -e, (belonging to a funeral procession).
exsequor -sequi -secutus, dep. (to follow to the grave); in gen., (to follow to the end; to maintain, keep up; to carry out, accomplish,
execute; to avenge, punish; to relate, describe, explain a thing; to suffer, endure).
exsero -serere -serui -sertum, (to stretch out, thrust out); hence (to put forth, assert). Perf. partic., exsertus -a -um, (bared,
exserto -are, (to stretch out).
exsibilo -are, (to hiss out); esp. (to hiss an actor off the stage).
exsicco -are, (to dry thoroughly; to drain dry, to empty by drinking). Hence partic., exsiccatus -a -um, of style, (dry, jejune).
exsigno -are, (to mark out).
exsilio -ire, (to leap out or up).
exsilium -i, n. (banishment, exile). Transf., (place of exile); plur. = 'exules', (exiles).
exsisto (existo) -sistere -stiti -stitum, (to stand forth, appear; to spring forth, arise, come into existence).
exsolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum, (1) (to loosen, untie, unbind, open); 'glaciem', (to dissolve); of persons, (to disentangle, set free); of
things, (to explain).(2) (to pay off; to, discharge any obligation, perform anything due).
exsomnis -e, (sleepless, wakeful).
exsorbeo -ere, (to suck up, suck dry).
exsors -sortis, (without lot; for which no lot has been cast, specially chosen; having no, share in, deprived

of (with genit.)).
exspatior -ari, dep. (to deviate from the course); fig., (to digress).
exspectabilis -e, (that is to be expected, probable).
exspectatio -onis, f. (waiting, looking for, expectation) (with objective genit.).
exspecto -are, (to look out for, wait for, await, wait to see (esp. with longing, fear, desire, etc.); to hope for, dread). Hence partic.
(with compar. and superl.), exspectatus -a -um, (awaited, wished for, welcome).
exspergo -spergere -spersum, (to sprinkle, scatter).
exspes, (without hope, hopeless).
exspiratio -onis, f. (exhalation).
exspiro -are, transit., (to breathe out, exhale, emit); intransit., (to blow forth; to rush, forth; to give up the ghost, to die).
exspolio -are, (to plunder, rob, despoil).
exspuo -spuere -spui -sputum, (to spit out; to get rid of, cast away).
exsterno -ere, (to frighten, terrify).
exstillo -are, (to drop moisture, drip, trickle).
exstimulator -oris, m. (inciter, instigator).
exstimulo -are, (to goad, excite, instigate).
exstinctio -onis, f. (annihilation, extinction).
exstinctor -oris, m. (one who extinguishes, destroys, annihilates).
exstinguo -stinguere -stinxi -stinctum, (to put out, extinguish); of persons, (to kill); in gen., (to abolish, destroy, annihilate).
exstirpo -are, (to root out, extirpate).
exsto (exto) -are, (to stand out, project; to be visible, show itself, appear; to be still in, existence, be extant).
exstructio -onis, f. (building up, erection).
exstruo -struere -struxi -structum, (to heap up, pile up, build up).
exsuctus -a -um, partic. of exsugo; q.v.
exsudo -are, intransit., (to come out in sweat, exude); transit., (to sweat out, sweat, through, perform with great labor).
exsugo -sugere -suxi -suctum, (to suck out, suck dry).
exsul -sulis, c. (a banished person, an exile).
exsulo (exulo) -are, (to be banished, live in exile).
exsultatio -onis, f. (leaping up; exultation, excessive rejoicing).
exsultim, adv. (friskily).
exsulto (exulto) -are, (to leap up frequently or violently). Transf., (to rejoice exceedingly, exult, triumph); of orators, etc.(to run riot,
range freely).
exsuperabilis -e, (that can be overcome).
exsuperantia -ae, f. (superiority, pre-eminence).
exsupero -are, intransit., (to mount up, appear above; to be prominent, excel); transit., (to, surmount; to surpass, exceed,
exsurdo -are, (to deafen); of taste, (to make dull or blunt).
exsurgo -surgere -surrexi, (to rise up, lift oneself up, stand up; to regain strength).
exsuscito -are, (to awaken from sleep); of fire, (to kindle or fan); mentally, (to excite, arouse); 'se exsuscitare', (to make an effort).
exta -orum, n. pl. (entrails of animals, esp. the heart, lungs, liver), used by Romans for, divination.
extabesco -tabescere -tabui, (to waste away entirely; to vanish, disappear).
extaris -e, (used for cooking).
extemplo (-tempulo), (immediately, forthwith).
extemporalis -e, (extemporary, unrehearsed).
extendo -tendere -tendi -tensum and -tentum, (to stretch out, expand, extend); milit., (to extend in order of battle); in, gen., (to
increase, extend); in time, (to extend, prolong); (to strain, exert). Hence partic. extentus -a -um, (wide, extensive).
extento -are, (to stretch out, strain).

extenuatio -onis, f. (thinning); as a figure of speech, (diminution, lessening).
extenuo -are, (to make thin or small, to reduce, diminish); milit., (to extend); in gen., (to lessen, weaken, diminish); in speech, (to
disparage, depreciate). Hence, partic. extenuatus -a -um, (weak, poor, slight).
exter and exterus -a -um, (outward, foreign, strange); compar. exterior -ius, genit. -oris, (outer);, superl. extremus -a -um,
(outermost); n. as subst. (outer edge, extreme); in, time, (last); n. as subst., (an end); 'extremum', acc., (for the last time);, 'ad
extremum', (to the end or at the end); in degree or quality, (extreme);, esp. (lowest, worst); 'extremum bonorum, malorum', (the
highest good, evil);, superl. extimus -a -um, (outermost).
exterebro -are, (to bore out, extract by boring).
extergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum, (to wipe off, wipe clean; to strip clean, plunder).
exterior, exterius; see exter.
extermino -are, (to drive out, expel, banish; to put aside, remove).
externus -a -um, (outside, external, foreign, strange); m. as subst. (a foreigner, stranger);, n. pl. as subst. (outward or foreign things).
extero -terere -trivi -tritum, (to rub out; to wear away).
exterreo -terrere -terrui -territum, (to frighten badly, scare, terrify).
exterus, see exter.
extexo -ere, (to unweave; to cheat).
extimesco -timescere -timui, intransit. (to be terrified); transit. (to be greatly afraid of, to dread).
extimus, see exter.
extispex -spicis, m. (a soothsayer predicting from the entrails of a victim).
extollo -ere, (to lift up, raise up); of buildings, (to raise, erect); of spirits, etc., (to, elevate, exalt); in words, (to praise or exaggerate);
sometimes (to adorn);, (to defer, postpone).
extorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, (to twist out, wrest away, wrench out, dislocate). Transf., (to obtain by, force, extort).
extorris -e, (driven from the country, exiled, banished).
extra, adv. (outside); 'extra quam, extra quam si', (except, unless); prep. with, acc., (beyond, outside of, without; except for); 'extra
iocum', (joking, apart).
extraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, (to draw out, drag out, extract, remove, extricate); sometimes (to bring, forward); in time, (to draw
out, prolong, protract).
extraneus -a -um, (outside, extraneous; strange, foreign); m. as subst. (a foreigner, stranger).
extraordinarius -a -um, (extraordinary, anomalous, irregular, unnatural); milit. 'equites, cohortes', (picked troops of the auxiliary
extrarius -a -um, (outward, external, extrinsic; strange, unrelated, foreign).
extremitas -atis, f. (end, farthest portion, extremity).
extremus -a -um, see exter.
extrico -are, (to disentangle, extricate; to clear up, unravel).
extrinsecus, (from without, from the outside; on the outside, outwardly).
extrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum, (to push out, thrust forth); 'merces', (to get sold).
extundo -tundere -tudi -tusum, (1) (to form by beating with a hammer; to invent, devise). (2) (to beat out, violently, drive away; to
exturbo -are, (to drive away, thrust out); 'mentem', (to agitate).
exubero -are, (to grow thickly, abound).
exul, see exsul.
exulcero -are, (to make worse, aggravate; to irritate, embitter).
exululo -are, (to howl out, howl loudly); partic. exululatus -a -um, (invoked with, howlings).
exundo -are, (to overflow, to flow out or over, to abound).
exuo -uere -ui -utum, (1) (to lay aside, put off, put away). (2) (to strip, deprive) of a thing.
exuro -urere -ussi -ustum, (to burn out, burn up, consume); also (to dry up, warm, heat).
exustio -onis, f. (burning up, conflagration).
exuviae -arum, f. pl. (that which is taken off);of men, (dress; spoils taken from the enemy, arms, etc.); (the skin, slough, or hide) of
faba -ae, f. (the broad bean).
fabalis -e, (of beans).

fabella -ae, f. (a little story, fable or drama).
faber -bra -brum, (ingenious, skillful). M. as subst. faber -bri, (a worker, craftsman); 'faber, tignarius', (a carpenter); 'ferrarius', (a
blacksmith); milit., 'fabri', (the, engineers); also (a fish), perhaps (dory). Adv. fabre, (skillfully).
Fabius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
fabrefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to make or fashion skillfully).
fabrica -ae, f. (the art of a faber; a device, trick; a workshop).
fabricatio -onis, f. (making, framing, construction).
fabricator -oris, m. (maker, artificer).
Fabricius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
fabrico -are, and fabricor -ari, dep. (to form, make, forge).
fabrilis -e, (relating to an artificer); n. pl. as subst., (tools).
fabula -ae, f. (1) (talk, conversation); 'fabulam fieri', (to get talked about).(2) (a, tale, story, fable, drama, myth);'fabulae!', (nonsense).
fabulor -ari, dep. (1) (to talk, converse, chatter). (2) (to tell an untruth).
fabulosus -a -um, (renowned in story, fabled).
facesso facessere facessi facessitum, transit., (to do eagerly, perform, fulfil, accomplish); 'homini negotium', (to, give trouble to);
intrans. (to make off, go away, depart).
facetia -ae, f.; sing., (wit); plur., (wit, drollery, humor).
facetus -a -um, (fine, elegant; witty, facetious). Adv. facete, (elegantly, wittily, humorously).
facies -ei, f. (shape, form, figure, outward appearance); esp. (face, countenance)., Transf., (character, nature; seeming, pretence).
facilis -e, (easy to do; easy to manage, convenient, favorable); of movement, (easy, mobile); of persons, (facile, dexterous, clever); of
character, (affable, easy, good-natured). N. acc. as adv., facile, (easily, without difficulty;, indisputably, certainly); 'haud facile', (not
easily, hardly); 'facile pati', (to bear willingly).
facilitas -atis, f. (easiness, ease); of character, (willingness, friendliness, affability, good-nature).
facinorosus -a -um, (wicked, criminal).
facinus -oris, n. (a deed, action); esp. (a bad deed, crime, villainy); hence (instrument of, crime); in plur., (criminals).
facio facere feci factum, (the pass. is fio; q.v.). Transit., (to make, form, do, perform); of feelings, and circumstances, (to cause, bring
about); esp. 'copiam' or 'potestam', (to, give a chance, grant permission); with clause as object, esp. with subj., e.g., 'fac sciam', (let
me know); 'facere non possum quin', (I cannot but); of, troubles, (to experience, suffer); with double acc., (to make, appoint, change,
into); with genit., (to make something the property of a person or thing, to, bring into the power of), or mentally, (to put into the
category, to regard, esteem, value); with acc. and infin., (to take it, assume or to make out, represent) that a thing is so. Intransit.,
(to act); with adverbs, (to, behave); [CONTINUED]
facio facere feci factum [2 of 2], 'facere cum', or 'ab homine', (to act on the side of, support; to, sacrifice; to be serviceable, to suit,
help, be of service); used instead of, repeating another verb, (to do so). Hence partic. factus -a -um, (done, wrought); n. of compar.,
factius, (nearer to achievement); n. of positive as, subst. factum -i, (a deed, act, exploit).
factio -onis, f. (1) (a making, doing);also (the right of making or doing). (2) (a party, group); esp. (a political party, faction, side).
factiosus -a -um, (busy; factious, associated with a faction).
factito -are, (1) (to practice, be accustomed to make or do). (2) (to appoint openly).
factus -a -um, partic. from facio; q.v.
facula -ae, f. (a little torch).
facultas -atis, f. (feasibility, opportunity, power, means; capacity, ability; resources, stock, abundance).
facundia -ae, f. (eloquence, readiness of speech).
facundus -a -um, (eloquent, fluent, ready of speech); adv. facunde.
faecula -ae, f. (lees of wine).
faenebris -e, (relating to interest).
faeneratio -onis, f. (lending at interest, usury).

faenerator -oris, m. (money-lender, usurer).
faeneror -ari, dep. and faenero (fenero) -are, (to lend at interest); 'provincias', (to, despoil by usury); 'beneficium', (to trade in
faeneus -a -um, (of hay); 'homines', (men of straw).
faenilia -ium, n. pl. (hay-loft).
faeniseca -ae, m. (a mower; a country-man).
faenum (fenum) -i, n. (hay).
faenus (fenus) -oris, n. (interest on money); 'pecuniam dare faenore', (to lend at interest);, 'accipere faenore', (to borrow). Transf.,
(debt, indebtedness; capital, usury).
Faesulae -arum, f. (town in Etruria) (now Fiesole); adj. Faesulanus -a -um.
faex faecis, f. (the dregs or lees of liquid, esp. of wine); fig., socially, (the dregs, the lower orders).
fagineus -a -um, (of beech).
faginus -a -um, (of beech).
fagus -i, f. (beech tree).
fala (phala) -ae, f. (a wooden tower or pillar).
falarica (phalarica) -ae, f. (a missile covered with tow and pitch).
falcarius -i, m. (a sickle-maker).
falcatus -a -um, (furnished with sickles; sickle-shaped).
falcifer -fera -ferum, (carrying a scythe or sickle).
Falernus ager, (the Falernian country, in Campania); n. of adj. as subst., Falernum -i, (Falernian wine).
fallacia -ae, f. (deceit, trick, fraud).
fallax -acis, (deceitful, treacherous, false); adv. fallaciter.
fallo fallere fefelli falsum, (to deceive, lead astray, cause to be mistaken); 'nisi fallor', (unless I am, mistaken); of abstr. things, (to
disappoint, fail in); poet., (to beguile, wile away; to escape the notice of, be concealed from); impers. 'non fallit, me', (I am not
unaware). Hence partic. falsus -a -um. (1) (wrong, mistaken, misled); n. as subst., (a mistake); abl. as adv., falso, (falsely, mistakenly).
(2) (false, untrue, spurious). (3) (deceitful, lying); n. as, subst. (a lie); Adv. false.
falsidicus -a -um, (lying).
falsiloquus -a -um, (lying).
falsus -a -um, partic. from fallo; q.v.
falx falcis, f. (a sickle, bill-hook, pruning-hook; a sickle-shaped implement of war).
fama -ae, f. (talk, report, rumor, tradition); 'fama est', (there is a rumor); (public, opinion; standing in public opinion, repute), good or
famelicus -a -um, (hungry, famished).
fames -is, f. (hunger, famine; insatiable desire; poverty of expression).
famigerator -oris, m. (a rumor-monger).
familia -ae, f. (a household (of slaves), establishment); 'pater familias or, paterfamilias', (the head of a household); 'materfamilias', (a
married woman, or an unmarried woman whose father was dead); 'filiusfamilias'(a son still, under his father's power). Transf., (a family
estate; a family), as a, subdivision of a gens; any (fraternity, group, sect).
familiaris -e, (1) (belonging to the slaves of a house); as subst. familiaris -is, m. (a, servant, slave). (2) (belonging to a family or
household; known in the house, or family, intimate, friendly); m. and f. as subst.(a familiar friend). (3) in, augury, 'fissum familiare', or
'pars familiaris', (the part of the entrails, relating to the persons sacrificing). Adv. familiariter, (familiarly, intimately).
familiaritas -atis, f. (confidential friendship, intimacy); meton., (familiar friends).
famosus -a -um, pass., (much spoken of, renowned); in bad sense, (infamous, notorious); act., (libellous, defamatory).
famul, famula; see famulus.
famularis -e, (relating to servants or slaves).
famulatus -us, m. (servitude, slavery, service); meton., (an establishment of slaves).
famulor -ari, dep. (to be a servant, to serve).
famulus -a -um, (serving, servile); as subst. m. famulus (famul) -i, (a servant, slave, attendant); f. famula -ae, (a female slave, handmaid).
fanaticus -a -um, (inspired; enthusiastic, frenzied).

fanum -i, n. (a temple with the land round it, a holy place).
far farris, n. (spelt, grain, meal).
farcio farcire farsi fartum, (to fill full, stuff full).
farina -ae, f. (meal, flour).
farrago -inis, f. (mixed fodder for cattle, mash; a medley, mixture).
farratus -a -um, (provided with grain; made of corn).
farreus -a -um, (made of spelt or corn).
fartim (fartem), acc. sing., (stuffing, minced meat).
fartor -oris, m. (a fattener of fowls).
fas, n. indecl. (divine command or law); sometimes (fate, destiny); in gen. (right, that which is allowed, lawful); 'fas est', (it is allowed,
it is lawful).
fascia -ae, f. (a bandage, band, girdle, girth).
fasciculus -i, m. (a little bundle or packet); 'florum', (a nosegay).
fascino -are, (to bewitch; to envy).
fasciola -ae, f. (a little bandage).
fascis -is, m. (a bundle, packet); plur., fasces, (bundles of sticks with an axe, projecting, carried by lictors before the chief Roman
magistrates);hence (high, office), esp. (the consulate).
fasti -orum, m.; see fastus -a -um.
fastidio -ire, (to loathe, feel distaste for, dislike).
fastidiosus -a -um, (squeamish, nice, dainty, fastidious); with genit. (sick of, disgusted with, impatient of); in act. sense, (disgusting,
loathsome). Adv. fastidiose, (fastidiously, with disgust).
fastidium -i, n. (loathing, squeamishness, disgust, dislike); hence (scorn, haughtiness, disdain).
fastigatus -a -um, (pointed or sloping down); adv. fastigate, (slantingly).
fastigium -i, n. (the gable end, pediment of a roof); hence (a slope, either up or down); of, measurements looking up, (height);
looking down, (depth); abstract, (high, rank, dignity); (principal point in a subject).
fastus (1) -a -um: 'dies fastus', plur. 'dies fasti', or simply 'fasti', (day on which the praetor could, administer justice, court-days). Transf.
(a list of these days, with, festivals, etc., the Roman calendar; a register, record; a list of, magistrates).
fastus (2) -us, m. (pride, haughtiness, arrogance).
fatalis -e, (relating to destiny or fate; fated, destined by fate); in bad sense, (deadly, fatal). Adv. fataliter, (according to fate).
fateor fateri fassus, dep. (to confess, admit, allow; to reveal, make known).
faticanus and -cinus -a -um, (prophetic).
fatidicus -a -um, (announcing fate, prophetic); m. as subst.(a prophet).
fatifer -fera -ferum, (deadly, fatal).
fatigatio -onis, f. (weariness, fatigue).
fatigo -are, (to weary, fatigue; to vex, harass; to tease, importune, worry).
fatiloqua -ae, f. (a prophetess).
fatisco -ere and fatiscor -i, dep. (to gape, crack, open; to become weak, droop).
fatuitas -atis, f. (foolishness, silliness).
fatum -i, n. (an utterance, esp. a divine utterance); hence (destiny, fate, the will of, a god); personif. Fata, (the Parcae or Fates);
(doom, fate, misfortune, ruin, calamity).
fatuus -a -um, (foolish, idiotic, silly).
Faunus -i, m. (a mythic deity of the forests).
faustitas -atis, f. (prosperity).
faustus -a -um, (favorable, lucky, auspicious); adv. fauste.
fautor -oris, m. (patron, promoter, partisan).
fautrix -icis, f. (a patroness).
faux, f.; usually plur. fauces -ium, (gullet, throat, jaws). Transf., (a chasm, gorge, defile; an isthmus, neck of land; straits).
faveo favere favi fautum, (to favor, be favorable to, help, support), with dat.; with infin., (to be, inclined to do). Esp. as religious t.t.,
(to speak no words of bad omen);, hence (to be silent).
favilla -ae, f. (glowing ashes, esp. of the dead; a spark).

favitor -oris, m. = fautor; q.v.
Favonius -i, m. = zephyrus, (the west wind).
favor -oris, m. (favor, good-will, support, inclination); esp. (applause at the theater, acclamation).
favorabilis -e, (in favor, popular).
favus -i, m. (honeycomb).
fax facis, f. (1) (a torch), esp. as carried at weddings and funerals. (2) (a firebrand);, of persons, (instigator); of things, (stimulus). (3)
(light, flame), esp. of, heavenly bodies; fig., (brilliance or passion).
febricula -ae, f. (a slight fever, feverishness).
febris -is, f. (fever).
Februarius -i, m. or Ferbruarius Mensis, (the cleansing month, February); 'Kalendae, Februariae', (the 1st of February).
februum -i, n. (religious purification); Februa -orum, pl. (the Roman feast of, purification on the 15th of February).
fecialis, = fetialis; q.v.
fecunditas -atis, f. (fruitfulness, fecundity).
fecundo -are, (to fructify, fertilize).
fecundus -a -um, (fruitful, prolific; abundant, full, plentiful); with genit. (rich in, abounding in); act., (making fruitful).
fel fellis, n. (the gall-bladder, gall, bile; poison, venom; bitterness).
feles -is, f. (a cat); hence (a thief).
felicitas -atis, f. (happiness, good fortune, success); personif., (Good Fortune as a, goddess).
felix -icis, (fruitful, fertile). Transf., (of good omen, favorable, bringing good luck;, fortunate, lucky, successful); Felix, (the Lucky One,
surname of Sulla). Adv., feliciter, (fruitfully; auspiciously, favorably; luckily, successfully).
femella -ae, f. (young woman, girl).
femen, = femur; q.v.
femina -ae, f. (a female, woman); of animals, (the female).
femineus -a -um, (female, feminine; womanish, effeminate).
femur -oris or -inis, n. (the thigh).
fenestra -ae, f. (a window; a breach, loophole).
fera -ae, f.; see ferus.
feralis -e, (relating to the dead, funereal; deadly, fatal; mournful); n. pl. as subst., (the festival of the dead, in February).
ferax -acis, (fruitful, fertile, prolific); compar. adv. feracius, (more fruitfully).
ferculum -i, n. (a frame, litter, bier, tray); of food, (a course or dish).
fere, (1) (almost, nearly); with negatives, (scarcely, hardly). (2) (just, exactly)., (3) (as a rule, generally, usually).
ferentarius -a -um, (a light-armed soldier).
feretrum -i, n. (a bier for carrying a corpse).
feriae -arum, f. pl. (festivals, holidays).
feriatus -a -um, (keeping holiday, idle, at leisure).
ferinus -a -um, (relating to a wild beast, wild); f. as subst. (flesh of wild animals, game).
ferio -ire, (to strike, knock, smite, hit); esp. (to strike dead, slay, kill); colloq., (to cheat).
feritas -atis, f. (wildness, savageness).
ferme, (1) (almost, nearly); with negatives, (hardly, scarcely). (2) (usually).
fermentum -i, n. (leaven, yeast; a kind of beer). Transf. (anger, passion).
fero ferre tuli latum, (1) (to bear, bring, carry); 'prae se ferre', (to display, make public);, often, (to endure, submit to); esp. with adv.,
'ferre aegre', (to take ill, be, vexed at). (2) (to bring forth, produce). (3) (to bring to a place or a, person, fetch, offer); 'suffragium,
sententiam', (to vote); 'legem', (to, propose a law); 'ferre ut', (to propose that); commercial, 'expensum ferre', (to set down in an
account-book as paid); (to cause, bring about; to report to, others, spread abroad, speak of); 'fama fert', (the story goes); esp. (to,
publish a person's praises) (4) (to bear away, carry off); 'ferre et agere', (to plunder). Transf., (to win, get); 'centuriam, tribus', (to gain
the votes, of). [CONTINUED]

fero ferre tuli latum [2 of 2], (5) (to bear along, move forward, put in motion); milit., 'signa ferre', (to march). Transf., (to move,
impel, carry away); without object, (to lead, tend).
ferocia -ae, f. (high spirit, courage); in bad sense, (arrogance, ferocity).
ferocitas -atis, f. (courage, untamed spirit); in bad sense, (arrogance).
ferox -ocis, (courageous, high-spirited, warlike); in bad sense, (wild, unbridled, arrogant); adv. ferociter.
ferramenta -orum, n. pl. (tools made of, or shod with, iron).
ferrarius -a -um, (of iron); m. as subst. (a blacksmith); f. pl. as subst. (iron mines).
ferratilis -e, (in irons); of slaves.
ferratus -a -um, (furnished or covered with iron); 'servi', (in irons); m. pl. as subst., (soldiers in armor).
ferreus -a -um, (of iron; made of iron or like iron; hard, unfeeling, cruel; immovable, firm).
ferriterium -i, n. = ergastulum; q.v.
ferrugineus -a -um, (rust-colored, dun).
ferruginus -a -um, (rust-colored, dun).
ferrugo -inis, f. (iron rust; the color of rust).
ferrum -i, n. (iron); hence (any iron instrument; plow, axe, scissors, and esp. sword).
fertilis -e, (fruitful, fertile, productive; fertilizing, making fruitful).
fertilitas -atis, f. (fruitfulness, fertility).
fertum (ferctum) -i, n. (a sacrificial cake).
ferula -ae, f. (1) (the herb fennel). (2) (a stick, cane), esp. to punish slaves and, children.
ferus -a -um, (wild, uncultivated, uncivilized, rough, cruel); m. and f. as subst., (a wild, animal).
fervefacio -facere -feci -factum, (to make hot, boil, melt).
ferveo fervere ferbui (and fervo fervere fervi), (to be boiling hot, to boil, seethe, glow). Transf., (to be in quick movement, to seethe;
to be excited by passion, rage). Hence partic. fervens -entis, (glowing, hot, heated); of character or feeling, (heated, fiery). Adv.,
ferventer, (hotly, warmly).
fervesco -ere, (to become hot, begin to glow or boil).
fervidus -a -um, (boiling, seething, foaming); of character or feelings, (fiery, passionate, excited).
fervo, = ferveo; q.v.
fervor -oris, m. (boiling heat, seething, foaming; ardor, passion).
Fescennia -ae, f. (a town in Etruria, famous for verse dialogues). Adj. Fescenninus -a -um.
fessus -a -um, (weary, tired, exhausted); 'fessa aetas', (old age); 'res fessae', (distress).
festinatio -onis, f. (haste, speed, hurry).
festino -are, intransit., (to hasten, hurry); transit., (to hasten, accelerate). Hence adv., festinanter and festinato, (hastily).
festinus -a -um, (hastening, hasty).
festivitas -atis, f. (gaiety, jollity); of speech or writing, (cheerfulness, humor).
festivus -a -um, (of a holiday, festive; merry, good-humored, cheerful); adv. festive.
festuca -ae, f. (a stalk, stem, straw). Transf., (a rod used in the manumission of, slaves).
festus -a -um, (of a holiday, festive); of people, (keeping holiday); n. as subst. (a, feast).
fetialis -is, m. (one of a college of priests responsible for formally making peace or, declaring war); as adj. = (belonging to the
fetura -ae, f. (the bringing forth of young, breeding); meton., (brood, offspring).
fetus (1) -a -um, (1) (pregnant; fruitful, fertile; teeming with, full of). (2) (that has, brought forth, newly delivered).
fetus (2) -us, m. (the bringing forth or hatching of young); of the soil, (bearing, producing). Transf., (that which is brought forth;
offspring, brood); of, plants, (fruit, produce, shoot).
fibra -ae, f. (a fiber, filament; the entrails of an animal).
fibula -ae, f. (a buckle, brooch, clasp; an iron clamp).
ficedula -ae, f. (a small bird, the becafico).
fictilis -e, (shaped); hence (earthen, made of clay); n. as subst., esp. pl. (earthenware, earthen vessels).
fictio -onis, f. (forming, feigning; assumption).
fictor -oris, m. (an image-maker, a molder); in gen., (maker, contriver).
fictrix -icis, f. (she that forms or fashions).
fictura -ae, f. (forming, fashioning).
fictus -a -um, partic. from fingo; q.v.

ficulneus -a -um, (of the fig tree).
ficulnus -a -um, (of the fig tree).
ficus -i, and -us, f. (a fig tree, a fig).
fideicommissum -i, n. legal, (a trust).
fidelia -ae, f. (an earthenware pot or vase).
fidelis -e, (trusty, steadfast, faithful); m. as subst., esp. pl., (confidants, faithful, friends). Adv. fideliter, (faithfully; securely, without
fidelitas -atis, f. (faithfulness, trust, fidelity).
Fidenae -arum, and Fidena -ae, f. (a town in Latium); adj. Fidenas -atis.
fidens -entis, partic. from fido; q.v.
fidentia -ae, f. (confidence, boldness).
fides (1) -ei, f. (trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith); 'fidem facere', (to create, confidence, cause belief); as mercantile t.t.,
(credit). Transf., (that which, produces confidence; faithfulness, conscientiousness); 'fidem praestare', (to, be loyal); '(ex) bona fide',
(in good faith, with sincerity); of things, (credibility, actuality, fulfillment); (a promise, assurance, word of honor, engagement); 'fidem
fallere', (to break a promise);'servare', (to keep a, promise); 'fide mea', (on my word of honor); 'fides (or fides publica)', (a, promise of
protection, safe-conduct); hence, in gen., (faithful protection, constant help).
fides (2) -is, f., usually plur. (a gut-string for a musical instrument); hence (a lyre, lute, harp).
fidicen -cinis, m. (a player on the harp, lyre, lute); poet., (a lyric poet).
fidicina -ae, f. (a female player on the lute or harp).
fidicinus -a -um, (of lute playing).
fidicula -ae, f., usually plur. (a little lyre or lute; an instrument for torturing, slaves).
Fidius -i, m. (a surname of Jupiter); esp. in phrase, 'medius fidius', (So help me, God!).
fido fidere fisus sum, (to trust, believe, confide in); with dat. or abl. Hence partic. fidens, -entis, (without fear, confident,
courageous); adv. fidenter.
fiducia -ae, f. (1) (confidence, trust, assurance); with sui, or absol., (self-confidence, self-reliance, courage). (2) (fidelity).
fiduciarius -a -um, (entrusted, committed).
fidus -a -um, (trusty, true, faithful, sure); superl. adv. fidissime.
figo figere fixi fixum, (1) (to fix, fasten, make fast, attach, affix); esp. with oculos, (to fix the, gaze). (2) (to thrust home a weapon, etc.)
so as to fix fast. (3) (to, transfix). Hence partic. fixus -a -um, (fixed, firm, immovable).
figularis -e, (of a potter).
figulus -i, m. (a worker in clay, potter).
figura -ae, f. (form, shape, figure, size; an atom; shade of a dead person); in the, abstr., (kind, nature, species); rhet., (a figure of
figuro -are, (to form, mold, shape); rhet., (to adorn with figures).
filatim, (thread by thread).
filia -ae, f. (a daughter).
filicatus -a -um, (adorned with ferns; embossed with fern leaves).
filiola -ae, f. (little daughter).
filiolus -i, m. (little son).
filius -i, m. (son).
filix -icis, f. (fern).
filum -i, n. (a thread); 'pendere filo (tenui)', (to hang by a thread); (a wooden, fillet). Transf. (form, shape); of speech or writing,
(texture, thread).
fimbriae -arum, f. pl. (fringe, border, edge).
fimbriatus -a -um, (fringed).
fimus -i, m. and fimum -i, n. (dung, dirt).
findo findere fidi fissum, (to split, cleave, divide, halve). Hence partic. fissus -a -um, (split, cloven); n. as subst., (a split, cleft); in
augury, (a divided liver).
fingo fingere finxi fictum, (to shape, fashion, form, mold); also (to arrange, put in order; to represent,

imagine, conceive; to feign, fabricate, devise); 'fingere vultum', (to put on, an artificial expression). Hence partic. fictus -a -um,
(feigned, false); n., as subst. (a falsehood).
finio -ire, (to bound, limit, enclose, restrain; to define, determine, appoint; to put an, end to, conclude, finish); esp. (to finish
speaking, or to die); pass., (to, end, cease). Perf. partic. finitus -a -um; of a phrase, (well-rounded); adv., finite, (moderately, within
finis -is, m. (sometimes f.) (boundary, limit, border; summit, end; object, aim); in pl., (enclosed area, territory).
finitimus and finitumus -a -um, (neighboring, adjacent; related to, resembling, similar). M. pl. as subst., (neighbors).
finitor -oris, m. (one who determines boundaries, a land surveyor). Transf., (the horizon).
fio fieri factus sum, used as pass. of facio. (1) of persons and things, (to be made, come into, existence); with predicate, (to become,
be appointed); with genit., (to be, valued at). (2) of actions, (to be done); of events, (to happen); with abl., 'quid illo fiet ?', (what will
happen to him ?); 'fieri ut', (to come about, that); 'fieri non potest quin', (it must be that).
firmamen -inis, n. (support, prop).
firmamentum -i, n. (a means of support, prop; the main point in an argument).
firmator -oris, m. (one who makes firm or establishes).
firmitas -atis, f. (firmness, stability; strength of mind, constancy).
firmitudo -inis, f. (firmness, stability; strength of mind, constancy).
firmo -are, (to make firm, strengthen; to make durable, make secure); of spirits, (to, encourage, cheer, animate); of ideas, (to prove,
establish), also (to assert, maintain).
firmus -a -um, (firm, strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong). Adv. firme and, firmiter, (firmly, strongly, steadfastly).
fiscella -ae, f. (a small basket).
fiscina -ae, f. (a small basket).
fiscus -i, m. (a basket); hence (a money-bag, purse; the state treasury); under the, empire, (the emperor's privy purse) (opposite
'aerarium', the state, treasury).
fissilis -e, (that can be split); also (split).
fissio -onis, f. (splitting, cleaving, dividing).
fistuca -ae, f. (a rammer, mallet).
fistula -ae, f. (a water-pipe; a reed-pipe, shepherd's pipe); 'eburneola', (a pitchpipe of, ivory).
fistulator -oris, m. (one who plays the reed-pipe).
fixus -a -um, partic. from figo; q.v.
flabellum -i, n. (a small fan).
flabilis -e, (airy).
flabra -orum, n. pl. (blasts of wind, breezes).
flacceo -ere, (to be flabby; to fail or flag).
flaccesco flaccescere flaccui, (to begin to flag, become flabby).
flaccidus -a -um, (flabby; weak, languid).
flaccus -a -um, (flabby); of men, (flap-eared).
Flaccus, see Horatius, and Valerius.
flagello -are, (to whip, scourge, beat).
flagellum -i, n. (a whip, scourge; the thong of a javelin; a young sprout, vine-shoot);, plur. (the arms of a polypus); fig., (the sting of
flagitatio -onis, f. (an earnest entreaty or demand).
flagitator -oris, m. (one who earnestly demands or entreats).
flagitiosus -a -um, (shameful, disgraceful, infamous); adv. flagitiose.
flagitium -i, n. (a disgraceful action, shameful crime; shame, disgrace); meton., (scoundrel, rascal).
flagito -are, (to entreat, ask, demand earnestly; to demand to know; to summon before a, court of justice).
flagrantia -ae, f. (burning, blazing, glittering).
flagritriba -ae, m. (one that wears out whips, whipping boy).
flagro -are, (to blaze, burn, glow, flame), also (to glitter). Transf., (to glow or burn, with passion; to suffer from), with abl. Hence
partic. flagrans -antis, (blazing, burning, glittering). Transf., (passionate, ardent). Adv., flagranter.

flagrum -i, n. (scourge, whip).
flamen (1) -inis, m. (the priest of some particular god).
flamen (2) -inis, n. (a blowing, blast).
flaminica -ae, f. (the wife of a flamen).
Flamininus, (a surname in the patrician gens Quinctia); see Quinctius.
flaminium -i, n. (the office of a flamen).
Flaminius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
flamma -ae, f. (a flame, blazing fire); Transf.(a source of light, torch, star, lightning;, luster, glitter; the fire or glow of passion;
devouring flame, destruction).
flammeolum -i, n. (a small bridal veil).
flammesco -ere, (to become inflamed).
flammeus -a -um, (fiery, flaming; flashing, fiery-red); n. as subst. flammeum -i, (a (flame-, colored) bridal veil).
flammifer -fera -ferum, (flaming, fiery).
flammo -are, intransit., (to flame, blaze, burn); transit., (to set on fire, inflame).
flammula -ae, f. (little flame).
flatus -us, m. (blowing, blast, breathing). Transf. (haughtiness, arrogance), gen. in, plur.
flavens -entis, (yellow or gold-colored).
flavesco -ere, (to become yellow or gold-colored).
Flavius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens, to which the emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, belonged).
flavus -a -um, (gold-colored, yellow).
flebilis -e, pass., (lamentable, wretched, deserving tears); act., (tearful, doleful). Adv., flebiliter.
flecto flectere flexi flexum, (to bend). (1) (to alter the shape of, to bow, twist, curve). Transf., (to, change, alter, influence). (2) (to
alter the direction of, to turn, wheel);, 'vocem', (to modulate).
fleo flere flevi fletum, intransit., (to weep; to drip, trickle); transit., (to weep for, lament, bewail); flendus, (to be lamented).
fletus (1) -a -um, partic. of fleo; q.v.
fletus (2) -us, m. (weeping, bewailing).
flexibilis -e, (that can be bent, flexible); of speech or the voice, (adaptable); in bad, sense, (fickle, changeable).
flexilis -e, (flexible, pliant, supple).
flexiloquus -a -um, (equivocal, ambiguous).
flexio -onis, f. (bending); 'vocis' or 'modorum', (modulation of the voice); 'deverticula, flexionesque', (twists and turns).
flexipes -pedis, (crooked-footed, twining).
flexuosus -a -um, (full of windings and turnings, crooked).
flexura -ae, f. (bending).
flexus (1) -a -um, partic. of flecto; q.v.
flexus (2) -us, m. (bending, turning); of the voice, (modulation). Transf. (change, alteration).
flictus -us, m. (striking together, dashing against).
fligo -ere, (to beat or dash down).
flo flare flavi flatum, (to blow); intransit., of winds, persons and instruments; transit., (to blow, blow forth; to blow on an instrument;
to cast metals, to coin).
floccus -i, m. (a flock of wool);'flocci non facere', (to think nothing of).
Flora -ae, f. (the goddess of flowers, and Spring); adj. Floralis -e, (belonging to, Flora); n. pl. as subst. (the festival of Flora).
Florentia -ae, f. (a town in Etruria) (now Florence); adj. Florenitinus -a -um.
floreo -ere -ui, (to bloom, flower). Transf., (to be in one's prime, to prosper, flourish, be, in repute); with abl. (to abound in, swarm
with). Hence partic. florens, -entis, (blooming, flourishing).
floresco -ere, (to begin to blossom or flourish).
floreus -a -um, (made of flowers; rich in flowers, flowery).
floridus -a -um, (flowery, blossoming; made of or rich in flowers); of age, (fresh, blooming);, of speech, (flowery, florid).
florifer -fera -ferum, (flower-bearing).

florilegus -a -um, (culling flowers).
flos floris, m. (a flower, blossom). Transf., (the prime, flower) of anything, (the best, the pride); on the face, (first beard, down); 'vini',
(bouquet); of speech, (ornament).
flosculus -i, m. (a little flower). Transf., (best part, pride); of speech, (ornament).
fluctifragus -a -um, (wave-breaking).
fluctuatio -onis, f. (moving backwards and forwards, fluctuation; indecision, wavering).
fluctuo -are, (to be wave-like, move up and down); sometimes of a (glittering effect); of, persons and passions, (to be tossed about, to
fluctuor -ari, dep. (to toss about, waver).
fluctuosus -a -um, (full of waves, stormy).
fluctus -us, m. (a streaming, flowing). Transf., (commotion, disturbance).
fluentum -i, n. (running water, a stream).
fluidus -a -um, (flowing, fluid). Transf. (lax, languid; relaxing).
fluito -are, (to flow hither and thither, to float, swim, sail, move up and down, be tossed, about). Transf., (lax, languid; relaxing).
flumen -inis, n. (flowing); hence (a river, stream); 'flumine secundo', (downstream);, 'flumine adverso', (upstream); fig., (a stream of
blood, tears, etc.).
flumineus -a -um, (of a river).
fluo fluere fluxi fluxum: of fluids, (to flow); of a solid object, (to flow, drip with any liquid). Transf., in, gen., (to flow, stream, pour);of
abstr. things, (to proceed, issue, spread);, of circumstances, (to tend); of language, (to flow; to sink, droop). Hence, pres. partic.
fluens -entis, (flowing); hence (lax); of speech, (fluent or, diffuse); adv. fluenter, (in a flowing manner). Past partic. fluxus -a -um,
(flowing); hence (leaky); of solid objects, (waving, fluttering, loose); of, character, (lax, loose, weak); of abstr. things, (fleeting,
fluto -are, (to flow, float, swim).
fluvialis -e, (of a river).
fluviatilis -e, (of a river).
fluvidus -a -um, (flowing, fluid).
fluvius -i, m. (flowing water; a stream, river).
fluxus -a -um, partic. from fluo; q.v.
focale -is, n. (a wrapper for the neck).
focillo -are, (to warm up, refresh by warmth).
focula -orum, n. pl. (stoves).
foculus -i, m. (a brazier).
focus -i, m. (a fireplace, hearth); meton., (house, family, home); sometimes (altar-fire, or funeral pyre).
fodico -are, (to dig, jog); 'latus', (to dig in the ribs).
fodio fodere fodi fossum, (to dig); also (to dig out; to excavate). Transf. (to prick, prod, jog).
foecundus, foecundo = fecundus, fecundo; q.v.
foederatus -a -um, (confederate, allied).
foedifragus -a -um, (treaty-breaking).
foeditas -atis, f. (foulness, filthiness).
foedo -are, (to make foul, make filthy, defile, disfigure); morally, (to dishonor, disgrace).
foedus (1) -a -um, (foul, filthy, horrible, disgusting); adv. foede.
foedus (2) -eris, n. (a league between states; a compact, covenant, agreement). Transf., (a, law).
foen-, see faen-.
foeteo -ere, (to have a bad smell).
foetidus -a -um, (having a bad smell, stinking).
foetor -oris, m. (a bad smell, stink).
foliatus -a -um, (leafy); n. as subst. (a salve or oil of spikenard leaves).
folium -i, n. (a leaf).
folliculus -i, m. (a little sack or bag).
follis -is, m. (a leather bag; a pair of bellows; a purse; a puffed-out cheek).
fomentum -i, n. (a poultice, fomentation). Transf., (alleviation).
fomes -itis, m. (touchwood, tinder).

fons fontis, m. (a spring, fountain; fresh or spring water). Transf. (spring, origin, source).
fontanus -a -um, (of a spring or fountain).
Fonteius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
fonticulus -i, m. (a little fountain or spring).
for fari fatus, dep. (to speak, say); also (to speak of).
forabilis -e, (that can be bored through, penetrable).
foramen -inis, n. (hole, opening, aperture).
foras, (out of doors, forth, out); '(scripta) foras dare', (to publish).
forceps -cipis, m. and f., (a pair of tongs, pincers).
forda -ae, f. (a cow in calf).
fore, forem, used as fut. infin. and imperf. subj. of sum; q.v.
forensis -e, (relating to the market or forum); hence (of the business of the Roman forum, esp. legal).
forfex -ficis, f. (a pair of shears or scissors).
foris, (1) -is, f. (a door); plur. fores, (folding-doors). Transf., (any opening, entrance).
foris, (2) adv. (1) (situated out of doors, outside, without); sometimes, (abroad, outside Rome). (2) (from without, from abroad).
forma -ae, f. (form, figure, shape; beautiful shape, beauty; image, likeness; a shape, serving as a model, e.g. a shoemaker's last; a
mold, stamp); abstr., (form, manner, type); in logic, (species; outline, general notion).
formalis -e, (formal, having a set form).
formamentum -i, n. (conformation).
formator -oris, m. (a fashioner).
formatura -ae, f. (forming, shaping).
Formiae -arum, f. (town on the coast of Latium); adj. Formianus -a -um.
formica -ae, f. (ant).
formidabilis -e, (fearful, formidable).
formido (1) -are, (to be terrified, to dread).
formido (2) -inis, f. (dread, terror); meton., (source of fear, dreadfulness, awfulness; a, scarecrow).
formidolosus -a -um, act., (causing dread, terrible, fearful); pass., (fearful, timid). Adv., formidolose, (dreadfully, terribly).
formo -are, (to form, shape, fashion; to arrange, order, regulate, dispose).
formositas -atis, f. (beauty).
formosus -a -um, (beautifully formed, beautiful); adv. formose.
formula -ae, f. (physical beauty); legal, (set form, formula); esp. (the form of an, alliance); in gen., (rule, principle).
fornacalis -e, (of an oven).
fornacula -ae, f. (a little oven).
fornax -acis, f. (oven, furnace, kiln); 'Aetnae', (the crater).
fornicatus -a -um, (arched, vaulted).
fornix -icis, m. (arch, vault; arcade); milit., (an arched sallyport).
fornus, = furnus; q.v.
foro -are, (to bore, pierce).
fors, (chance, luck); in nom. fors, also forsit (fors sit), forsan (fors an), and, forsitan (fors sit an), (perhaps, perchance); abl. forte, (by
chance, accidentally, as it happened).
fortasse (fortassis), (perhaps).
forte, see fors.
forticulus -a -um, (fairly bold).
fortis -e, physically, (strong, powerful, robust); morally, (brave, courageous, steadfast); 'fortes fortuna adiuvat', (fortune favors the
brave); in bad, sense, (bold, audacious). Adv. fortiter, (strongly, bravely).
fortitudo -inis, f. (physical strength, moral bravery, courage); plur., (deeds of bravery).
fortuitus -a -um, (accidental, casual, fortuitous, unpremeditated); n. pl. as subst. (chance, occurrences). Abl. sing. as adv. fortuito, (by
chance, fortuitously).
fortuna -ae, f. (chance, fate, lot, luck, fortune); 'fortuna prospera, secunda', (good, fortune); 'adversa', (misfortune). Transf., (lot,
condition, state, mode of, life; property, possessions).

fortuno -are, (to make happy, bless, prosper). Hence partic. fortunatus -a -um, (blessed, lucky, fortunate; well off, wealthy, rich). Adv.
fortunate, (happily, fortunately).
foruli -orum, m. (a bookcase).
forum -i, n. (an open square, marketplace); 'forum bovarium', or 'boarium', (the, cattle-market); 'forum holitorium', (the vegetable-
market); 'forum piscarium', or 'piscatorium', (fish-market); in gen., (a place of public business), commercial, political and judicial, esp.
in Rome. Transf., of the business, transacted in a forum; 'forum agere', (to hold an assize); 'forum attingere', (to apply oneself to
public business).
forus -i, m. (the gangway of a ship; a block of seats in the theater); plur., (tiers of, cells in a beehive).
fossa -ae, f. (ditch, trench, channel).
fossio -onis, f. (digging, excavation).
fossor -oris, m. (a digger, delver; a boor, clown).
fossura -ae, f. (digging).
fotus, partic. of foveo; q.v.
fovea -ae, f. (a pit), esp. (a trap for game, a pitfall).
foveo fovere fovi fotum, (to warm, keep warm, caress); fig., (to stay constantly in a place); in gen., (to foster, cherish, support,
fractus -a -um, partic. from frango; q.v.
fraga -orum, n. pl. (strawberries).
fragilis -e, (crackling; easily broken, fragile). Transf., (fleeting, transitory; weak, feeble).
fragilitas -atis, f. (frailty, weakness).
fragmen -minis, n. (a breaking); hence, usually plur., (fragments, remains, ruins).
fragmentum -i, n. (a piece broken off, fragment).
fragor -oris, m. (a breaking; a noise of breaking, crack, crash).
fragosus -a -um, (crashing, roaring; fragile; broken, rough).
fragro -are, (to emit a smell, esp. a sweet smell); pres. partic. fragrans -antis, (sweet-, smelling, fragrant).
fragum, see fraga.
frango frangere fregi fractum, (to break, break in pieces, shatter); 'gulam laqueo', (to strangle); 'fruges, saxo', (to grind); 'diem
morantem mero', (to shorten); of persons, passions, etc., (to master, subdue, humble); 'frangi animo', (to be discouraged). Hence,
partic. fractus -a -um, (broken, humbled, enfeebled).
frater -tris, m. (a brother); 'frater germanus', (own brother); 'fratres', (brothers and, sisters); also (a cousin or brother-in-law); Transf., (a
comrade, compatriot, ally).
fraterculus -i, m. (little brother).
fraternitas -atis, f. (brotherhood, fraternity).
fraternus -a -um, (of a brother, brotherly, fraternal); sometimes (of a cousin). Transf., (of a, related person; of some thing related to
another). Adv. fraterne, (in a, brotherly manner, like a brother).
fratricida -ae, m. (one who kills a brother, a fratricide).
fraudatio -onis, f. (deceit, fraud, swindling).
fraudator -oris, m. (deceiver, swindler).
fraudo -are, (to cheat, defraud, swindle; to steal, embezzle).
fraudulentia -ae, f. (deceitfulness).
fraudulentus -a -um, (deceitful, fraudulent).
fraus fraudis, f: act., (deceit, fraud); 'sine fraude', (honorably); in gen., (a crime, offence; delusion, error; damage, harm); 'sine fraude',
(without harm).
fraxineus -a -um, (of ash wood, ashen).
fraxinus (1) -i, f. (an ash tree); meton., (a spear or javelin, with a shaft of ash wood).
fraxinus (2) -a -um, (of ash wood, ashen).
Fregellae -arum, f. (town of the Volsci, in Latium).
fremebundus -a -um, (roaring, murmuring).
fremitus -us, m. (roaring, murmuring, growling).
fremo -ere -ui -itum, (to roar, murmur, growl); with acc. (to murmur out something, grumble, complain).
fremor -oris, m. (roaring, murmuring).
frendo -ere, intransit., (to gnash the teeth); transit., (to crush, bruise, grind).

freni -orum, m.: see frenum.
freno -are, (to bridle, curb, restrain, check).
frenum -i, n., usually plur. frena -orum, n.: also freni -orum, m. (bridle, reins, bit, curb). Transf., (restraint).
frequens -entis, (crowded, numerous, full); of places, (full, frequented, populous); of time, (repeated, frequent, constant); of persons,
(often doing a thing); of things, (often done or used). Adv. frequenter, (in large numbers; frequently, often).
frequentatio -onis, f. (frequency, crowding).
frequentia -ae, f.: of persons, (a large concourse, numerous assembly, population); of things, (a large number, abundance).
frequento -are, (to crowd); of number, (to collect in large numbers; to fill a place) with, people or things; (to do a thing in crowds or
with a crowd); of time, (to do, or use a thing frequently); 'domum', (to visit often); 'Hymenaee!, frequentant', (they repeat).
fretum -i, n. (a strait, sound, estuary, firth, channel); 'fretum Siciliae, fretum, Siciliense', or 'fretum', (the Straits of Messina); (the sea
in gen.), usually, plur.; fig., (disturbance, turmoil).
fretus (1) -a -um, (relying on, confiding in), with abl.
fretus (2) -us, m. (a strait; an interval, difference).
frico fricare fricui frictum and fricatum, (to rub, rub down).
frigeo -ere, (to be cold; to be inactive, lifeless, dull); colloq., (to be coldly received, fall flat).
frigesco -ere, (to become cold or dull).
frigidulus -a -um, (somewhat cold or faint).
frigidus -a -um, (cold, cool, chilly); f. sing. as subst. (cold water). Transf., in act. sense, (chilling, causing cold); fig., (cold, dull, lifeless);
of speech, (flat)., Adv. frigide, (coldly; languidly, feebly).
frigo frigere frixi frictum, (to roast, parch).
frigus -oris, n. (cold, coolness; the cold of winter; a cold place; the cold of death or, fright). Transf., (coldness in action, dullness,
indolence; a cold reception, coolness, disfavor).
friguttio -ire, (to stammer).
frio -are, (to rub, crumble).
fritillus -i, m. (a dice-box).
frivolus -a -um, (trifling, worthless); n. pl. as subst. (sticks of furniture).
frondator -oris, m. (a pruner of trees).
frondeo -ere, (to be in leaf, be leafy).
frondesco -ere, (to come into leaf, put forth leaves).
frondeus -a -um, (leafy).
frondifer -fera -ferum, (leaf-bearing, leafy).
frondosus -a -um, (full of leaves, leafy).
frons (1) frondis, f. (a leaf, foliage); meton., (a chaplet or crown of leaves).
frons (2) frontis, f. (the forehead, brow); 'frontem contrahere', (to frown). Transf., in gen., (the front, forepart); milit., (the van); (the
outside end of a book roll;, frontage (in measuring land)).
frontalia -ium, n. pl. (the frontlet of a horse).
fronto -onis, m. (a man with a broad forehead).
fructuarius -a -um, (fruit-bearing, fruitful).
fructuosus -a -um, (fruitful, fertile).
fructus -us, m.: abstr., (enjoyment, enjoying); concr., (proceeds, profit, produce, income); esp. (the fruits of the earth).
frugalis -e, (frugal, economical, honest); adv. frugaliter.
frugalitas -atis, f. (frugality, economy, honesty); of style, (restraint).
frugi, see frux.
frugifer -fera -ferum, (fruitful, fertile; profitable, advantageous).
frugiferens -entis, (fruitful, fertile).
frugilegus -a -um, (collecting grain).
frugiparus -a -um, (fruitful, prolific).
frumentarius -a -um, (of grain or corn); 'res', (the supply of corn); m. as subst. (a corn-, merchant).
frumentatio -onis, f. (a foraging; a distribution of corn).
frumentator -oris, m. (a forager or a provider of corn).

frumentor -ari, dep. (to forage, fetch corn).
frumentum -i, n. (corn, grain).
fruor frui fructus and fruitus, dep. (to have the benefit of, to enjoy), usually with abl.; 'votis', (to, obtain one's wishes); as legal t.t., (to
have the use and enjoyment of).
frustillatim, (bit by bit).
frustra, (in error); 'frustra esse', (to be deceived, mistaken). Transf., (in vain, without effect; wantonly, without reason).
frustramen -inis, n. (deception).
frustratio -onis, f. (deception, disappointment, frustration).
frustro -are and frustror -ari, dep. (to disappoint, deceive, trick).
frustum -i, n. (a bit, piece, morsel).
frutex -ticis, m. (a shrub, bush); as a term of reproach, (blockhead).
fruticetum, -i, n. (a thicket).
frutico -are and fruticor -ari, dep. (to shoot out, become bushy).
fruticosus -a -um, (bushy or full of bushes).
frux frugis, f., usually plur. fruges -um, (fruits of the earth); in gen., (fruits, success); 'ad bonam frugem se recipere', (to improve
oneself). Dat. sing., frugi, used as adj., (useful, honest, discreet, moderate).
fuco -are, (to color, paint, dye); fig., (to color, embellish). Hence partic. fucatus -a, -um, (painted; counterfeited, simulated).
fucosus -a -um, (painted; simulated, counterfeited).
fucus (1) -i, m. (red or purple dye; red or purple color; rouge); in gen., (paint, dye) of, any color; (bee-glue). Transf., (deceit,
fucus (2) -i, m. (a drone bee).
Fufius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
fuga -ae, f. (flight, running away); esp. (flight from one's country, exile, banishment). Transf., (swift course, speed; avoiding (with
fugax -acis, (ready to flee, flying; speeding, fleeting, transitory); with genit., (avoiding). Hence compar. adv. fugacius.
fugio fugere fugi fugitum, (to flee). Intransit., (to take to flight, run away; to pass away, disappear)., Transit., (to flee from, run away
from, avoid); with infin., 'fuge quaerere', (do not seek); of things, (to escape the notice of) a person. Hence partic., fugiens -entis,
(fleeing; avoiding), with genit.; (fleeting, deteriorating).
fugitivus -a -um, (flying, fugitive); m. as subst., (a fugitive, esp. a runaway slave).
fugito -are, (to flee); transit., (to fly from, avoid, shun). Hence partic. fugitans, -antis, (fleeing); with genit., (avoiding).
fugo -are, (to put to flight, chase away; drive into exile, to dismiss, avert).
fulcimen -inis, n. (a prop, support, pillar).
fulcio fulcire fulsi fultum, (to prop up, support; to strengthen, secure); morally, (to support, stay, uphold).
fulcrum -i, n. (the post or foot of a couch).
fulgeo fulgere fulsi, (to flash, to lighten); in gen., (to shine, glitter gleam); fig., (to be, distinguished, to shine).
fulgidus -a -um, (shining, gleaming, glittering).
fulgo -ere, = fulgeo; q.v.
fulgor -oris, m. (lightning); in gen., (glitter, brightness); fig., (brightness, glory).
fulgur -uris, n. (a flash or stroke of lightning); sometimes (an object struck by, lightning); in gen., (brightness).
fulguralis -e, (relating to lightning).
fulgurator -oris, m. (a priest who interpreted omens from lightning).
fulguritus -a -um, (struck by lightning).
fulguro -are, (to lighten; to shine, be brilliant).
fulica -ae, f. (a coot).
fuligo -inis, f. (soot; powder for darkening the eyebrows).
fullo -onis, m. (a cloth-fuller).
fullonica -ae, f. (the art of fulling).

fulmen -inis, n. (a stroke of lightning, a thunderbolt). Transf., (a crushing calamity;, mighty or irresistible power).
fulmineus -a -um, (of lightning; like lightning, rapid or destructive).
fulmino -are, (to lighten).
fultura -ae, f. (support, prop, stay).
Fulvius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
fulvus -a -um, (tawny, yellowish brown).
fumeus -a -um, (smoky, full of smoke).
fumidus -a -um, (smoky, full of smoke).
fumifer -fera -ferum, (smoky).
fumificus -a -um, (causing smoke).
fumo -are, (to smoke, steam, reek).
fumosus -a -um, (smoked).
fumus -i, m. (smoke, steam, vapor).
funalis -e, (attached to a rope). N. as subst. funale -is, (the thong of a sling; a wax, torch).
funambulus -i, m. (a rope-dancer).
functio -onis, f. (performance, execution).
funda -ae, f. (a sling; a sling-stone; a casting-net).
fundamen -inis, n. usually plur., (a foundation, basis).
fundamentum -i, n. usually plur., (a foundation, basis).
fundator -oris, m. (founder).
fundito -are, (to sling).
funditor -oris, m. (a soldier with a sling, a slinger).
funditus, (from the bottom; completely, entirely; at the bottom, below).
fundo (1) fundere fudi fusum: of liquids, (to pour, pour out); of metals, (to melt, cast). Transf., (to pour out, shower, give abundantly);
(to squander); 'se fundere', (to rush, stream); of, sounds, (to utter); with emphasis on distribution, (to spread, extend, scatter); milit.,
(to rout, defeat, scatter, put to flight). Hence partic., fusus -a -um, (spread out, extended); 'crines', (flowing free); of speech, (diffuse);
adv. fuse, (widely, copiously).
fundo (2) -are, (to lay the foundation of, to found); also (to make firm, to strengthen)., Hence partic. fundatus -a -um, (founded, firm).
fundus -i, m. (ground; the bottom or base of anything; a farm, estate).
funebris -e, (of a funeral, funereal; deadly, destructive).
funereus -a -um, (of a funeral, funereal; fatal, ill-omened).
funero -are, (to bury solemnly, inter with the funeral rites); partic. funeratus -a -um, (done to death).
funesto -are, (to defile or pollute with death).
funestus -a -um, pass., (filled with mourning, defiled by death); act., (fatal, disastrous, deadly).
funginus -a -um, (of a mushroom).
fungor fungi functus, dep. (to occupy oneself with anything, to perform, execute, undergo), usually, with abl.; absol. in special sense,
(to be affected, suffer).
fungus -i, m. (a mushroom, fungus; a dull, stupid fellow; a 'thief' in the wick of a, candle. a candlesnuff).
funiculus -i, m. (thin rope, cord, string).
funis -is, m. (rope, cord, line).
funus -eris, n. (a funeral, burial). Transf., (the corpse; death; destruction, ruin; a, cause of ruin).
fuo fui futurus, etc.; see sum.
fur furis, c. (a thief).
furax -acis, (inclined to steal, thievish). Hence superl. adv. furacissime, (most, thievishly).
furca -ae, f. (a (two-pronged) fork, a pitchfork; a fork-shaped prop or pole; an, instrument of punishment, with two prongs to which
the arms were tied);, geograph., (a narrow pass).
furcifer -fera -ferum, (carrying the furca as a punishment); applied to slaves, (gallows-bird).
furcilla -ae, f. (a little fork).
furcillo -are, (to support).
furcula -ae, f. (a little fork; a fork-shaped prop); geograph., (a narrow pass, esp. of the, Caudine forks).
furfur -uris, m. (bran; scales, scurf on the skin).

furia -ae, f., usually plur., (rage, frenzy, madness, passion); personif., of (the, mythological Furies, avenging deities); fig., of persons.
furialis -e, (furious, raging, frenzied; belonging to the Furies); adv. furialiter, (furiously, madly).
furibundus -a -um, (raging, furious, inspired).
furio -are, (to make furious, madden); partic., furiatus -a -um, (raging).
furiosus -a -um, (raging, raving, mad, furious); adv. furiose.
Furius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
furnus -i, m. (an oven, bakehouse).
furo -ere, (to rage, rave, be mad); often of impassioned persons, (to rave, be frantic);, 'furere aliqua', (to be madly in love with).Adv.
from partic. furenter, (furiously).
furor (1) -ari, dep. (to steal, pilfer); fig., (to steal away, withdraw; to counterfeit, personate).
furor (2) -oris, m. (madness, raving, insanity; furious anger, martial rage; passionate love;, inspiration, poetic or prophetic frenzy);
meton., (an object of passion).
furtificus -a -um, (thievish).
furtim, adv. (by stealth, stealthily).
furtivus -a -um, (stolen; secret, concealed, furtive). Adv. furtive.
furtum -i, n. (theft, robbery); in plur., (stolen property); fig., (underhand methods, trick, deceit), esp. (secret or stolen love).
furunculus -i, m. (a sneak thief, pilferer).
furvus -a -um, (dark-colored, black).
fuscina -ae, f. (a three-pronged fork, trident).
fusco -are, (to darken, blacken).
fuscus -a -um, (dark-colored); of the voice, (indistinct).
fusilis -e, (molten, liquid, soft).
fusio -onis, f. (pouring out, outpouring).
fustis -is, m. (a stick, cudgel, club).
fustuarium -i, n. (cudgelling to death).
fusus (1) -a -um, partic. from fundo; q.v.
fusus (2) -i, m. (a spindle).
futatim, (abundantly).
futtilis and futilis -e, (brittle; vain, worthless, good for nothing).
futtilitas and futilitas -atis, f. (worthlessness, folly, silliness).
futurus -a -um, used as future partic. of sum; q.v.
Gabii -orum, m. (an ancient city of Latium); adj. Gabinus -a -um.
Gabinius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
Gades -ium, f.(a town in Hispania Baetica)(now Cadiz); adj. Gaditanus -a -um.
gaesum -i, n. (a long heavy javelin).
Gaetuli -orum, m. pl. (a people in northwest Africa).
Gaius, abbrev. C., (a Roman praenomen); fem. Gaia.
Galatae -arum, m. (a Celtic people settled in Asia Minor, the Galatians).
Galba -ae, m. (a cognomen of the Sulpician gens; esp. of Ser. Sulpicius, Roman emperor, A.D. 68-69).
galbaneus -a -um, (of galbanum); q.v.
galbanum -i, n. (the resinous sap of a Syrian plant).
galbinus -a -um, (greenish-yellow).
galea -ae, f. (helmet).
galeo -are, (to cover with a helmet); partic. galeatus -a -um, (helmeted).
galericulum -i, n. (skull-cap; wig).
galeritus -a -um, (wearing a hood or skull-cap).
galerum -i, n. and galerus -i, m. (skull-cap; wig).
galla -ae, f. (oakapple).
Galli -orum, m. pl. (the Gauls, a Celtic people, to the west of the Rhine and in the north, of Italy); Gallia -ae, f. (Gaul, land of the
Gauls); Cisalpina = (Northern, Italy); Transalpina = (France); adj. Gallicanus and Gallicus -a -um, (Gaulish); f. as subst., gallica, (a slipper).
galliambus -i, m. (a song of the priests of Cybele).

gallica, see Galli.
gallina -ae, f. (hen).
gallinaceus -a -um, (of poultry); 'gallus', (a poultry cock).
gallinarius -a -um, (of poultry); m. as subst., (poultry farmer).
gallus -i, m. (cock).
Gallus, (1) (a Gaul); see Galli.
Gallus (2) -i, m. usually plur. Galli -orum, m. (a priest of Cybele).
ganea -ae, f. and ganeum -i, n. (a brothel or low eating-house).
ganeo -onis, m. (a debauchee).
Ganges -is, m. (the river Ganges in India). Adj. Gangeticus -a -um; f. adj. Gangetis -idis, = (Indian).
gannio -ire, (to yelp, snarl, growl).
gannitus -us, m. (yelping, snarling).
Ganymedes -is, m. (the cup-bearer of Jupiter).
garrio -ire, (to chatter, prate, babble).
garrulitas -atis, f. (chattering).
garrulus -a -um, (talkative, chattering, babbling, noisy).
garum -i, n. (fish-sauce).
Garumna -ae, f. (a river in Gaul) (now Garonne); Garumni -orum, m. pl. (a people living on, the Garonne).
gaudeo gaudere gavisus sum, (to rejoice, be glad); with abl. of cause, (to delight in); 'in sinu gaudere', (to rejoice in secret).
gaudium -i, n. (joy, gladness, delight; a source of delight).
gausape -is, and gausapum -i, n. (woolen cloth with a long nap, frieze).
gaza -ae, f. (the royal treasure of Persia); in gen., (treasure, riches, wealth).
gelasinus -i, m. (dimple).
gelidus -a -um, (cold, frosty, icy); in act. sense, (chilling); f. as subst. gelida -ae, (cold, water). Adv. gelide, (coldly, feebly).
gelo -are, transit., (to cause to freeze); intransit., (to freeze).
gelu -us, n. (earlier gelus -us, m. and gelum -i, n.), (frost, chill).
gemebundus -a -um, (groaning, sighing).
gemellipara -ae, f. adj. (twin-bearing).
gemellus -a -um, (twin, paired, double); m. as subst. (a twin).
geminatio -onis, f. (doubling).
gemino -are, transit. (to double; to join together, strike together, repeat); partic., geminatus -a -um, (doubled); intransit., (to be
geminus -a -um, (twin, double; paired or half-and-half; similar, like); m. pl. as subst., gemini -orum, (twins), esp. (Castor and Pollux).
gemitus -us, m. (a sigh, groan); of things, (groaning, roaring).
gemma -ae, f. (a bud or eye of a plant). Transf., (a jewel, gem, precious stone; a, jewelled goblet; a seal-ring, seal; a literary gem).
gemmatus -a -um, (set or adorned with gems).
gemmeus -a -um, (made of or set with jewels; bright).
gemmifer -fera -ferum, (bearing or producing seeds).
gemmo -are, (to bud); pres. partic. gemmans -antis, (set with jewels, glittering like, jewels).
gemo gemere gemui gemitum, intransit., (to sigh, groan); of lions, (to roar); of doves, (to coo); of, things, (to creak); transit. (to sigh
over, lament, bemoan).
gena -ae, f. usually plur., (cheek, cheeks and chin). Transf., (eye-socket, eye).
Genava -ae, f. (a town of the Allobroges) (now Geneva).
genealogus -i, m. (a genealogist).
gener -eri, m. (a son-in-law; a granddaughter's husband; a brother-in-law).
generalis -e, (1) (belonging to a kind, generic). (2) (universal, general). Adv., generaliter, (in general, generally).
generasco -ere, (to be produced, come to birth).
generatim, (1) (according to kinds or classes). (2) (in general, generally).
generator -oris, m. (begetter, producer).

genero -are, (to beget, produce, bring to life).
generosus -a -um, (of noble birth, noble, well-bred); of a place, (producing well). Transf., of, character, (noble, magnanimous). Adv.
generose, (nobly).
genesis -is, f. (the constellation that presides over one's birth).
genetivus -a -um, (inborn, innate); 'nomina', (family names); 'casus', (the genitive case).
genetrix -tricis, f. (one who brings forth, a mother).
genialis -e, (1) (relating to marriage). (2) (relating to enjoyment; joyful, gay). Adv., genialiter, (jovially, gaily).
geniculatus -a -um, (knotty, full of knots).
genista (genesta) -ae, f. (the plant broom).
genitabilis -e, (fruitful, productive).
genitalis -e, (creative, fruitful); 'dies', (birthday); of Diana, (presiding over births)., Adv. genitaliter, (in a fruitful manner).
genitivus, see genetivus.
genitor -oris, m. (a begetter, father, producer).
genitura -ae, f. (begetting, engendering); in astrology, (nativity).
genius -i, m. (the guardian spirit of a man or place, a genius); esp. (of a spirit of, enjoyment, one's taste, inclination); 'genium curare',
(to enjoy oneself)., Transf., (talent, genius).
geno, see gigno.
gens gentis, f. (a clan, stock, people, tribe, nation). Transf., (an offspring, descendant;, a district, country); esp. in partitive genit.: 'ubi
gentium', (where in the, world?); plur., 'gentes', (foreigners).
genticus -a -um, (of a nation, national).
gentilicius -a -um, (of a particular gens).
gentilis -e, (of a gens; of a country, national).
gentilitas -atis, f. (the relationship between the members of a gens).
genu -us, n. (the knee).
Genua -ae, f. (coast-town in Liguria) (now Genoa).
genualia -ium, n. pl. (garters).
genuinus (1) -a -um, (natural, innate).
genuinus (2) -a -um, (belonging to the cheek or jaw); 'dentes', (the jaw-teeth); m. as subst. (a, jaw-tooth).
genus, (1) -eris, n. (birth, descent, origin; race, stock, family, house); hence, (offspring, descendants; sex); in gen., (class, kind, variety,
sort); in, logic, (genus); of action, etc., (fashion, manner, way).
genus, (2) -us = genu; q.v.
geographia -ae, f. (geography).
geometres -ae, m. (a geometer).
geometria -ae, f. (geometry).
geometricus -a -um, (geometrical); m. as subst., geometricus -i, (a geometer); n. pl. geometrica, (geometry).
georgicus -a -um, (agricultural); n. pl. as subst. Georgica -orum, (the Georgics of Vergil).
Germani -orum, m. pl. (the Germans); adj. Germanus -a -um, (German); f. as subst. Germania, -ae, (Germany); adj. Germanicus -a -um,
(German); m. as subst. Germanicus -i, (a surname assumed after victories in Germany).
germanitas -atis, f. (the relationship between brothers or sisters; brotherhood, sisterhood).
germanus -a -um, (having the same parents); m. or f. as subst. (own brother, own sister)., Transf., (brotherly, sisterly; genuine, real,
true). Adv., germane, (faithfully, honestly).
Germanus -a -um, see Germani.
germen -inis, n. (an embryo; a bud, shoot or graft); fig., (germ).
germino -are, (to sprout forth).
gero, (1) gerere gessi gestum. Lit. (1) (to carry, bear); esp. (to wear). (2) (to, bear, give birth to). Transf., (to carry about, display an
appearance);, 'personam gerere', (to act a part); 'se gerere', (to conduct oneself (with, adv.); to carry about, entertain a feeling; to
carry on, conduct, manage, business); 'res gestae', (exploits, esp. warlike exploits).
gero, (2) -onis, m. (a carrier).
gerrae -arum, f. pl. (wattled twigs). Transf., (trifles, nonsense).

gerro -onis, m. (a trifler, idler).
gerulus -i, m. (porter, carrier).
Geryon -onis and Geryones -ae, m. myth., (a king in Spain with three bodies, killed by Hercules).
gestamen -inis, n. (that which is carried; that by which anything is carried, a carriage or, litter).
gesticulatio -onis, f. (pantomime, gesticulation).
gesticulor -ari, dep. (gesticulate).
gestio (1) -onis, f. (management, performance).
gestio (2) -ire, (to exult, be excited, run riot; to desire, long for).
gestito -are, (to carry often, wear often).
gesto -are, (to carry, bear about); pass. (to ride about).
gestor -oris, m. (a tale-bearer, gossip).
gestus -us, m. (carriage of the body, posture); esp. (the gestures of an actor or, orator).
Getae -arum, m. pl. (a people of Thrace living near the Danube). Adj. Geticus -a -um, (Thracian); adv. Getice, (after the Getic fashion).
Getulus, etc. = Gaetuli, etc.; q.v.
gibba -ae, f. (hump, hunch).
gibber -era -erum, (hump-backed).
gibbus -i, m. (hump, hunch).
Gigas -gantis, m. (a giant); adj. Giganteus -a -um.
gigno gignere genui genitum, (to beget, bear, bring forth; to cause).
gilvus -a -um, (pale yellow).
gingiva -ae, f. (gum (of the mouth)).
glaber -bra -brum, (bald); m. as subst., (a page).
glacialis -e, (icy).
glacies -ei, f. (ice). Transf., (hardness).
glacio -are, (to freeze).
gladiator -oris, m. (one hired to fight at public shows, a gladiator); hence (bandit, brigand);, 'gladiatoribus', (at a show of gladiators).
gladiatorius -a -um, (of gladiators, gladiatorial); n. as subst., (gladiator's pay).
gladiatura -ae, f. (the profession of gladiator).
gladius -i, m. (sword).
glaeba, = gleba; q.v.
glaesum (glesum) -i, n. (amber).
glandifer -fera -ferum, (acorn-bearing).
glandium -i, n. (a delicate glandule in meat).
glans glandis, f. (mast; an acorn, chestnut, etc.). Transf., (a bullet).
glarea -ae, f. (gravel).
glareosus -a -um, (gravelly, full of gravel).
glaucoma -atis, n. (also -ae, f.) (disease of the eye, cataract).
glaucus -a -um, (bluish- or greenish-gray).
gleba (glaeba) -ae, f. (a lump or clod of earth); hence (land, soil; a piece, lump of anything).
glebula -ae, f. (a little clod or lump; a little farm or estate).
glesum, = glaesum; q.v.
glis gliris, m. (dormouse).
glisco -ere, (to grow up, swell up, blaze up).
globo -are, (to form into a ball or mass).
globosus -a -um, (spherical).
globus -i, m. (a ball, globe, sphere; a troop, crowd, mass of people).
glomeramen -inis, n. (a round mass, globe).
glomero -are, (to form into a sphere, or rounded heap); in gen., (to gather together, collect, amass).
glomus -eris, n. (clue, skein, ball of thread).
gloria -ae, f. (fame, renown, glory). Transf., of a member of a group, (the pride, the, glory; desire of glory, ambition, boastfulness);
plur. (glorious deeds).
gloriatio -onis, f. (glorying, boasting).

gloriola -ae, f. (a little glory).
glorior -ari, dep. (to glory, boast, pride oneself).
gloriosus -a -um, (famous, glorious; ambitious, pretentious, boastful). Adv. gloriose, (gloriously; vauntingly, boastingly).
glubo -ere, (to peel). Transf., (to rob).
gluten -tinis, n. (glue).
glutinator -oris, m. (one who glues books, a bookbinder).
glutio (gluttio) -ire, (to swallow, gulp down).
gluto (glutto) -onis, m. (glutton).
Gnaeus -i, m. (a Roman praenomen) (shortened Cn.).
gnaritas -atis, f. (knowledge).
gnarus -a -um, act., (knowing, acquainted with, expert); pass., (known).
Gnatho -onis, m. (a parasite in the Eunuchus of Terence); in gen., (parasite).
Gnatia, = Egnatia; q.v.
gnatus, gnavus = natus, navus; q.v.
Gnidus, = Cnidus; q.v.
Gnossus (Gnosus) -i, f. (an ancient city of Crete, the residence of Minos); adj. Gnosius and, Gnosiacus -a -um, (Gnosian; Cretan); f. adj.
Gnosias -adis, and Gnosis -idis, (Cretan) and as subst., (Ariadne).
gobius (cobius) -i and gobio -onis, m. (a gudgeon).
gonger, see conger.
Gorgo -gonis, f. (also called Medusa, slain by Perseus); adj. Gorgoneus -a -um.
Gortyna -ae, f. (an ancient city in Crete).
grabatus -i, m. (a low couch, camp-bed).
Gracchus -i, m. (a cognomen in the Gens Sempronia), esp. of Tiberius and Gaius, the, 'Gracchi'. Adj. Gracchanus -a -um.
gracilis -e, (slender, thin, slim); of style, etc. (simple, without ornament).
gracilitas -atis, f. (thinness, slenderness).
graculus -i, m. (jackdaw).
gradarius -a -um, (going step by step).
gradatim, adv. (step by step, by degrees).
gradatio -onis, f. in rhetoric, (climax).
gradior gradi gressus, dep. (to step, walk).
Gradivus -i, m. (a surname of Mars).
gradus -us, m. (a step).(1) (a step as made, a pace);'suspenso gradu', (on tiptoe);, 'gradum facere', (to step); 'gradum inferre', (to
advance); hence in gen., (an, approach).(2) (a step as climbed, a stair); hence any (tier, gradation; a, braid of hair); abstr., (degree,
stage; rank, position); milit., (station, post).
Graeci -orum, m. pl. (the Greeks); sing. Graecus -i, m. (a Greek); as adj. Graecus -a -um, (Greek); adv. Graece, (in the Greek language);
f. subst. Graecia -ae, f., (Greece); 'Magna Graecia', (the Greek colonists in the south of Italy); dim., Graeculus -i, m. (a little Greek).
graecisso -are, (to imitate the Greeks).
graecor -ari, dep. (to imitate the Greeks).
Graii -orum, m. pl.= Graeci, (the Greeks); adj. Graius -a -um.
Graiugena -ae, m. (a Greek by birth).
grallator -oris, m. (one that walks on stilts).
gramen -inis, n. (grass, turf; any plant or herb).
gramineus -a -um, (grassy, of grass); also (of cane or bamboo).
grammaticus -a -um, (literary, grammatical); as subst., m. (a philologist, grammarian); f. sing., and n. pl. (grammar, philology).
grammatista -ae, m. (a teacher of grammar or languages).
granarium -i, n. (granary).
grandaevus -a -um, (very old).
grandesco -ere, (to become great, old).
grandiculus -a -um, (rather large).

grandifer -fera -ferum, (producing great profits).
grandiloquus -a -um, (speaking grandly; boastful).
grandinat -are, impers. (it hails).
grandio -ire, (to increase).
grandis -e, (full-grown, big, great, large); in stature, (tall); in years, (old). Transf., (great, important); of style, (lofty, grand, sublime).
granditas -atis, f. of style, (loftiness, sublimity).
grando -inis, f. (hail, hailstorm).
granifer -fera -ferum, (grain-carrying).
granum -i, n. (grain, seed).
graphicus -a -um, (concerned with painting); hence (masterly, skilful); adv. graphice.
graphium -i, n. (a stilus, a pointed instrument for writing on wax).
grassator -oris, m. (an idler; a footpad).
grassor -ari, dep. (to walk about, to loiter; to go about an undertaking; to proceed against, somebody).
grates, f. pl. (thanks); 'grates agere', (to express thanks); 'habere', (to feel, gratitude).
gratia -ae, f. (1) (charm, attraction, pleasantness); personif., (the three Graces, (Euphrosyne, Aglaia, Thalia)). (2) (favor with others;
esteem, regard, popularity). (3) (a favor done, service, kindness); abl. gratia, (on the, account of); 'mea gratia', (for my sake). (4)
(thankfulness, thanks); in sing., and plur.: 'gratias agere', with dat. (to express thanks); 'gratias habere', (to be grateful); abl. plur.
gratiis or gratis, (without recompense, for, nothing, gratis).
gratificatio -onis, f. (complaisance, obligingness).
gratificor -ari, dep. (to oblige, gratify, do a favor for).
gratiosus -a -um, (favored, beloved; showing favor, complaisant).
gratis, see gratia.
grator -ari, dep. (to wish joy, to congratulate; to give thanks).
gratuitus -a -um, (not paid for or not provoked, gratuitous, spontaneous); abl. sing. n. as adv., gratuito, (gratuitously).
gratulabundus -a um, (congratulating).
gratulatio -onis, f. (wishing joy, congratulation; a thanksgiving festival).
gratulor -ari, dep. (to wish a person joy, congratulate) (with dat.); (to give solemn, thanks), esp. to the gods.
gratus -a -um, adj. (1) (pleasing, welcome, agreeable); 'gratum facere', (to do a favor). (2), (thankful, grateful). Adv. grate, (willingly,
with pleasure; thankfully).
gravanter and gravate, from gravo.
gravatim, (reluctantly).
gravedinosus -a -um, (subject to colds).
gravedo -inis, f. (cold in the head, catarrh).
graveolens -lentis, (strong-smelling, rank).
gravesco -ere, (to become heavy; to grow worse).
graviditas -atis, f. (pregnancy).
gravido -are, (to load, burden; to impregnate).
gravidus -a -um, (heavy; laden, filled, full; pregnant).
gravis -e, (1) (heavy); of sound, (low, deep); fig. (weighty, important); of character, (dignified, serious); of style, (elevated, dignified).
(2) (burdened, laden, weighed down); esp. (pregnant). (3) (burdensome, oppressive; grievous, painful, unpleasant). Adv. graviter,
(heavily, weightily, reluctantly,;, grievously, painfully).
gravitas -atis, f. (1) (weight); fig., (consequence, importance); of character, (dignity, authority, seriousness).(2) (heaviness; pregnancy,
dullness, faintness). (3), (pressure); fig., (unpleasantness).
gravo -are, (to load, burden; to heighten, exaggerate, increase; to oppress, burden, trouble); pass., (to feel burdened or troubled by
a thing). Adv. gravanter and, gravate, (reluctantly).
gregalis -e, (of a herd or flock; common, ordinary); m. pl. as subst. (companions, associates, accomplices).
gregarius -a -um, (of a herd or flock); 'miles', (a private soldier).
gregatim, (in troops or crowds).
gremium -i, n. (lap, bosom; womb).

gressus -us, m. (a step); of a ship, (course).
grex gregis, m. (a herd, flock, drove); of people, (a troop, band, esp. a philosophical, sect or troop or soldiers); 'grege facto', (in close
grunnio (grundio) -ire, (to grunt like a pig).
grunnitus -us, m. (the grunting of a pig).
grus gruis, m. and f. (a crane).
gry, n. indecl. (scrap, crumb).
gryllus -i, m. (cricket, grasshopper).
gryps grypis, m. (griffin).
gubernaculum (-aclum) -i, n. (rudder, helm); hence (direction, management, government).
gubernatio -onis, f. (steering; direction, government).
gubernator -oris, m. (helmsman, steersman, pilot; director, governor).
gubernatrix -icis, f. (she that directs).
guberno -are, (to steer a ship, be at the helm); in gen., (to steer, direct, govern).
gubernum -i, n. = gubernaculum; q.v.
gula -ae, f. (gullet, throat); hence (greediness, gluttony).
gulosus -a -um, (gluttonous).
gurges -itis, m. (whirlpool, eddy); in gen., (troubled water, a stream, flood, sea); fig., (abyss, depth).
gurgulio (1) -onis, m. (windpipe).
gurgulio (2) -onis, f.; see curculio.
gurgustium -i, n. (hut, hovel).
gustatus -us, m. (taste; appetite, flavor).
gusto -are, (to taste, take a little of; to partake of, enjoy).
gustus -us, m. (tasting; taste, flavor, a whet or relish).
gutta -ae, f. (a drop; a spot or mark).
guttatim, (drop by drop).
guttula -ae, f. (a little drop).
guttur -uris, n. (the windpipe, throat; gluttony).
guttus -i, m. (a jug).
Gyaros -i, f. and Gyara -orum, n. (a barren island in the Aegean, used as a place of, exile under the empire).
Gyges -is and -ae, m. (a king of Lydia, famous for his ring); adj. Gygaeus -a -um.
gymnasiarchus -i, m. (the master of a gymnasium).
gymnasium -i, n. (school of gymnastics, gymnasium); also (a place for philosophical, discussion).
gymnasticus -a -um, (gymnastic).
gymnicus -a -um, (gymnastic).
gynaeceum (and -ium) -i, n. (the women's apartments in a Greek house).
gypso -are, (to cover with gypsum); partic. gypsatus -a -um, (covered with gypsum, whitened).
gypsum -i, n. (gypsum); meton., (a plaster figure).
gyrus -i, m. (a circle, ring); esp. (a course for training horses); in gen. (orbit, circuit).
ha! hahae! hahahae!, exclamations of joy or amusement.
habena -ae, f. (a strap; a bridle, reins (esp. in plur.)); 'habenas dare', (to loosen the, reins); 'adducere', (to tighten in).
habeo -ere -ui -itum, (to have, hold; to have about one, carry, wear; to contain); more generally, (to possess, have power over);
absol., (to possess property, be wealthy); of, places, (to own, inhabit, or rule over); of persons, (to keep), esp. in a, certain state or
relation. Transf., 'habere in animo', (to have in mind, intend); 'habes consilia nostra', (you know of) 'habeo dicere', (I have it in, my
power to say); 'bonum animum habere', (to be of good courage); 'odium', (to, cherish hatred); 'invidiam', (to experience ill-will);
'misericordiam', (to, involve or cause pity); 'concilium', (to hold a council); 'orationem', (to, make a speech); with reflex., (to keep
oneself, be) in a condition; 'graviter, se habere', (to be ill); [CONTINUED]
habeo -ere -ui -itum [2 of 2], 'ut nunc res se habet', (as things now are);, intransit., 'bene habet', (all right); with adv., rarely, (to use,
manage, treat); with double acc., or dat., or pro and abl. (to hold, consider, regard, in a certain light). Perf. partic. habitus -a -um,
(disposed; in a certain, condition

(physical or mental)).
habilis -e, (easily managed, handy; suitable, fit, convenient).
habilitas -atis, f. (aptitude, suitability).
habitabilis -e, (habitable).
habitatio -onis, f. (dwelling, habitation).
habitator -oris, m. (inhabitant).
habito -are, transit., (to inhabit); intransit., (to dwell).
habitudo -inis, f. (condition).
habitus (1) -a -um, partic. from habeo; q.v.
habitus (2) -us, m. (condition, habit, bearing); of dress, (style); of places, (lie of the, land); abstr., (nature, character, disposition,
hac, adv. from hic; q.v.
hactenus, (as far as this, so far (and no farther); hitherto; up to this point).
Hadria -ae, f. (a town in the north of Italy); m. (the Adriatic Sea). Adj. Hadriacus and, Hadriaticus -a -um, (Adriatic).
Hadrianus -i, m. P. Aelius, (Roman emperor from A.D. 117 to 138).
haedilia -ae, f. (a little kid).
haedillus -i, m. (a little kid).
haedinus -a -um, (of a kid).
haedulus -i, m. (a little kid).
haedus -i, m. (a kid, young goat).
Haemonia -ae, f. (an old name of Thessaly); adj. Haemonius -a -um, (Thessalian); f. subst., Haemonis -nidis, (a Thessalian woman).
haereo haerere haesi haesum, (1) (to stick, cleave, adhere, hang on to) a person or thing. (2) (to come to, a standstill, get stuck; be
haeresco -ere, (to adhere, stick).
haesitantia -ae, f. (faltering); 'lingua', (stammering).
haesitatio -onis, f.: in speech, (hesitation, stammering); mentally, (hesitation, indecision).
haesito -are, (to stick fast, to hesitate); in speech, (to stammer); mentally, (to be, undecided, be at a loss).
halec, see allec.
haliaeetos -i, m. (sea-eagle, osprey).
halitus -us, m. (breath, vapor).
hallex -icis, m. (thumb or big toe).
halo -are, (to breathe out, exhale).
haluc-, see aluc-.
hama (ama) -ae, f. (bucket, esp. fireman's bucket).
Hamadryas -adis, f. (a wood-nymph, hamadryad).
hamatus -a -um, (provided with hooks, hooked; curved like a hook, crooked).
Hamilcar -caris, m. (father of Hannibal).
hamiota -ae, m. (an angler).
Hammon, see Ammon.
hamus -i, m. (a hook, esp. a fish-hook; a talon; a thorn).
Hannibal -balis, m. (leader of the Carthaginians in the second Punic War).
hara -ae, f. (a pen or coop; a pig-sty).
harena (arena) -ae, f. (sand); hence (the sea-shore; the arena).
harenarius -a -um, (relating to sand, sandy).
harenosus -a -um, (sandy).
hariolor -ari, dep. (to utter prophecies). Transf., (to talk nonsense).
hariolus -i, m. and hariola -ae, f. (a soothsayer, prophet).
harmonia -ae, f. (melody, concord, harmony).
harpago -onis, m. (a large hook, drag, grappling-iron).
harpe -es, f. (a curved sword, scimitar).
Harpyiae (trisyll.) -arum, f. pl. (the Harpies, mythical monsters).
harundifer -fera -ferum, (reed-bearing).

harundineus -a -um, (reedy); 'carmen', (a shepherd's song).
harundinosus -a -um, (full of reeds).
harundo -inis, f. (a reed); meton., for an object made of reed, (a fishing rod; limed twigs, for catching birds; a pen; the shaft of an
arrow, or the arrow itself; a, shepherd's pipe; a flute; a weaver's comb; a plaything for children, a, hobby-horse).
haruspex -spicis, m. (soothsayer; a seer, prophet).
haruspicinus -a -um, (concerned with divination); f. as subst., (divination).
haruspicium -i, n. (inspection of entrails, divination).
Hasdrubal (Asdrubal) -balis, m. (the brother of Hannibal).
hasta -ae, f. (a spear, pike, javelin); milit., and in ceremonial use, at public auctions, and weddings.
hastatus -a -um, (armed with a spear); m. pl. as subst., hastati -orum, (the front rank of the, Roman army when drawn up for battle).
hastile -is, n. (the shaft of a spear; a spear; a prop for vines, etc.).
hau, interj. (oh!).
haud (haut), (not, not at all, by no means).
hauddum, (not at all as yet, not yet).
haudquaquam, (by no means, not at all).
haurio haurire hausi haustum, (to draw up, draw out or in; to drink up, absorb, swallow; to shed blood; to, drain, empty a
receptacle); in gen., (to derive, take in); also (to exhaust, weaken, waste).
haustrum -i, n. (a pump).
haustus -us, m. (drawing of water); legal, (the right to draw water); of air, (inhaling);, of drink, (drinking, a draught); of solids, (a
haut, see haud.
haveo, see aveo.
hebdomas -adis, f. (seventh day of a disease) (supposed critical).
Hebe -es, f. (the cup-bearer of the gods).
hebenus -i, f. (the ebon tree; ebony).
hebeo -ere, (to be blunt, dull, heavy, inactive).
hebes -etis, (blunt, dull; faint, sluggish, weak); mentally, (dull, heavy, stupid).
hebesco -ere, (to become blunt, dull, dim).
hebeto -are, (to make blunt or dull, to deaden, dim).
Hebraeus -a -um, (Hebrew, Jewish).
Hebrus -i, m. (the chief river of Thrace).
Hecate -es, f. (goddess of magic and enchantment); adj. Hecateius -a -um and f. Hecateis, -idis, (Hecatean, magical).
hecatombe -es, f. (a hecatomb).
Hector -toris, m. (son of Priam, husband of Andromache); adj. Hectoreus -a -um.
Hecuba -ae and Hecube -es, f. (wife of Priam).
hedera -ae, f. (ivy).
hedychrum -i, n. (a fragrant ointment).
hei, see ei.
Helena -ae, and Helene -es, f. (wife to Menelaus, carried off by Paris to Troy).
Helice -es, f. (a constellation, the Great Bear).
Helicon -onis, m. (a hill in Boeotia, sacred to Apollo and the Muses); adj. Heliconius -a, -um; subst. Heliconiades and Heliconides -um,
f. (the Muses).
Helle -es, f. (a girl drowned in the Hellespont, so named after her).
helleborus, see elleborus.
Hellespontus -i, m. (the Hellespont, Dardanalles).
helluo (heluo) -onis, m. (glutton, squanderer).
helluor (heluor) -ari, dep. (to guzzle, gormandize).
helops (elops, ellops) -opis, m. (a fish, perhaps sturgeon).
helvella -ae, f. (a small pot-herb).
Helvetii -orum, m. (the Helvetii, a people in what is now Switzerland).
hem, interj. (well! just look!).

hemerodromus -i, m. (a special courier, express).
hemicillus -i, m. (mule).
hemicyclium -i, n. (a semicircle (of seats)).
hemina -ae, f. (a measure of capacity, about half a pint).
hendecasyllabi -orum, m. pl. (verses of eleven syllables, hendecasyllables).
Henna (Enna) -ae, f. (city of Sicily, with a temple of Ceres); adj. Hennensis -e and Hennaeus -a, -um.
hepteris -is, f. (a galley with seven banks of oars).
hera, see era.
Hera -ae, f. (the Greek goddess identified with the Roman Juno); Heraea -orum, n. pl., (her festival).
herba -ae, f. (vegetation; a green plant; a blade or stalk, esp. of corn or grass).
herbesco -ere, (to grow into blades or stalks).
herbidus -a -um, (grassy).
herbifer -fera -ferum, (grassy).
herbosus -a -um, (grassy).
herbula -ae, f. (a little herb).
hercisco (ercisco) -ere, (to divide an inheritance).
Hercle, see Hercules.
herctum -i, n. (an inheritance);'herctum ciere', (to divide an inheritance).
Herculaneum -i, n. (town in Campania, destroyed by eruption of Vesuvius).
Hercules -is and -i, m. (the son of Jupiter and Alcmena); voc. Hercules or Hercule or Hercle, used, as an oath, (by Hercules); so also
mehercules, mehercule, mehercle; adj., Herculeus and Herculaneus -a -um.
Hercynia silva -ae, f. (the Hercynian forest, in central Germany).
here, see heri.
hereditarius -a -um, (of an inheritance; inherited, hereditary).
hereditas -atis, f. (inheritance).
heredium -i, n. (patrimony).
heres (haeres) -edis, c. (an heir, heiress, successor; an owner).
heri (here), (yesterday).
herifuga, see erifuga.
herilis, see erilis.
hermaphroditus -i, m. (hermaphrodite).
Hermes or Herma -ae, m. (the god Hermes, identified with the Roman Mercury).
Hero -us, f. (a priestess of Sestos, loved by Leander).
Herodes -is, m. (Herod; esp. Herod the Great).
Herodotus -i, m. (the Greek historian, born 484 B.C.).
heroicus -a -um, (relating to the heroes, heroic).
heroina -ae, f. (a demigoddess, heroine).
herois -idis, f. (a demigoddess, heroine).
heros -ois, m. (a demigod, hero).
herous -a -um, (of a hero, heroic); m. as subst., (a hexameter).
herus, see erus.
Hesiodus -i, m. (an early Greek poet of Boeotia).
Hesperus or -os -i, m. (the Evening Star); adj. Hesperius -a -um, (western). f. as subst. Hesperia, -ae, (the western land; Italy or Spain);
f. adj. Hesperis -idis, (western); f., subst. Hesperides -um, (daughters of Hesperus, living in the extreme west).
hesternus -a -um, (of yesterday).
hetairia -ae, f. (a secret society).
heu, interj. (oh! alas!).
heus, (hallo! ho, there! hark!).
hexameter -tri, m.: adj., (with six feet) (of meter); as subst., (a hexameter).
hexeris -is, f. (a galley with six banks of oars).
hiatus -us, m. (a cleft, opening; the opening of the mouth, open jaws); hence (gaping, after, desire for); gram. (hiatus).

Hiber -eris, m. (an Iberian, Spaniard); plur. Hiberes -erum, and Hiberi -orum, m., (Spaniards); Hiberus -i, m. (the river Ebro); Hiberia -
ae, (Spain); adj., Hibericus -a -um and Hiberus -a -um, (Spanish).
hiberna -orum, n. pl.; see hibernus.
hibernaculum -i, n.: in pl., (tents or huts for winter quarters).
Hibernia -ae, f. (Ireland).
hiberno -are, (to winter, spend the winter).
hibernus -a -um, (wintry, of winter; like winter, cold or stormy, wintering; for the winter);, n. pl. as subst. (winter quarters).
hibiscum -i, n. (marsh-mallow).
hibrida (hybrida) -ae, f. (a hybrid).
hic (1) haec hoc, (this, this one; this present); in court, (my client); strengthened form hice, haece, hoce; interrog. hicine, haecine,
hic (2), (here; in this place, in this matter; hereupon); strengthened hice and, interrog. hicine.
hiemalis -e, (of winter; wintry, stormy).
hiemo -are, (1) (to winter, spend the winter). (2) (to be stormy).
hiems (hiemps) -emis, f. (winter; the cold of winter; stormy weather, storm).
Hierosolyma -orum, n. pl. (Jerusalem).
hilaris -e, and hilarus -a -um, (cheerful, merry, gay); n. acc. sing. as adv. hilare, (cheerfully).
hilaritas -atis, f. (cheerfulness, gaiety).
hilaro -are, (to make joyful, to cheer up).
hilarulus -a -um, (gay, cheerful).
hillae -arum, f. pl. (intestines of animals; a kind of sausage).
Hilotae and Ilotae -arum, m. pl. (the Helots, slaves of the Spartans).
hilum -i, n. (a trifle); with neg. (not a whit, not in the least).
hinc, adv. (from here, hence); 'hinc atque illinc', (on this side and that); of, causation, (hence, from this cause); of time, (henceforth,
or thereupon).
hinnio -ire, (to neigh, whinny).
hinnitus -us, m. (neighing).
hinnuleus -i, m. (a young roebuck, fawn).
hinnus -i, m. (a mule).
hio -are, (to open, stand open; to gape) esp. in astonishment and longing; of speech, (to hang together badly); with acc. object, (to
pour forth).
hippagogi -orum, m. pl. (transports for cavalry).
Hippias -ae, m. (son of Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens).
hippocentaurus -i, m. (a centaur).
Hippocrates -is, m. (a physician of Cos (flourishing about 430 B.C.)).
Hippocrene -es, f. (a fountain on Mount Helicon).
hippodromos -i, m. (a hippodrome racecourse).
Hippolytus -i, m. (son of Theseus).
hippotoxota -ae, m. (a mounted archer).
hippurus -i, m. (a fish, perhaps goldfish).
hircinus -a -um, (of a goat; goatlike).
hircosus -a -um, (of a goat; goatlike).
hircus -i, m. (a he-goat).
hirnea -ae, f. (a can or jug).
hirsutus -a -um, (hairy, shaggy, rough; unadorned).
Hirtius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
hirtus -a -um, (hairy, shaggy, rough, uncultivated).
hirudo -inis, f. (leech).
hirundo -inis, f. (swallow).
hisco -ere, (to open, split open, gape; to open the mouth).
Hispani -orum, m. pl. (the Spaniards); Hispania -ae, f. (the whole of the Spanish peninsula);, adj. Hispaniensis -e, and Hispanus -a -um.
hispidus -a -um, (rough, hairy, bristly).

hister, = histrio. q.v.
Hister (Ister) -tri, m. (name of the lower part of the Danube).
historia -ae, f. (inquiry; the results of inquiry; learning; historical narrative, history);, in gen., (narrative, story).
historicus -a -um, (of history, historical); m. as subst. (a historian).
histricus -a -um, (of actors).
histrio -onis, m. (an actor).
histrionalis -e, (of actors).
hiulco -are, (to cause to gape, split).
hiulcus -a -um, (gaping, cleft, open; gaping with desire, longing); of speech, (badly put, together); adv. hiulce, (with hiatus).
hodie, (today; at present, still, even now; at once).
hodiernus -a -um, (of today).
holitor -oris, m. (a kitchen-gardener).
holitorius -a -um, (of herbs); 'forum', (vegetable market).
holus (olus) -eris, n. (vegetable, pot-herb).
Homerus -i, m. (Homer, the Greek epic poet).
homicida -ae, c. (a murderer, murderess, homicide).
homicidium -i, n. (murder, homicide).
homo -inis, c. (a human being, man, mortal); in pl., (men, people, the world); used like a, pronoun, (he, him); milit., in pl., (infantry).
homullus -i, m. (a little man, manikin).
homuncio -onis, m. (a little man, manikin).
homunculus -i, m. (a little man, manikin).
honestas -atis, f. (1) (honor, repute, respectability); in pl., (notabilities). (2) (worth, virtue, probity). (3) (beauty).
honesto -are, (to honor, adorn, dignify).
honestus -a -um, (1) (honored, in good repute, respectable). (2) (honorable, proper, virtuous);, n. as subst.(morality, virtue).(3) (fine,
beautiful). Adv. honeste, (respectably; honorably; properly).
honor, see honos.
honorabilis -e, (respectful).
honorarius -a -um, (done or given as an honor).
honorificus -a -um, (causing honor, honoring); adv. honorifice.
honoro -are, (to honor, show honor to, adorn, dignify); partic. honoratus -a -um, (honored, distinguished, respected), or in act. sense,
(conferring honor); adv., honorate.
honorus -a -um, (honorable).
honos and honor -oris, m. (honor, a mark of honor or respect, distinction); 'honoris causa', (with, due respect, or to honor, or for the
sake of); personif., (Honor); frequently, (an office of dignity, a public office); also (an offering to the gods, sacrifice); poet., (beauty,
hoplomachus -i, m. (a gladiator).
hora -ae, f. (an hour, the twelfth part of a day or night); 'hora quota est?' (what time, is it?); 'in horam vivere', (to live for the
moment); in gen., (time, season);, in plur. (a clock, dial); personif., (the Hours, goddesses who presided over, the seasons).
Horatius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
hordeum -i, n. (barley).
horia -ae, f. (a small fishing boat).
hornotinus -a -um, (of this year, this year's).
hornus -a -um, (of this year, this year's); adv. horno, (this year).
horologium -i, n. (a clock; a sundial or water-clock).
horreo -ere, (to bristle, be rough); of the hair, (to stand on end); of persons, (to, shudder, dread). Gerundive as adj. horrendus -a -um,
(horrible, dreadful;, awful, worthy of reverence).
horresco horrescere horrui, (to stand on end, bristle, be rough); of persons, (to tremble, shudder, begin, to dread).
horreum -i, n. (a barn, granary, storehouse).

horribilis -e, (horrible, frightful, dreadful); colloq., (astonishing, wonderful).
horridulus -a -um, (somewhat rough, unadorned).
horridus -a -um, (rough, shaggy, bristly; shivering with cold). Transf., (wild, savage;, unpolished, uncouth; frightful, horrible). Adv.
horride, (roughly).
horrifer -fera -ferum, (causing shudders of cold or fear).
horrifico -are, (to make rough; to terrify).
horrificus -a -um, (causing terror, dreadful); adv. horrifice.
horrisonus -a -um, (sounding dreadfully).
horror -oris, m. (bristling, shuddering; roughness of speech; dread, fright, esp. religious, dread, awe); meton., (object of dread, a
horsum, (in this direction).
hortamen -inis, n. (exhortation, encouragement, incitement).
hortamentum -i, n. (exhortation, encouragement, incitement).
hortatio -onis, f. (exhortation, encouragement, incitement).
hortativus -a -um, (of encouragement).
hortator -oris, m. (an inciter, encourager).
hortatus -us, m. (incitement, encouragement).
Hortensius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
hortor -ari, dep. (to exhort, incite, encourage); esp. (to harangue troops).
hortulus -i, m. (a little garden); plur. (grounds, a small park).
hortus -i, m. (a garden); in plur. (grounds, park).
hospes -pitis, m. and hospita -ae, f. (1) (a host, hostess). (2) (a guest). (3) (a guest-, friend, friend). (4) (a stranger); used also like adj.,
hospitalis -e, (of a guest or host; friendly, hospitable); adv. hospitaliter.
hospitalitas -atis, f. (hospitality).
hospitium -i, n. (hospitality); meton., (a guest-chamber, inn, quarters).
hostia -ae, f. (an animal slain in sacrifice, a victim).
hosticus -a -um, (foreign); but usually (of the enemy, hostile); n. as subst. (enemy, territory).
hostilis -e, (of, by or for the enemy; like an enemy, unfriendly, hostile); adv., hostiliter.
Hostilius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
hostimentum -i, n. (compensation, requital).
hostio -ire, (to requite, recompense).
hostis -is, c. (a stranger); but esp. (an enemy, foe, opponent).
huc, (hither, to this place); 'huc (atque) illuc', (hither and thither). Transf., (in addition to this; to this pitch, or degree); interrog.
hui, exclamation of surprise, (eh! hallo!).
huiusmodi or huiuscemodi, (of this kind).
hum-, see also um-.
humanitas -atis, f. (humanity, human nature, human feeling; kindness; refinement, education, culture).
humanitus, (after the manner of men); also (kindly).
humanus -a -um, (human, of human beings); m. as subst. (a human being); of good qualities, (humane, kind, educated, civilized,
refined). Adv. humane and humaniter, (humanely, politely, courteously, kindly).
humatio -onis, f. (burying, interment).
humilis -e, (on or near the ground, low, shallow). Transf., of rank, etc., (humble, poor, insignificant); of character, (abject or
submissive); of language, (mean, without elevation). Adv. humiliter, (humble, meanly, abjectly).
humilitas -atis, f. (nearness to the ground, lowness; shallowness). Transf., (insignificance, obscurity; submissiveness, abjectness).
humo -are, (to cover with earth, bury; to perform any funeral rites over a corpse).
humus -i, f. (ground, earth, soil); humi, (on the ground); meton., (land, country).
Hyacinthus (-os) -i, m. (a beautiful youth, accidentally killed by Apollo).
hyacinthus -i, m. (a flower, perhaps the martagon lily).
Hyades -um, f. (the Hyades, seven stars in the constellation Taurus).

hyaena -ae, f. (hyena).
hyalus -i, m. (glass; the color glassgreen).
Hydra -ae, f. (many-headed water-snake, slain by Hercules); also (a constellation).
hydraulus -i, m. (a water organ).
hydria -ae, f. (an urn, jug).
hydropicus -a -um, (dropsical).
hydrops -opis, m. (the dropsy).
hydrus -i, m. (a water snake).
Hylas -ae, m. (companion of Hercules).
Hymen -enis and Hymenaeos or -us -i, m. (Hymen, the god of marriage; the marriage song; a wedding (esp. in, plur.)).
hyperbaton -i, n. (transposition of words).
hyperbole -es, f. (exaggeration).
Hyperborei -orum, m. pl. (a people in the extreme north); adj. Hyperboreus -a -um, =, (northern).
hypodidascalus -i, m. (an under-teacher).
hypomnema -matis, n. (a memorandum, note).
Iacchus -i, m. (name of Bacchus); meton., (wine).
iaceo iacere iacui, (to lie, be situated; to lie low, lie flat; to lie sick or overthrown or, killed); of hair or clothes, (to hang loosely); fig.,
(to be neglected, despised; to be overthrown; to be cast down, dejected).
iacio iacere ieci iactum, (1) (to lay). (2) (to throw, cast, hurl; to fling away, shed; to scatter, diffuse; to let fall in speaking, to utter).
iactantia -ae, f. (boasting, bragging).
iactatio -onis, f. (a tossing, shaking). Transf., (violent emotion; boasting, ostentation).
iactator -oris, m. (boaster, braggart).
iactatus -us, m. (shaking, quick movement).
iactito -are, (to toss about; to bandy).
iacto -are, (to throw, cast, toss, fling away or about; to diffuse, spread, scatter; to, harass, disturb) a person; (to broadcast) words; (to
bring up, discuss) a, subject; (to keep bringing up, boast of). With reflex., or in pass., (to, gesticulate); also ('to throw one's weight
around', make oneself conspicuous)., Pres. partic. iactans -antis, (boastful); adv. iactanter.
iactura -ae, f. (throwing away; loss, sacrifice).
iactus -us, m. (cast, throw); 'intra iactum', (within range).
iaculabilis -e, (able to be thrown).
iaculator -oris, m. (a thrower); esp. (a javelin-man, light-armed soldier).
iaculatrix -icis, f. (the huntress (Diana)).
iaculor -ari, dep. (to throw a javelin; to shoot at a target; to throw, cast, hurl a, missile). Transf. (to make a verbal attack; to aim at,
strive after; to, utter).
iaculum -i, n. (1) (a dart, javelin). (2) (a casting net).
iaculus -a -um, (thrown, darting).
iam, adv. (now, by now, already); of future time, (immediately, presently, soon;, henceforth; further, moreover; just, indeed); 'iam
diu, iam dudum, iam, pridem', (now for a long time).
iambeus -a -um, (iambic).
iambus -i, m. (an iambus, a metrical foot; a metrical poem).
iamdudum, see iam.
iampridem, see iam.
Ianiculum -i, n. (a hill west of Rome).
ianitor -oris, m. (door-keeper, porter).
ianitrix -icis, f. (portress).
ianthinus -a -um, (violet-colored).
ianua -ae, f. (door; entrance, approach).
ianus -i, m. (a covered passage, arcade); personif., Ianus, (Janus, an old Italian deity, with two faces); adj. Ianalis and Ianualis -e; hence
also adj. Ianuarius -a, -um, (of Janus or of January); 'Ianuarius (mensis)', (January).

Iapyx -pygis, m. (a west-northwest wind).
Iason -onis, m. (leader of the Argonauts).
iaspis -idis, f. (jasper).
Iber-, see hiber-.
ibi, adv. (there, at that place; then, thereupon; therein, in that matter or, person).
ibidem, adv. (in the same place; at that moment; in that matter).
ibis, genit. ibis and ibidis, f. (the ibis).
ibiscum, see hibiscum.
Icarus -i, m. (son of Daedalus, drowned while flying with wings made by his father); adj., Icarius -a -um, (of Icarus).
iccirco, = idcirco; q.v.
Iceni -orum, m. (a British people in East Anglia).
ichneumon -onis, m. (the ichmeumon).
icio or ico icere ici ictum, (to strike, hit, smite); esp., (to strike a bargain).
ictericus -a -um, (jaundiced).
ictus -us, m. (a blow, stroke); in music, (beat).
Ida -ae and Ide -es, f. (name of two mountains, one in Crete, one in Phrygia, near Troy); adj., Idaeus -a -um.
idcirco (iccirco), (on that account; for that reason or purpose).
idem eadem idem, (the same); with dat., or ac, et, etc., (the same as); by way of addition, (also); of contrast, (yet); 'alter idem', (a
second self).
identidem, (repeatedly, again and again).
ideo, adv. (on that account, therefore; for that reason or purpose).
idiota -ae, m. (an ignorant, uneducated man).
idolon -i, n. (a specter).
idoneus -a -um, (fit, appropriate, suitable); adv. idonee.
Idumaea -ae, f. (a district in Palestine).
Idus -uum, f. pl. (the Ides, a day in the Roman month; the fifteenth day of March, May, July, October; the thirteenth in other
iecur iecoris and iocineris, n. (the liver; supposed seat of the passions).
iecusculum -i, n. (a little liver).
ieiunitas -atis, f. (hungriness, emptiness).
ieiunium -i, n. (fast, abstinence, hunger); hence, (leanness).
ieiunus -a -um, (fasting, hungry, thirsty); of objects, (poor, scanty); of spirit, (poor, mean); of style, (meager, weak). Adv. ieniune, of
style, (meagerly).
ientaculum -i, n. (breakfast).
iento -are, (to breakfast).
igitur, (therefore, then; so, as I was saying); to emphasize, (I say).
ignarus -a -um, act. (ignorant, inexperienced in (with genit.)); pass., (unknown).
ignavia -ae, f. (idleness, listlessness; cowardice).
ignavus -a -um, (1) (idle, listless, inactive, inert, sluggish). (2) (cowardly); m. as subst., (a coward). Adv. ignave and ignaviter, (lazily,
without spirit).
ignesco -ere, (to kindle, catch fire; to glow with passion).
igneus -a -um, (fiery, burning, glowing, ardent).
igniculus -i, m. (a little fire, flame, spark).
ignifer -fera -ferum, (fire-bearing, fiery).
ignigena -ae, m. (born of fire).
ignipes -pedis, (fiery-footed).
ignipotens -entis, (ruler of fire).
ignis -is, m. (fire, conflagration; a watch-fire, beacon; a firebrand; lightning); in, gen. (glow, glitter). Transf. (a firebrand (of war); glow
of passion; the, beloved).
ignobilis -e, (unknown, obscure; of humble birth).
ignobilitas -atis, f. (obscurity; humble birth).
ignominia -ae, f. (degradation, disgrace, dishonor).

ignominiosus -a -um: of persons, (disgraced); of things, (ignominious, disgraceful).
ignorabilis -e, (unknown).
ignorantia -ae, f. (ignorance).
ignoratio -onis, f. (ignorance).
ignoro -are, (to be ignorant of, not to know); rarely, (to neglect, ignore).
ignosco -noscere -novi -notum, (to overlook, forgive, pardon).
ignotus -a -um, pass. (unknown; ignoble, obscure); act. (ignorant).
ile -is, n., pl. ilia -ium, (intestines, guts; loin, flank); 'ilia ducere', (to become, broken-winded).
Ilerda -ae, f. (a town in Spain) (now Lerida).
ilex -icis, f. (holm oak).
Ilia -ae, f. (mother of Romulus and Remus).
Iliacus, see Ilion.
ilicet, (1) a formula, (it is all over). (2) (immediately, forthwith).
ilicetum -i, n. (an ilex grove).
ilico (illico), (on the spot; immediately).
ilignus -a -um, (of ilex or holm oak).
Ilion or Ilium -i, n. and Ilios -i, f. (Troy); adj. Ilius and Iliacus -a -um, (Trojan); Ilienses, -ium, m. pl. (Trojans); Iliades -ae, (a son of Troy)
Ilias -adis, f. (a Trojan, woman, or the Iliad of Homer).
ill-, for words compounded from in/l..., see in-.
illa, (by that way).
illac, (by that way, there); 'illac facere', (to belong to that party).
ille illa illud (older forms olle and ollus), pron. (that, that yonder, that one); emphatically, (that well-known); in, contrast with hic,
(the former, (sometimes the latter)); 'ille qui', (he who, the one who).
illic (1) illaec illuc, (that one); interrog. illicine?
illic (2) or illi, (there, at that place; therein, in that matter).
illim, (from that place or person).
illinc, (from that place, on that side).
illo, (thither, to that place; to that matter or point).
illuc, (thither, to that place; to that matter or person).
Illyrii -orum, m. pl. (a people on the Adriatic).
imaginarius -a -um, (imaginary).
imaginatio -onis, f. (imagination, fancy).
imaginor -ari, dep. (to imagine, conceive, picture to oneself).
imago -inis, f. (an image, copy, likeness; any representation, portrait, statue); in plur., (waxen figures, portraits of ancestors; the
shade or ghost of the dead; an, echo; a mental picture, idea, conception); rhet., (metaphor, simile, image);, abstr. (mere form,
appearance, pretence).
imbecillitas -atis, f. (weakness, feebleness).
imbecillus -a -um, (weak, feeble). Compar. adv. imbecillius, (somewhat weakly).
imbellis -e, (unwarlike, not fighting, indisposed or unable to fight); hence (feeble, peaceful, quiet).
imber -bris, m. (a shower or storm of rain, pelting rain; a rain-cloud; water or any fluid;, a shower of missiles).
imberbis -e, (beardless).
imberbus -a -um, (beardless).
imbibo -bibere -bibi, (to drink in); mentally, (to conceive; to resolve, determine).
imbrex -icis, c. (a hollow tile used in building).
imbrifer -fera -ferum, (rain-bringing).
imbuo -uere -ui -utum, (to wet, steep, saturate); fig. (to stain, taint); mentally, (to accustom, initiate, instruct).
imitabilis -e, (that can be imitated).
imitamen -inis, n. (an imitation); plur. (an image).
imitamentum -i, n. (imitating, imitation).
imitatio -onis, f. (imitation; pretence).
imitator -oris, m. (an imitator).
imitatrix -icis, f. (an imitator).

imitor -ari, dep. (to imitate, copy; to depict; to be like, act like).
immadui, infin. -isse, (to have become moist).
immanis -e, (enormous, immense, monstrous); of character, (savage, horrible, inhuman).
immanitas -atis, f. (savagery, frightfulness).
immansuetus -a -um, (unripe, immature; untimely).
immaturitas -atis, f. (immaturity; untimely haste).
immaturus -a -um, (unripe, immature).
immedicabilis -e, (incurable).
immemor -moris, (unmindful, forgetful, heedless).
immemorabilis -e, (indescribable; unworthy of mention; silent, uncommunicative).
immemorata -orum, n. pl. (things not related).
immensitas -atis, f. (immensity).
immensus -a -um, (immense, vast, boundless); n. as subst. (immense size, immensity).
immerens -entis, (not deserving, innocent).
immergo -mergere -mersi -mersum, (to dip in, plunge in, immerse).
immeritus -a -um, act. (not deserving (punishment), innocent); pass., (undeserved); adv., immerito, (undeservedly).
immersabilis -e, (that cannot be sunk).
immetatus -a -um, (unmeasured).
immigro -are, (to move away into).
immineo -ere, (to project, overhang); in time, (to be imminent; hang over; to threaten; to, be on the watch or look out).
imminuo -uere -ui -utum, (to lessen, diminish; to weaken, infringe).
imminutio -onis, f. (diminishing, weakening); rhet. (meiosis).
immisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, (to mix in, intermingle; to join with, unite).
immiserabilis -e, (unpitied).
immisericors -cordis, (unmerciful); adv. immisericorditer.
immissio -onis, n. (letting grow).
immitis -e, (unripe, sour; harsh, cruel, stern).
immitto -mittere -misi -missum, (1) (to send in, put in, work in; to engraft) (2) (to let loose); esp. (to let, grow). (3) (to let go against,
launch against); 'se in hostes', (to attack);, of feelings, (to instil).
immixtus, partic. from immisceo; q.v.
immo, (on the contrary; yes indeed, no indeed; say rather).
immobilis -e, (immovable or hard to move; inexorable).
immoderatio -onis, f. (excess).
immoderatus -a -um, (immeasurable, endless; immoderate, unrestrained); adv. immoderate.
immodestia -ae, f. (want of restraint).
immodestus -a -um, (unrestrained, extravagant); adv. immodeste.
immodicus -a -um, (immoderate, excessive; unrestrained, unbridled); adv. immodice.
immodulatus -a -um, (inharmonious).
immoenis, see immunis.
immolatio -onis, f. (a sacrifice).
immolator -oris, m. (sacrificer).
immolitus -a -um, (built up, erected).
immolo -are, (to sacrifice; to devote to death, to slay).
immorior -mori -mortuus, (to die in or over).
immorsus -a -um, (bitten, stimulated).
immortalis -e, (deathless, immortal, imperishable). Adv. immortaliter, (infinitely).
immortalitas -atis, f. (immortality; everlasting renown; extreme happiness).
immotus -a -um, (unmoved, motionless; undisturbed, calm; firm, steadfast).
immugio -ire, (to bellow in or on).
immulgeo -ere, (to milk into).
immundus -a -um, (impure, foul).
immunio -ire, (to fortify).

immunis -e, (without duty, free, exempt); in gen. (not working or not contributing; not, sharing in, devoid of; stainless).
immunitas -atis, f. (exemption, from offices or burdens; immunity).
immunitus -a -um, (unfortified; unpaved).
immurmuro -are, (to murmur at).
immutabilis -e, (unchangeable).
immutabilitas -atis, f. (immutability).
immutatio -onis, f. (change, alteration); rhet. (metonomy).
immutatus (1) -a -um, (unchanged).
immutatus (2) -a -um, partic. from immuto; q.v.
immuto -are, (to change, alter); 'immutata oratio', (allegory).
impacatus -a -um, (restless).
impallesco -pallescere -pallui, (to turn pale).
impar -paris, (unequal, uneven; unlike, discordant; ill-matched); of numbers, (odd); 'modi, impares', (hexameter and pentameter).
Adv. impariter, (unevenly, unequally).
imparatus -a -um, (unprepared, unprovided).
impart-, see impert-.
impastus -a -um, (unfed, hungry).
impatibilis, = impetibilis; q.v.
impatiens -entis, (unable to endure, impatient); adv impatienter.
impatientia -ae, f. (impatience, inability to endure).
impavidus -a -um, (fearless, undaunted).
impedimentum -i, n. (hindrance, impediment); in plur. (the baggage of an army or traveller).
impedio -ire, (to entangle, ensnare, obstruct, surround; to embarrass, hinder, prevent)., Hence partic. impeditus -a -um, (entangled,
hindered); milit. (hindered by, baggage); of places, (impassable, blocked); in gen. (embarrassed, obstructed;, awkward, complicated).
impeditio -onis, f. (hindrance).
impello -pellere -puli -pulsum, (1) (to drive against, strike upon). (2) (to set in motion; to incite, urge, on, impel); esp. (to push over
one already slipping).
impendeo -ere, (to hang over, overhang; to threaten, be close at hand).
impendium -i, n. (expenditure, outlay, cost; interest on money). Abl. as adv. impendio, colloq., (by much, very much).
impendo -pendere -pendi -pensum, (to weigh out); hence (to expand, lay out); partic. impensus -a -um, of price, (considerable,
great); in gen. (strong, vehement). Adv. impense, (at great, cost; urgently, eagerly).
impenetrabilis -e, (impenetrable).
impensa -ae, f. (expense, outlay).
imperator -oris, m. (commander, leader); milit., (the commander-in-chief); also of the Roman, emperors.
imperatorius -a -um, (of a general; imperial).
imperatrix -icis, f. (a female commander).
imperceptus -a -um, (unperceived).
impercussus -a -um, (not struck).
imperditus -a -um, (not lain, undestroyed).
imperfectus -a -um, (incomplete, unfinished).
imperfossus -a -um, (unstabbed, unpierced).
imperiosus -a -um, (commanding); 'sibi', (master of oneself); in bad sense, (imperious, tyrannical).
imperitia -ae, f. (inexperience, ignorance).
imperito -are, (to command, be in command, give an order).
imperitus -a -um, (unskilled, inexperienced, ignorant); adv. imperite.
imperium -i, n. (an order, a command; the right to order, power, mastery, command); esp., (political power, authority, sovereignty);
'in imperio esse', (to hold, office); meton. (empire), and in plur., (persons in authority).
imperiuratus -a -um, (by which no one swears falsely).
impermissus -a -um, (forbidden).

impero -are, (to impose); hence (to requisition, order a thing); (to order an action to be, done, give orders to a person); (to rule
over, govern, command).
imperterritus -a -um, (undaunted, fearless).
impertio -ire, (to give a person a share in; to share a thing with a person, to impart, bestow).
imperturbatus -a -um, (undisturbed, calm).
impervius -a -um, (impassable).
impetibilis -e, (insufferable).
impeto -ere, (to make for, attack).
impetrabilis -e, pass. (obtainable); act. (successful).
impetratio -onis, f. (obtaining by request).
impetrio -ire, (to seek by favorable omens).
impetro -are, (to get, accomplish, effect); esp. (to obtain by asking).
impetus -us, m. (an attack, onset; any rapid motion; mental impulse, passion, force).
impexus -a -um, (uncombed; rude, uncouth).
impietas -atis, f. (undutifulness; impiety, unfilial conduct, disloyalty).
impiger -gra -grum, (diligent, active); adv. impigre.
impigritas -atis, f. (activity).
impingo -pingere -pegi -pactum, (to thrust, dash, drive against); fig., (to press upon, bring upon a person).
impius -a -um, (undutiful, unpatriotic); adv. impie.
implacabilis -e, (implacable); compar. adv. implacabilius.
implacatus -a -um, (unappeased, unsatisfied).
impleo -plere -plevi -pletum, (to fill in, fill up, complete; to satisfy, content a person; to fulfil, perform; to contaminate).
implexus -a -um, (involved, entwined).
implicatio -onis, f. (entwining, interweaving; embarrassment).
implico -are -avi -atum and -ui -itum, (to enfold, entwine, entangle, involve; to associate, unite); partic., implicatus -a -um, (confused,
entangled); adv. implicite, (confusedly).
imploratio -onis, f. (an imploring for help).
imploro -are, (to call upon with tears, to beseech, implore; to call for, beg for).
implumis -e, (unfledged).
impluo -pluere -plui, (to rain upon).
impluvium -i, n. (an opening in the roof of a Roman house, or the basin for rain-water below, it).
impolitus -a -um, (rough, unpolished); adv. impolite.
impollutus -a -um, (undefiled).
impono -ponere -posui -positum, (to put, lay, place in or upon); naut. (to put on board ship, to embark);, fig., (to lay or put upon,
impose; to put over as master; to impose upon, cheat, deceive (with dat.)).
importo -are, (to bring in, import, introduce; to bring upon, cause).
importunitas -atis, f. (self-assertion, inconsiderateness, insolence).
importunus -a -um, (unsuitable, ill-adapted, unfavorable; troublesome, tiresome); of character, (assertive, inconsiderate).
importuosus -a -um, (without harbors).
impos -potis, (having no power over).
impositus -a -um, partic. from impono; q.v.
impotens -entis, (feeble, powerless); with genit., (not master of); esp. (unable to command, oneself, violent, unrestrained). Adv.
impotenter, (weakly; intemperately, passionately).
impotentia -ae, f. (poverty; lack of self-restraint, violent passion).
impraesentiarum, (in present circumstances, for the present).
impransus -a -um, (without breakfast, fasting).
imprecor -ari, dep. (to invoke harm upon, to call down upon).
impressio -onis, f. (physical pressure, an attack, assault); rhet. (distinct expression, emphasis); philos. (sense-data, the impression of
the senses).
imprimis, (especially, first of all).
imprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, (to press upon or into; to seal, chase, emboss; to make by pressing, imprint).

improbatio -onis, f. (disapproval, blame).
improbitas -atis, f. (badness, depravity).
improbo -are, (to disapprove, blame, reject).
improbulus -a -um, (somewhat wicked).
improbus -a -um, (inferior, bad; morally bad, perverse, wilful; bold, persistent, mischievous);, m. pl. as subst. (the unpatriotic). Adv.
improbe, (badly, wickedly;, impudently, boldly).
improcerus -a -um, (small, low of stature).
improdictus -a -um, (not postponed).
impromptus -a -um, (not ready).
improperatus -a um, (somewhat hurried, slow).
improsper -era -erum, (unfortunate); adv. improspere.
improvidus -a -um, (without forethought, improvident); adv. improvide.
improvisus -a -um, (unforeseen, unexpected); '(ex) improviso', (unexpectedly).
imprudens -entis, (not foreseeing, not expecting; not knowing, unaware; unwise, rash, imprudent). Adv. imprudenter, (without
forethought; unawares; unwisely).
imprudentia -ae, f. (lack of foresight or knowledge; ignorance; lack of wisdom, imprudence).
impubes -beris and -pubis, (1) (youthful); 'genae', (beardless); plur. as subst. (boys). (2), (unmarried).
impudens -entis, (shameless, impudent); adv. impudenter.
impudentia -ae, f. (shamelessness, impudence).
impudicitia -ae, f. (incontinence, unchastity).
impudicus -a -um, (shameless); esp. (unchaste).
impugnatio -onis, f. (assault, attack).
impugno -are, (to attack, assail).
impulsio -onis, f. (pressure); fig., (impulse, instigation).
impulsor -oris, m. (instigator).
impulsus -us, m. (pressure, impulse; incitement, instigation).
impune, (with impunity, unpunished, safely).
impunitas -atis, f. (impunity, exemption from punishment).
impunitus -a -um, (unpunished, exempt from punishment; unrestrained); adv. impunite.
impuratus -a -um, (vile, infamous).
impuritas -atis, f. (moral impurity).
impurus -a -um, (unclean, foul); morally, (impure, vile, infamous). Adv. impure.
imputatus (1) -a -um, (unpruned, untrimmed).
imputatus (2) -a -um, partic. form imputo; q.v.
imputo -are, (to lay to a charge, enter in an account; to reckon as a merit or fault in, someone, to impute to; to reckon as a service
done or gift given to someone).
imus -a -um, superl. from inferus; q.v.
in, prep. (1) with acc., (into, on to, towards, against); of time, (until); 'in, omne tempus', (for ever); 'in diem vivere', (to live for the
moment); of, tendency or purpose, (for); in adverbial phrases, indicating manner or extent:, 'in universum', (in general); 'in vicem', 'in
vices', (in turn). (2) with, abl., (in, on, among); of time, (in, at, within); of a person, (in relation, to, in the case of).
inaccessus -a -um, (inaccessible).
inacesco -acescere -acui, (to become sour).
Inachus (Inachos) -i, m. (mythical king of Argos, father of Io, after whom the river Inachus in, Argolis was named).
inadfectatus -a -um, (natural, unaffected).
inadsuetus -a -um, (unaccustomed).
inadustus -a -um, (unsinged).
inaedifico -are, (to build in or upon; to build up, block up, barricade).
inaequabilis -e, (uneven, unequal); adv. inaequabiliter.
inaequalis -e, (uneven, unequal, various; making unequal, disturbing). Adv. inaequaliter, (unevenly).
inaequalitas -atis, f. (unevenness).
inaequo -are, (to make even, level up).
inaestimabilis -e, (that cannot be estimated); hence (priceless, inestimable); also (having no, value).

inaestuo -are, (to boil, rage (in)).
inaffectatus, see inadf-.
inamabilis -e, (unloved, hateful).
inamaresco -ere, (to become bitter).
inambitiosus -a -um, (unpretentious).
inambulatio -onis, f. (walking up and down).
inambulo -are, (to walk up and down).
inamoenus -a -um, (unlovely, dismal).
inanimus -a -um, (lifeless, inanimate).
inanio -ire, (to empty, make void).
inanis -e, (empty, void); 'equus', (riderless); 'navis', (unloaded); 'corpus', (soulless); with genit. or abl., (empty of); of persons, (empty-
handed, poor);, fig. (vain, hollow, idle). N. as subst. (empty space, emptiness, vanity). Adv., inaniter, (vainly, uselessly).
inanitas -atis, f. (emptiness, empty space; uselessness).
inaratus -a -um, (unplowed, fallow).
inardesco -ardescere -arsi, (to catch fire, burn, glow).
inaresco -arescere -arui, (to become dry).
inassuetus, see inadsuetus.
inattenuatus -a -um, (undiminished, unimpaired).
inaudax -acis, (timid, fearful).
inaudio -ire, (to hear); esp. (to hear as a secret).
inauditus -a -um, (unheard (esp. of accused person); unheard of, unusual).
inauguro -are, intransit. (to take the auguries); transit. (to consecrate, install, inaugurate); inaugurato, (after taking the auguries).
inaures -ium, f. pl. (earrings).
inauro -are, (to cover with gold, gild, enrich).
inauspicatus -a -um, (without auspices); inauspicato, (without consulting the auspices).
inausus -a -um, (not dared, not attempted).
incaeduus -a -um, (not cut, unfelled).
incalesco -calescere -calui, (to glow, become warm or passionate).
incalfacio -facere, (to heat, warm).
incallidus -a -um, (ingenuous, unskillful); adv. incallide.
incandesco -candescere -candui, (to begin to whiten, esp. with heat).
incanesco -canescere -canui, (to become gray).
incanto -are, (to enchant).
incanus -a -um, (quite gray).
incassum, (in vain).
incastigatus -a -um, (unchastised).
incautus -a -um, adj. (incautious, careless, unwary; unguarded; not guarded against, unforeseen). Adv. incaute.
incedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (to walk, step, march; to proceed, come on); of feelings, with dat., (to come, over).
incelebratus -a -um, (not spread abroad).
incenatus -a -um, (without dinner).
incendiarius -a -um, (fire-raising, incendiary).
incendium -i, n. (a conflagration, fire; a torch, firebrand); of passion, (fire, glow, heat); in gen., (destruction, ruin).
incendo -cendere -cendi -censum, (to kindle, set fire to, burn; to make bright, illumine; to fire with passion, excite, incense).
incensio -onis, f. (burning).
incensus (1) -a -um, partic. from incendo; q.v.
incensus (2) -a -um, (not enrolled by the censor, unassessed).
inceptio -onis, f. (a beginning; an enterprise).
incepto -are, (to begin; to attempt, undertake).

inceptor -oris, m. (a beginner).
inceptum -i, n. of partic. of incipio; q.v.
incerno -cernere -crevi -cretum, (to sift).
incero -are, (to cover with wax).
incertus -a -um, (uncertain, doubtful, not sure). (1) as to fact; act., of persons, (not, knowing, doubting); pass., of things, (unknown,
obscure); n. as subst., (uncertainty). (2) as to action, (hesitating, irresolute, undecided);, 'incertam securim', (not surely aimed).
incesso -cessere -cessivi, (to attack, assail).
incessus -us, m. (march, walk; manner of walking, gait; attack, assault; entrance, approach).
incesto -are, (to defile, pollute, dishonor).
incestus (1) -a -um, (impure, defiled; sinful, unchaste); n. as subst., (unchastity, incest). Adv., inceste.
incestus (2) -us, m. (unchastity, incest).
inchoo, see incoho.
incido (1) -cidere -cidi -casum, (to fall in or upon; to fall in with); 'in hostem', (to attack); 'in aes, alienum', (to run into debt); 'in
mentionem', (to happen to mention); of, abstr. things, (to occur, happen, 'crop up').
incido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to cut into, cut open; to inscribe, engrave an inscription; to make by, cutting; to cut through); fig., (to
cut short, bring to an end, break off)., Hence, from partic., n. subst. incisum -i = incisio; q.v.; adv. incise =, incisim; q.v.
incile -is, n. (a ditch, trench).
incilo -are, (to blame, scold).
incingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum, (to surround).
incino -ere, (to sing).
incipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum (cf. coepi), (to take in hand, begin, commence); sometimes, (to commence to speak). N. of, partic. as
subst. inceptum -i, (a beginning; an attempt, enterprise).
incisim, (in short clauses).
incisio -onis, f. (a clause of a sentence).
incitamentum -i, n. (inducement, incentive).
incitatio -onis, f.: act. (inciting, instigating); pass. (violent motion, excitement, vehemence).
incito -are, (to put into rapid motion, urge on, hasten); in pass., or with reflex., (to, quicken one's pace, hasten). Transf., (to excite,
spur, inspire; to incite, against, stir up; to increase). Hence partic. incitatus -a -um, (rapid, vehement); 'equo incitato', (at full gallop);
compar. adv. incitatius, (more, violently).
incitus (1) -a -um, (in rapid motion).
incitus (2) -a -um, (unmoved).
inclamo -are, (to call upon loudly); esp. (to scold).
inclaresco -clarescere -clarui, (to become famous).
inclemens -entis, (unmerciful, harsh, rough); adv. inclementer.
inclementia -ae, f. (unmercifulness, harshness).
inclinatio -onis, f. (leaning, bending, inclination); in gen., (movement, tendency, change;, good-will, liking).
inclino -are, transit. (to bend, incline, turn; change, sometimes for the worse); in pass., (to fall back, waver); intransit. (to take a turn,
verge, incline, change);, milit., (to waver, yield). Hence partic. inclinatus -a -um, (inclined, prone;, sinking); of the voice, (low, deep).
includo -cludere -clusi -clusum, (to shut in, enclose); esp. (to block, obstruct, confine).
inclusio -onis, f. (shutting up, confinement).
inclutus (inclitus) -a -um, (celebrated, famous, renowned).
incoctus (1) -a -um, (uncooked, raw).
incoctus (2) -a -um, partic. from incoquo; q.v.
incogitabilis -e, (inconsiderate, thoughtless).
incogitans -antis, (inconsiderate, thoughtless).
incogitantia -ae, f. (thoughtlessness).
incogitatus -a -um, pass., (unstudied); act., (inconsiderate).
incogito -are, (to contrive, plan).
incognitus -a -um, (unexamined, unknown; unrecognized, so unclaimed).

incoho -are, (to take in hand, begin). Hence partic. incohatus -a -um, (only begun, not, finished).
incola -ae, c. (an inhabitant, native); sometimes (a foreign resident).
incolo -colere -colui, (to inhabit, dwell (in)).
incolumis -e, (uninjured, safe and sound).
incolumitas -atis, f. (safety, preservation).
incomitatus -a -um, (unaccompanied, without retinue).
incommendatus -a -um, (not entrusted); hence (without protector).
incommoditas -atis, f. (inconvenience, disadvantage, unseasonableness).
incommodo -are, (to be unpleasant or troublesome).
incommodus -a -um, (inconvenient, troublesome, disagreeable, annoying); n. as subst., (inconvenience, disadvantage); 'incommodo
tuo', (to your disadvantage); adv., incommode, (inconveniently).
incommutabilis -e, (unchangeable).
incomparabilis -e, (incomparable).
incompertus -a -um, (unknown).
incompositus -a -um, (not in order, irregular); adv. incomposite.
incomprehensibilis -e, (impossible to catch; incomprehensible).
incomptus -a -um, (unkempt, untrimmed; rude, rough).
inconcessus -a -um, (not allowed, forbidden).
inconcinnus -a -um, (awkward, inelegant, absurd).
inconcussus -a -um, (unshaken, firm).
inconditus -a -um, (not arranged, disorderly, confused); adv. incondite.
incongruens -entis, (not agreeing, inconsistent).
inconsideratus -a -um, (thoughtless, inconsiderate); pass. (unadvised, reckless). Adv. inconsiderate, (without consideration).
inconsolabilis -e, (inconsolable; incurable).
inconstans -stantis, (changeable, inconsistent); adv. inconstanter.
inconstantia -ae, f. (changeableness, inconsistency).
inconsultus -a -um, pass. (not consulted); act. (without asking advice, unadvised); hence, (inconsiderate, imprudent). Adv. inconsulte,
inconsumptus -a -um, (unconsumed, undiminished).
incomtaminatus -a -um, (unpolluted).
incontentus -a -um, (not stretched); 'fides', (untuned).
incontinens -entis, (incontinent); adv. incontinenter.
incontinentia -ae, f. (incontinence).
inconveniens -entis, (not suiting, dissimilar).
incoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, (to boil in or with; to dye).
incorrectus -a -um, (unamended, unimproved).
incorruptus -a -um, (not corrupted, untainted, unspoilt, unimpaired); adv. incorrupte.
increbresco -ere -crebrui and increbesco -ere -crebui, (to become strong or frequent; to increase, prevail).
incredibilis -e, (not to be believed, incredible); adv. incredibiliter.
incredulus -a -um, (incredulous).
incrementum -i, n. (growth, increase); meton. (the makings of anything), also, (offspring).
increpito -are, (to call loudly to; to reproach, chide).
increpo -are -ui (-avi) -itum (-atum), (to rustle, make a noise; to be noised abroad); transit. (to cause to sound)., Of persons, (to chide,
incresco -crescere -crevi, (to grow (in or on)).
incretus -a -um, partic. from incerno; q.v.
incruentatus -a -um, (bloodless).
incruentus -a -um, (bloodless).
incrusto -are, (to cover with rind, encrust).
incubo -are -ui -itum, (to lie in or on or over; to watch over; to hang over, lie heavily upon; to, dwell in).
inculco -are, (to trample in, press in, force upon, impress upon).
inculpatus -a -um, (unblamed, blameless).
incultus (1) -a -um, (uncultivated, untilled); n. pl. as subst. (wastes, deserts); of dress, etc., (neglected,

untidy); in gen. (unpolished, rude). Adv. inculte.
incultus (2) -us, m. (neglect, want of cultivation).
incumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, (to lie upon, put weight on, lean over, overhang; to apply oneself to, concentrate upon a thing;
to incline to favor, further a cause or movement).
incunabula -orum, n. pl. (swaddling-clothes); hence (infancy; birthplace); in gen., (source, origin).
incuratus -a -um, (uncared for, unhealed).
incuria -ae, f. (carelessness, neglect).
incuriosus -a -um, act. (careless, negligent); pass. (neglected). Adv. incuriose, (carelessly).
incurro -currere -curri (-cucurri) -cursum, (to run into); milit., (to assail, attack, make a raid into). Transf., (to, attack with words, to
inveigh against; to come upon, fall in with); in space, (to extend into); in time, (to coincide with).
incursio -onis, f. (a clash, onset; collision); milit., (attack, raid, invasion).
incurso -are, (to run against, strike against, attack).
incursus -us, m. (an attack, assault); of the mind, (efforts, impulses).
incurvo -are, (to bend, curve, make crooked).
incurvus -a -um, (bent, curved, crooked).
incus -cudis, f. (anvil).
incusatio -onis, f. (blame, reproach, accusation).
incuso -are, (to accuse, blame, find fault with).
incussu, abl. sing. m. (by a clash).
incustoditus -a -um, pass. (unwatched, unguarded); act. (incautious, imprudent).
incusus -a -um, (forged, fabricated).
incutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, (to dash, beat against; to strike into the
mind, inspire with).
indagatio -onis, f. (investigation).
indagator -oris, m. (investigator, explorer).
indagatrix -tricis, f. (investigator, explorer).
indago (1) -are, (to track down), as hounds hunting; (to explore, investigate).
indago (2) -inis, f. (surrounding and driving of game).
inde, (thence, from there); 'hinc....inde', (on this side....on that); (from that, cause, for that reason; from that time, thereafter;
thereupon, then).
indebitus -a -um, (not owed, not due).
indecens -centis, (unbecoming, unseemly, unsightly); adv. indecenter.
indeclinatus -a -um, (unchanged, firm).
indecor -oris or indecoris -e, (unbecoming, shameful).
indecoro -are, (to disgrace, dishonor).
indecorus -a -um, (unbecoming; unseemly, unsightly; disgraceful). Adv. indecore.
indefensus -a -um, (undefended, unprotected).
indefessus -a -um, (unwearied, indefatigable).
indefletus -a -um, (unwept).
indeiectus -a -um, (not thrown down).
indelebilis -e, (imperishable).
indelibatus -a -um, (uninjured, undiminished).
indemnatus -a -um, (uncondemned).
indeploratus -a -um, (unwept, unlamented).
indeprensus -a -um, (undiscovered).
indesertus -a -um, (not forsaken).
indestrictus -a -um, (untouched, unhurt).
indetonsus -a -um, (unshorn).
indevitatus -a -um, (unavoided).
index -dicis, m. (an informer; a sign, token; the forefinger; a title; a touchstone).
Indi -orum, m. pl. (the Indians); sing. Indus -i, m. (an Indian, or Ethiopian; an, elephant-driver, mahout). Adj. Indus and Indicus -a -um,
(Indian); subst., India -ae, f. (India).
indicente, abl. sing., (not saying); 'me indicente', (without my saying a word).

indicium -i, n. (1) (information, evidence; leave to give evidence; a reward for giving, evidence). (2) (any mark, sign, token).
indico (1) -are, (to make known, show, indicate); esp. (to inform against, give evidence about;, to put a price on, value).
indico (2) -dicere -dixi -dictum, (to make publicly known, proclaim); 'bellum', (to declare war).
indictus (1) -a -um, (not said, unsaid); 'indicta causa', (without a hearing).
indictus (2) -a -um, partic. from indico (2); q.v.
indidem, (from the same place or matter).
indifferens -entis, (indifferent; neither good nor bad; unconcerned). Adv. indifferenter.
indigena -ae, c. (native).
indigentia -ae, f. (want, need; desire).
indigeo -ere -ui, (to want, need, require); also (to long for). Hence partic. indigens -entis, (in need).
indiges -getis, m. (native, indigenous).
indigestus -a -um, (disordered, confused, unarranged).
indignabundus -a -um, (filled with indignation).
indignatio -onis, f. (indignation; matter for indignation); rhet., (the exciting of, indignation).
indignitas -atis, f. (unworthiness, vileness; unworthy behavior or treatment of others, indignity; indignation at unworthy treatment).
indignor -ari, dep. (to consider unworthy, take as an indignity, be offended). Hence partic., indignans -antis, (offended).
indignus -a -um: of persons, (unworthy, not deserving) (with abl. or genit.); of things, (unworthy); hence, (disgraceful, shameful). Adv.
indigne, (unworthily, dishonorably; impatiently, indignantly).
indigus -a -um, (needing, in want of).
indiligens -entis, (negligent); adv. indiligenter.
indiligentia -ae, f. (carelessness, negligence).
indipiscor -dipisci -deptus, dep. and indipisco -ere, (to reach, obtain; to attain, get).
indireptus -a -um, (unpillaged).
indiscretus -a -um, (unsevered, undivided; undistinguished; indistinguishable).
indisertus -a -um, (not eloquent); adv. indiserte.
indispositus -a -um, (disorderly, confused).
indissolubilis -e, (indissoluble).
indissolutus -a -um, (undissolved).
indistinctus -a -um, (not separated; indistinct, obscure; unpretentious).
individuus -a -um, (indivisible, inseparable); n. as subst. (an atom).
indo -dere -didi -ditum, (to put in or on); of names, (to give, confer); of abstr. things, (to, introduce, cause, occasion).
indocilis -e, (unteachable, untaught; ignorant, rude, artless); of subjects, (unable to be, learned).
indoctus -a -um, (untaught, untrained, unskilled); adv. indocte.
indolentia -ae, f. (freedom from pain).
indoles -is, f. (native constitution or quality; nature, disposition, character, talents).
indolesco -dolescere -dolui, (to be pained or grieved (at)).
indomitus -a -um, (untamed, wild).
indormio -ire -ivi -itum, (to sleep on or over; to be negligent about), with dat. or 'in'.
indotatus -a -um, (without dowry); 'corpora', (without funeral honors); 'ars', (unadorned, poor).
indu, archaic form of in; q.v.
indubitatus -a -um, (undoubted, certain).
indubito -are, (to feel doubt of) with dat.
indubius -a -um, (not doubtful, certain).
induciae, = indutiae; q.v.
induco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (1) (to draw over, spread over) so as to cover; also (to cover) one thing with, another; (to put on)
clothing or arms; (to erase) writing, and hence (to, revoke, make invalid). (2) (to lead or bring in, to introduce; to enter in an,
account-book; to lead on, induce, persuade); with animum, or in animum, (to, decide) to do, or (decide that) a thing is so.
inductio -onis, f. (leading or bringing in, introduction);'animi', (resolve, intention);, 'erroris', (mislea

ding); in logic, (induction).
inductu, abl. sing. m., (by instigation).
indulgentia -ae, f. (tenderness, indulgence).
indulgeo -dulgere -dulsi, intransit. (to be forbearing, patient, indulgent); fig., (to give oneself up, to, indulge in); transit. (to grant,
allow, concede). Hence partic. indulgens, -entis, (kind, tender, indulgent); adv. indulgenter.
induo -duere -dui -dutum, (to put on), esp. of dress. Transf., (to clothe, surround, cover; to put on, assume, take up, engage in); 'se',
with dat. or 'in', (to fall into, fall on;, to entangle).
induresco -durescere -durui, (to become hard or firm).
induro -are, (to make hard or firm).
industria -ae, f. (industry, diligence); 'de (or ex) industria', (on purpose, intentionally).
industrius -a -um, (diligent, painstaking, industrious); adv. industrie.
indutiae -arum, f. pl. (truce, armistice, suspension of hostilities).
indutus -us, m. (a putting on, clothing).
inebrio -are, (to intoxicate; to saturate).
inedia -ae, f. (fasting, abstinence from food).
ineditus -a -um, (not published, unknown).
inelegans -antis, (not choice, tasteless); adv. ineleganter.
ineluctabilis -e, (from which one cannot struggle free).
inemorior -emori, dep. (to die in or at).
inemptus -a -um, (unbought).
inenarrabilis -e, (indescribable, inexpressible); adv. inenarrabiliter.
inenodabilis -e, (inextricable, inexplicable).
ineo -ire -ii -itum, intransit. (to go or come in, to enter); of time, (to begin, commence);, transit. (to go or come into; to enter upon,
start, begin); 'consilium', (to, form a plan); 'numerum', 'rationem', (to go into figures, make a, calculation).
ineptia -ae, f. (foolish behavior, silliness, absurdity).
ineptio -ire, (to talk foolishly).
ineptus -a -um, (unsuitable, tasteless, silly); adv. inepte.
inermis -e, (unarmed, defenseless, helpless).
inermus -a -um, (unarmed, defenseless, helpless).
inerrans -antis, (not wandering, fixed).
inerro -are, (to rove about in).
iners -ertis, (untrained, unskillful; inactive, lazy, idle, calm; cowardly; ineffective, dull, insipid).
inertia -ae, f. (unskillfulness; idleness).
ineruditus -a -um, (illiterate, ignorant).
inesco -are, (to allure, entice, deceive).
inevitabilis -e, (unavoidable).
inexcitus -a -um, (unmoved, quiet).
inexcusabilis -e, (without excuse; inexcusable).
inexercitatus -a -um, (untrained, unpracticed).
inexhaustus -a -um, (unexhausted).
inexorabilis -e, (not to be moved by entreaty, stern, severe).
inexperrectus -a -um, (not awakened).
inexpertus -a -um, act. (inexperienced in, unacquainted with); pass., (untried, untested, unattempted).
inexpiabilis -e, (inexpiable; implacable, irreconcilable).
inexplebilis -e, (insatiable).
inexpletus -a -um, (unfilled, insatiate).
inexplicabilis -e, (that cannot be untied; intricate, difficult; inexplicable, beyond, explanation; inconclusive, without result).
inexploratus -a -um, (unexplored, uninvestigated); abl., inexplorato, (without reconnoitering).
inexpugnabilis -e, (unconquerable, impregnable).
inexspectatus -a -um, (unlooked-for, unexpected).
inexstinctus -a -um, (unextinguished, inextinguishable).

inexsuperabilis -e, (insurmountable).
inextricabilis -e, (that cannot be disentangled or unravelled).
infabre, (unskillfully).
infabricatus -a -um, (unwrought, unfashioned).
infacetiae (infic-) -arum, f. pl. (crudity).
infacetus and inficetus -a -um, (dull, crude, without humor or wit); adv. infacete (infic-).
infacundus -a -um, (not eloquent).
infamia -ae, f. (dishonor, disgrace); also (a cause of disgrace).
infamis -e, (disgraced, disreputable).
infamo -are, (to put to shame, disgrace).
infandus -a -um, (unutterable, abominable).
infans -fantis, (speechless, unable to speak); esp. of children; as subst., (a little child)., Transf., (tongue-tied, embarrassed; youthful,
fresh; childish, silly).
infantia -ae, f. (inability to speak; slowness of speech; infancy).
infarcio (infercio) -ire, (to stuff in, cram in).
infatuo -are, (to make a fool of).
infaustus -a -um, (unlucky, unfortunate).
infector -oris, m. (a dyer).
infectus (1) -a -um, (unworked, unwrought; not done, unfinished, incomplete); 'reddere infectum', (to make void, revoke;
impracticable, impossible).
infectus (2), partic. from inficio; q.v.
infecunditas -atis, f. (barrenness, sterility).
infecundus -a -um, (barren, sterile).
infelicitas -atis, f. (ill-luck, misfortune).
infelix -icis, (unfruitful, barren); 'arbor', (the gallows). Transf., (unhappy, unlucky);, act. sense, (causing unhappiness). Adv. infeliciter,
infenso -are, (to attack, ravage).
infensus -a -um, (hostile, aggressive); of weapons, (aimed, ready); in spirit, (embittered, dangerous).
infer -a -um, inferi -orum; see inferus.
inferiae -arum, f. (offerings in honor of the dead).
infercio, see infarcio.
inferior, inferius; see infra and inferus.
inferne, (on the lower side, beneath).
infernus -a -um, (below, coming from below; of the lower world, infernal). As subst., m. pl., inferni, (the shades); n. pl. inferna, (the
lower world).
infero inferre intuli inlatum, (to carry in, to put or place on); 'templis ignes inferre', (to set fire to);, milit., 'signa in hostem', (to
attack, charge); 'bellum', with dat., (to make, war on); 'se inferre', and pass. 'inferri', (to betake oneself, to go); of, abstract things, (to
bring on, introduce, occasion); in accounts, (to enter);, in logic, (to infer, conclude).
inferus -a -um, (below, lower, southern; of the lower world).M. pl. as subst. inferi -orum, (the dead, the lower world). Compar.
inferior -ius, (lower) 'ex inferiore loco, dicere', (to speak from the body of the court); of time, (later, junior); of, number, rank, etc.
(lower, inferior). Superl. (1) infimus (infumus) -a -um, (lowest); 'ab infima ara', (from the bottom of the altar); of rank, etc., (lowest,
meanest).Superl.(2) imus -a -um, (lowest) n. as subst. (the bottom);, of tone, (deepest, lowest); of time, (last); n. as subst., (the end).
infervesco -fervescere -ferbui, (to begin to boil, grow hot).
infesto -are, (to attack, disquiet).
infestus -a -um, act. (aggressive, hostile, dangerous); pass. (infested, beset, unsafe). Adv., infeste, (in a hostile manner).
inficetus, inficete; see infacetus, infacete.
inficio -ficere -feci -fectum, (1) (to tinge, dye, stain; to steep, imbue). (2) (to poison, taint, corrupt).
infidelis -e, (untrue, disloyal, faithless); adv. infideliter.
infidelitas -atis, f. (disloyalty).
infidus -a -um, (untrue, disloyal).

infigo -figere -fixi -fixum, (to fix, fasten or thrust in; to imprint, impress).
infimus -a -um, superl. of inferus; q.v.
infindo -findere -fidi -fissum, (to cut into).
infinitas -atis, f. (infinity, endlessness).
infinitio -onis, f. (infinity).
infinitus -a -um, (infinite, unbounded, immense); n. as subst., (infinite space); of time, (endless, unceasing); of number, (countless);
also (indefinite, general). Adv., infinite, (infinitely, endlessly).
infirmatio -onis, f. (weakening; refuting, invalidating).
infirmitas -atis, f. (weakness, feebleness; instability, fickleness).
infirmo -are, (to weaken, impair, shake; to refute; to annul).
infirmus -a -um, (weak, feeble; timorous). Adv. infirme, (weakly, faintly).
infit, defective, (he (or she) begins); esp. (begins to speak).
infitialis -e, (negative, containing a denial).
infitias ire, (to deny).
infitiatio -onis, f. (denying).
infitiator -oris, m. (a denier); esp.(one who denies a debt or deposit).
infitior -ari, dep. (to deny); esp. (to deny a debt, refuse to restore a deposit).
inflammatio -onis, f. (setting fire); 'animorum', (inspiration).
inflammo -are, (to kindle, set fire to; to inflame, excite).
inflatio -onis, f. (inflation, flatulence).
inflatus -us, m. (a blowing into, blast; inspiration).
inflecto -flectere -flexi -flexum, (to bend, bow, curve). Transf., (to warp, change; to sway, affect; to modulate, the voice).
infletus -a -um, (unwept, unlamented).
inflexio -onis, f. (bending, swaying).
inflexus -us, m. (bending, curving).
infligo -fligere -flixi -flictum, (to strike, knock, dash against; to inflict a blow, cause damage).
inflo -are, (to blow into; to play on wind instruments; to give a blast; to blow out, puff, out). Transf., (to inspire; to puff up, elate).
Hence partic. inflatus -a -um, (inflated, swollen; puffed up, pompous); of style, (turgid). Compar. adv., inflatius, (too pompously, on a
grander scale).
influo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, (to flow in). Transf. (to steal in, to stream in, to rush in).
infodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, (to dig in, bury).
informatio -onis, f. (conception, idea).
informis -e, (formless, shapeless; deformed, hideous).
informo -are, (to give form to, to shape, fashion); mentally, (to form, dispose; to form an, idea or conception of).
infortunatus -a -um, (unfortunate, miserable).
infortunium -i, n. (misfortune, ill luck; punishment).
infra, Prep. with acc., (below, under), in position, size, or rank; in time, (later, than). Adv. (below, underneath; in the lower world; to
the south); in rank, (lower). Compar. inferius, (lower down).
infractio -onis, f. (breaking); 'animi', (dejection).
infragilis -e, (unbreakable, strong).
infremo -fremere -fremui, (to growl).
infrenatus -a -um, (without bridle); see also infreno.
infrendeo -ere, (to gnash with the teeth).
infrenis -e, (without bridle, unbridled).
infrenus -a -um, (without bridle, unbridled).
infreno -are, (to bridle, rein in; to restrain, check).
infrequens -entis, (scanty, thin, now crowded); of places, (not full, scantily populated); of, time, (infrequent); of persons, (not doing a
thing often).
infrequentia -ae, f. (fewness, scantiness, thinness); of places, (emptiness, loneliness).
infringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, (to break; to weaken, impair, discourage). Hence partic. infractus -a -um, (broken, weakened,
infrons -frondis, (leafless).

infructuosus -a -um, (unfruitful, unproductive).
infucatus -a -um, (colored).
infula -ae, f. (a band, bandage); esp. (a fillet, a headband worn by priests, suppliants, etc.).
infundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, (to pour in or on); with dat., (to pour out for), hence (to administer); 'se, infundere', or pass. infundi,
(to pour over).
infusco -are, (to make dark, blacken; to disfigure, stain).
ingemino -are, transit. (to redouble, repeat); intransit. (to be redoubled, to increase).
ingemisco -gemiscere (-escere) -gemui, (to sigh or groan over).
ingemo -ere, (to sigh or groan over) (with dat.).
ingenero -are, (to implant, generate).
ingeniosus -a -um, (talented, able); of things, (requiring talent or naturally fit, adapted)., Adv. ingeniose, (cleverly).
ingenium -i, n. (nature, natural quality, constitution, character), esp. (mental power, ability, genius); meton., (a man of genius, or a
clever invention).
ingens -entis, (monstrous, vast, enormous).
ingenuitas -atis, f. (free birth; noble-mindedness, uprightness, frankness).
ingenuus -a -um, (native, natural, innate; free-born, of free birth, worthy of a free man, noble, honorable, frank). Adv. ingenue.
ingero -gerere -gessi -gestum, (to carry or put in or upon; to press upon, force upon); of abuse, (to heap, on) a person.
ingigno, only in perf. indic. ingenui, (I implanted), and perf. partic. ingenitus -a, -um, (implanted).
inglorius -a -um, (without fame, inglorious, undistinguished).
ingluvies -ei, f. (crop, maw); meton., (gluttony).
ingratiis or ingratis, (unwillingly).
ingratus -a -um, (1) (unpleasant, unpleasing). (2) (unthankful, unrewarding). Adv. ingrate, (unwillingly; ungratefully).
ingravesco -ere, (to become heavy; to become a burden, or become weary); poet., (to become, pregnant).
ingravo -are, (to weigh down; to aggravate).
ingredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to step in, enter, go in; to walk). Transf., (to enter upon, begin on);, with infin., (to begin to).
ingressio -onis, f. (an entering, going in; walking, gait, pace). Transf., (beginning).
ingressus -us, m. (going in, entering, entry); milit., (an inroad; walking, stepping, movement). Transf., (beginning).
ingruo -uere -ui, (to fall upon, assail, attack).
inguen -guinis, n. (the groin).
ingurgito -are, with reflex., (to plunge oneself, or to glut, gorge oneself, gormandize).
ingustatus -a -um, (untasted).
inhabilis -e, (unmanageable; unfit, ill-adapted).
inhabitabilis -e, (uninhabitable).
inhabito -are, (to inhabit).
inhaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum, (to stick in, cling to, cleave to).
inhaeresco -haerescere -haesi -haesum, (to adhere to, begin to cling to).
inhalo -are, (to breathe upon).
inhibeo -ere -ui -itum, (1) (to hold in, check, restrain); naut., 'inhibere remis, navem retro, inhibere', (to back water). (2) (to practice,
use, employ).
inhibitio -onis, f. (restraining); 'remigum', (backing water).
inhio -are, (to gape); hence (to covet, desire, long for).
inhonesto -are, (to disgrace).
inhonestus -a -um, morally, (degraded, dishonored); of things, (dishonorable, shameful);, physically, (ugly, unsightly). Adv. inhoneste,
inhonoratus -a -um, (not honored; unrewarded).
inhonorus -a -um, (dishonored).
inhorreo -ere, (to bristle).
inhorresco -horrescere -horrui, (to begin to bristle, to bristle up; to shudder, quiver), esp. from fright.

inhospitalis -e, (inhospitable).
inhospitalitas -atis, f. (want of hospitality).
inhospitus -a -um, (inhospitable).
inhumanitas -atis, f. (cruelty, inhumanity; incivility, discourtesy; stinginess, niggardliness).
inhumanus -a -um, (cruel, barbarous, inhuman; rude, uncivil; uncivilized). Adv. inhumane, (inhumanly); inhumaniter, (uncivilly).
inhumatus -a -um, (unburied).
inibi, adv. (therein, in that place); of time, (near at hand).
inicio -icere -ieci -iectum, (1) (to throw in, put in or into). Transf., (to cause, inspire, occasion); in, conversation, (to throw in). (2) (to
throw on or over); 'manum inicere', (to, lay hands on, appropriate, take possession of). Transf., (to impose, lay on).
iniectio -onis, f. (laying on).
iniectus -us, m. (throwing on or over).
inimicitia -ae, f. (enmity).
inimico -are, (to make hostile, set at variance).
inimicus -a -um, (unfriendly, adverse, hostile); of things, (hurtful, prejudicial); m. or f., subst. (enemy, foe). Adv. inimice, (in an
unfriendly manner).
iniquitas -atis, f. (unevenness; unfavorableness, difficulty; unfairness, injustice, unreasonableness).
iniquus -a -um, (uneven, unequal). Transf., of things, (excessive, unbalanced, adverse, disadvantageous); of contests, (ill-matched); of
terms, (unfair, unfavorable;, perverse, disgruntled); 'animo iniquo ferre', (to take badly); m. pl. as, subst. (enemies). Adv. inique,
(unequally; unfairly, adversely).
initio -are, (to initiate).
initium -i, n. (a beginning); 'ab initio', (from the start); initio, (at the start)., Transf., in plur. (elements, first principles; auspices; the
beginning of a, reign; a secret worship, mysteries).
initus -us, m. (an entrance; a beginning).
iniucunditas -atis, f. (unpleasantness).
iniucundus -a -um, (unpleasant). Compar. adv. iniucundius.
iniudicatus -a -um, (undecided).
iniungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, (to join, attach, fasten to; to inflict upon, bring upon).
iniuratus -a -um, (unsworn).
iniuria -ae, f. (injury, injustice, wrong); iniuria, (wrongly). Transf., (a possession, wrongfully obtained; revenge for an affront).
iniuriosus -a -um, (doing wrong, unjust; harmful). Adv. iniuriose, (wrongfully).
iniurius -a -um, (wrongful, unjust).
iniussu, abl. sing. m. (without orders).
iniussus -a -um, (unbidden, spontaneous).
iniustitia -ae, f. (injustice; severity).
iniustus -a -um, (unfair, unjust; harsh, oppressive); n. as subst. (injustice). Adv. iniuste.
inlabefactus -a -um, (unshaken, firm).
inlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (to glide into, fall into or upon).
inlaboro -are, (to labor at).
inlacessitus -a -um, (unattacked, unprovoked).
inlacrimabilis -e, (unwept; not to be moved by tears, pitiless).
inlacrimo -are and inlacrimor -ari, dep. (to weep over, bewail).
inlaesus -a -um, (unhurt, uninjured).
inlaetabilis -e, (gloomy, cheerless).
inlaqueo -are, (to entrap, ensnare).
inlaudatus -a -um, (unpraised, obscure; not to be praised, bad).
inlautus, see inlotus.
inlecebra -ae, f. (allurement, attraction, charm; a decoy bird).
inlecebrosus -a -um, (attractive, enticing); adv. inlecebrose.
inlectus (1) -a -um, (unread).
inlectus (2) -us, m. (enticement).
inlectus (3) -a -um, partic. of inlicio; q.v.

inlepidus -a -um, (inelegant, rude, unmannerly); adv. inlepide.
inlex (1) -licis, c. (a decoy, lure).
inlex (2) -legis, (lawless).
inlibatus -a -um, (undiminished, unimpaired).
inliberalis -e, (unworthy of a free man, ungenerous, sordid, mean); adv. inliberaliter.
inliberalitas -atis, f. (stinginess, meanness).
inlicio -licere -lexi -lectum, (to entice, allure, decoy).
inlicitator -oris, m. (a sham bidder at an auction, a puffer).
inlicitus -a -um, (not allowed, illegal).
inlido -lidere -lisi -lisum, (to strike, beat, dash against).
inligo -are, (to bind, tie, fasten, attach, connect; to entangle, impede).
inlimis -e, (free from mud, clean).
inlino -linere -levi -litum, (to smear, daub; to spread something on a surface or to spread a surface with, something).
inliquefactus -a -um, (molten, liquefied).
inlitteratus -a -um, (ignorant, illiterate).
inlotus (-lautus, -lutus) -a -um, (unwashed, unclean).
inlucesco (-isco) -lucescere -luxi, (to become light, begin to shine); inlucescit, (it grows light, is daylight).
inludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, (to play with, sport with; to mock, laugh at, ridicule; to maltreat).
inlumino -are, (to light up, illuminate; to make clear, set off, adorn). Adv. inluminate, (luminously, clearly).
inlusio -onis, f. (irony).
inlustris -e, (light, bright, brilliant; clear, plain, evident; distinguished, famous)., Compar. adv. inlustrius, (more clearly, more
inlustro -are, (to light up, make bright; to bring to light, make clear; to make illustrious, do honor to).
inluvies -ei, f. (inundation, flood; mud, dirt).
inm-, see imm-.
innabilis -e, (that cannot be swum in).
innascor -nasci -natus, dep. (to be born in, arise in or upon). Hence partic. innatus -a -um, (innate, inborn).
innato -are, (to swim into; to swim or float in or upon).
innecto -nectere -nexui -nexum, (to tie in, fasten, weave together); fig., (to put together, connect, entangle, implicate).
innitor -niti -nixus, dep. (to lean upon, support oneself by).
inno -nare, (to swim in or on; to flow over; to sail over, navigate).
innocens -entis, (harmless, inoffensive, blameless); adv. innocenter.
innocentia -ae, f. (harmlessness, innocence, integrity).
innocuus -a -um, act. (innocuous, harmless, blameless); pass. (unhurt, unharmed). Adv. innocue, (harmlessly).
innotesco -notescere -notui, (to become known or noted).
innovo -are, (to make new, renew).
innoxius -a -um, act. (harmless, innocent); pass. (unhurt, unharmed).
innuba -ae, (unmarried, without a husband).
innubilus -a -um, (unclouded, clear).
innubo -nubere -nupsi -nuptum, (to marry into).
innumerabilis -e, (countless, innumerable); adv. innumerabiliter.
innumerabilitas -atis, f. (an infinite number).
innumeralis -e, (countless, innumerable).
innumerus -a -um, (countless, innumerable).
innuo -nuere -nui -nutum, (to give a nod to, make a sign to).
innupta -ae, (unmarried); as subst. (a maiden).
innutrio -ire, (to bring up in or among).
inoblitus -a -um, (mindful).
inobrutus -a -um, (not overwhelmed).

inobservabilis -e, (imperceptible).
inobservantia -ae, f. (negligence, carelessness).
inobservatus -a -um, (unperceived).
inocciduus -a -um, (never setting).
inoffensus -a -um, (not struck, not stumbling; unhindered, unobstructed).
inofficiosus -a -um, (undutiful, disobliging).
inolens -entis, (without smell).
inolesco -olescere -olevi, (to grow in or on).
inominatus -a -um, (inauspicious, unlucky).
inopia -ae, f. (want of means, need, poverty; helplessness).
inopinans -antis, (not expecting, unawares); adv. inopinanter.
inopinatus -a -um, pass. (unexpected, unlooked for); '(ex) inopinato', (unexpectedly); act. (not, expecting).
inopinus -a -um, (unexpected, unlooked for).
inops -opis, (poor, helpless, in need); of language, (weak, poor).
inoratus -a -um, (not brought forward and heard).
inordinatus -a -um, (disorderly, in confusion); n. as subst. (disorder).
inornatus -a -um, (unadorned, plain; unpraised, uncelebrated).
inp-, see imp-.
inquam inquis inquit, etc.; perf. inquii; (say).
inquies -etis, (unquiet, restless).
inquieto -are, (to disturb).
inquietus -a -um, (unquiet, restless).
inquilinus -i, m. (tenant, lodger).
inquino -are, (to befoul, pollute, stain, corrupt). Hence partic. inquinatus -a -um, (dirty, foul, polluted); adv. inquinate.
inquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, (to search for; to investigate, inquire into); legal, (to search for evidence), against anyone.
inquisitio -onis, f. (looking for, search); esp. (search for evidence against; a looking into, investigation, inquiry).
inquisitor -oris, m. (an inquirer; investigator); legal, (one who searches for evidence to, support an accusation).
inrasus -a -um, (unshaved).
inraucesco -raucescere -rausi, (to become hoarse).
inreligatus -a -um, (unbound).
inreligiosus -a -um, (irreligious, impious); adv. inreligiose.
inremeabilis -e, (from which there is no return).
inreparabilis -e, (that cannot be restored, irrecoverable).
inrepertus -a -um, (not discovered).
inrepo -repere -repsi -reptum, (to creep, crawl in; to insinuate oneself).
inreprehensus -a -um, (unblamed, blameless).
inrequietus -a -um, (restless, troubled).
inresectus -a -um, (not cut, uncut).
inresolutus -a -um, (not loosed, not slackened).
inretio -ire, (to catch in a net, entangle).
inretortus -a -um, (not turned or twisted back).
inreverens -entis, (disrespectful); adv. inreverenter.
inreverentia -ae, f. (want of respect, irreverence).
inrevocabilis -e, (that cannot be called back, irrevocable; unalterable, implacable).
inrevocatus -a -um, (not called back).
inrideo -ridere -risi -risum, (to laugh at, mock, ridicule).
inridicule, (without wit or humor).
inridiculo, predicative dat., (for a laughing-stock).
inrigatio -onis, f. (watering, irrigation).

inrigo -are, (to conduct any liquid, to diffuse; to water, irrigate, inundate, flood, over).
inriguus -a -um, act. (watering, irrigating; refreshing); pass. (watered, soaked).
inrisio -onis, f. (laughing at, mocking, derision).
inrisor -oris, m. (a laugher, mocker, derider).
inrisus -us, m. (laughter, mockery, derision); dat. inrisui, (for a laughing-stock).
inritabilis -e, (irritable, easily roused).
inritamen -inis, n. (incitement, inducement).
inritamentum -i, n. (incitement, incentive).
inritatio -onis, f. (stirring up, provoking, incitement).
inrito -are, (to stir up, stimulate, incite, excite).
inritus -a -um, (void, invalid; vain, ineffectual, useless).
inrogatio -onis, f. (the imposing of a fine or penalty).
inrogo -are, (to propose a measure) against anyone; (to inflict, impose).
inroro -are, (to moisten (with dew); to trickle down upon).
inrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, (to break in, burst in, rush in).
inruo -ruere -rui, transit. (to fling in); intransit. (to rush in).
inruptio -onis, f. (bursting in, irruption).
inruptus -a -um, (unbroken, unsevered).
insalubris -e, (unhealthy).
insalutatus -a -um, (ungreeted).
insanabilis -e, (incurable).
insania -ae, f. (madness, frenzy, senseless excess, extravagance; poetical rapture or, inspiration).
insanio -ire, (to be mad, rage, rave; to be inspired).
insanitas -atis, f. (disease, unsoundness).
insanus -a -um, (of unsound mind, mad, raving, senseless); of poets, (inspired); of things, (raging, stormy). Adv. insane, (madly).
insatiabilis -e, pass. (insatiable); act. (that does not satiate, uncloying). Adv., insatiabiliter.
insaturabilis -e, pass. (insatiable); act. (that does not satiate, uncloying). Adv., insaturabiliter.
inscendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, (to climb on, ascend, mount).
insciens -entis, (not knowing, unaware); in gen., (ignorant). Adv. inscienter.
inscientia -ae, f. (ignorance, inexperience).
inscitia -ae, f. (inexperience, want of skill, ignorance).
inscitus -a -um, (ignorant, unskillful, stupid). Adv. inscite.
inscius -a -um, (ignorant, unskillful).
inscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, (to write in or on, inscribe; to mark, impress; to entitle, mark as, something;to ascribe, mark as
belonging to).
inscriptio -onis, f. (writing in or upon).
inscriptus (1) -a -um, (unwritten).
inscriptus (2) -a -um, partic. from inscribo; q.v.
insculpo -sculpere -sculpsi -sculptum, (to cut or carve in, engrave). Transf. (to impress).
inseco -secare -secui -sectum, (to cut into, notch).
insectatio -onis, f. (close following, hot pursuit). Transf., (abuse).
insectator -oris, m. (pursuer, persecutor).
insecto -are and insector -ari, dep. (to follow closely, pursue, harry; to harry with abuse, rail at, reproach).
insedabiliter, (incessantly).
insenesco -senescere -senui, (to grow old at or among).
insensilis -e, (without sensation).
insepultus -a -um, (unburied).
insequor -sequi -secutus, dep. (to follow after, follow on); in time, (to succeed; to pursue a subject;, to pursue a person, censure,
reproach); in gen., (to attack, assail).
insero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, (to graft in, implant). Hence partic. insitus -a -um, (implanted, innate, incorporated).
insero (2) -serere -serui -sertum, (to let in, introduce, insert); in gen., (to connect, put in or among).
inserto -are, (to insert, put into).

inservio -ire, (to be a slave, to serve; to be devoted to).
insibilo -are, (to hiss, whistle in).
insideo -ere, (to sit in or on; to dwell, remain).
insidiae -arum, f. pl. (an ambush; a trap, plot).
insidiator -oris, m. (a man in ambush; a spy, waylayer).
insidior -ari, dep. (to lie in ambush, lie in wait; to plot against, watch for).
insidiosus -a -um, (deceitful, treacherous); adv. insidiose.
insido -sidere -sedi -sessum, (to sit, settle, perch upon); milit., (to occupy, beset); of ideas, etc., (to, sink in).
insigne -is, n. (a distinguishing mark, token; badge, decoration, medal); pl. as abstr., (distinctions, beauties).
insignio -ire, (to mark, distinguish). Hence partic. insignitus -a -um, (marked; conspicuous, clear); adv. insignite, (remarkably).
insignis -e, (distinguished, remarkable, extraordinary); adv. insigniter.
insilia, n. pl. (the treadles of a loom), or perhaps (leash-rods).
insilio -silire -silui, (to leap, spring, jump in or on).
insimulatio -onis, f. (accusation, charge).
insimulo -are, (to charge, accuse), esp. falsely.
insincerus -a -um, (tainted).
insinuatio -onis, f. rhet. t.t., (gaining the favor of the audience).
insinuo -are, (to introduce by turning, to insinuate); with (and occasionally without), reflex., (to penetrate, work one's way in).
insipiens -entis, (foolish); adv. insipienter.
insipientia -ae, f. (foolishness).
insisto -sistere -stiti, (1) (to set foot on, tread on; to enter on) a journey, road, etc.; (to set, about) a task; with dat., (to follow hard
upon, pursue). (2) (to stand still, in or on; to halt, stop, pause; to hesitate, doubt; to dwell upon a subject;, to persist in a course).
insitio -onis, f. (grafting).
insitivus -a -um, (grafted; spurious).
insitor -oris, m. (a grafter).
insitus -a -um, partic. from insero; q.v.
insociabilis -e, (unable to combine).
insolabiliter, (inconsolably).
insolens -entis, (contrary to custom). Hence (1) (unaccustomed, unused). (2) (unusual, excessive, extravagant; arrogant, insolent). Adv.
insolenter, (unusually, contrary to custom; excessively, extravagantly; haughtily, arrogantly).
insolentia -ae, f. (1) (inexperience). (2) (unusual character, novelty, extravagance, excess;, pride, arrogance).
insolesco -escere, (to become haughty or insolent).
insolidus -a -um, (soft, tender).
insolitus -a -um, (1) (unaccustomed). (2) (unusual, strange, uncommon).
insomnia -ae, f. (sleeplessness, loss of sleep).
insomnis -e, (sleepless, without sleep).
insomnium -i, n. (a bad dream).
insono -sonare -sonui, (to make a noise in or with; to sound, resound).
insons -sontis, (innocent, guiltless, harmless).
insopitus -a -um, (unsleeping, watchful).
inspectio -onis, f. (scrutiny, consideration).
inspecto -are, (to look at, observe).
insperans -antis, (not hoping, not expecting).
insperatus -a -um, (unhoped-for, unexpected).
inspergo -spergere -spersi -spersum, (to sprinkle in or on).
inspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, (1) (to look into, see into). (2) (to view, examine, inspect; to consider).
inspico -are, (to sharpen to a point).

inspiro -are, (to breathe upon, blow upon, inspire).
inspoliatus -a -um, (not plundered).
instabilis -e, (1) (unstable, unsteady, inconstant). (2) (not supporting, insecure).
instans -antis and instanter, from insto; q.v.
instantia -ae, f. (presence; perseverance).
instar, n. (only nom. and acc. sing.), (an image, likeness); usually with genit., in, the sense (corresponding to, like).
instauratio -onis, f. (repetition, renewal).
instaurativus -a -um, (renewed, repeated).
instauro -are, (1) (to set up, establish). (2) (to renew, restore); hence (to repay, requite).
insterno -sternere -stravi -stratum, (to spread over, cover over); 'equus instratus', (saddled).
instigator -oris, m. (an instigator).
instigatrix -tricis, f. (an instigator).
instigo -are, (to goad, incite, stimulate).
instillo -are, (to drop in, pour in by drops, instil).
instimulator -oris, m. (an instigator).
instimulo -are, (to incite).
instinctor -oris, m. (an instigator).
instinctu, abl. sing. m. (by instigation).
instinctus -a -um, (instigated, incited, impelled).
instita -ae, f. (border or flounce on a robe).
institio -onis, f. (standing still).
institor -oris, m. (a hawker, peddler).
instituo -uere -ui -utum, (to put in place, set in order; to set up, make ready, build, construct);, abstr. (to establish, introduce,
arrange; to settle on a course, to undertake, resolve, determine; to appoint a person; to instruct, educate, train).
institutio -onis, f. (arrangement; regular method; education, training).
institutum -i, n. (an undertaking, purpose; an arrangement, institution, plan; an, instruction, precept).
insto -stare -steti, (1) (to stand in or on). (2) (to be close to, follow closely, pursue eagerly;, to devote oneself, persist, persevere; to
insist, ask pressingly); of time and, events, (to approach, impend). Hence partic. instans -antis, (present;, pressing, urgent); adv.
instanter, (urgently).
instrenuus -a -um, (inactive, lazy).
instrepo -ere -ui -itum, (to rattle, clatter, creak).
instructio -onis, f. (drawing up in order).
instructor -oris, m. (a preparer).
instructus -us, m. (provision; matter (in a speech)).
instrumentum -i, n. (equipment, tool, implement; dress; store, stock; any means to an end).
instruo -struere -struxi -structum, (to build in or into; to set up, construct; furnish), hence (to train a, person); (to prepare, provide);
milit., (to draw up the order of battle)., Hence partic. instructus -a -um, (equipped, supplied); of persons, (trained, instructed).
insuavis -e, (unpleasant, disagreeable).
Insubres -ium, (the Insubrians, a people in Cisalpine Gaul); as adj. Insuber -bris -bre, (Insubrian).
insudo -are, (to sweat in or at).
insuefactus -a -um, (accustomed to).
insuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum, intransit. (to become used to); transit. (to accustom, habituate anyone to).
insuetus (1) -a -um, of persons, (unaccustomed, unused to); of things, (unaccustomed, unusual).
insuetus (2) -a -um, partic. from insuesco; q.v.
insula -ae, f. (an island). Transf., (a detached house or block of flats).
insulanus -i, m. (an islander).
insulsitas -atis, f. (tastelessness, absurdity).
insulsus -a -um, (unsalted, insipid; tasteless, foolish); adv. insulse.
insulto -are, (to leap, prance in or on; to triumph over, insult).
insum -esse -fui, (to be in or on; to be contained in, belong to).

insumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, (to take for a purpose, to expend).
insuo -suere -sutum, (to sew in, sew up).
insuper, adv. (above, overhead; over and above, in addition, besides); prep., with, abl., (besides).
insuperabilis -e, (insurmountable, impassable; unconquerable).
insurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, (to rise up, raise oneself up; to increase in power or force); with dat. (to, rise up against).
insusurro -are, (to whisper, whisper in the ear).
intabesco -tabescere -tabui, (to melt or wither away gradually).
intactilis -e, (that cannot be touched).
intactus (1) -a -um, (untouched; untried, unspoilt, unhurt, virgin).
intactus (2) -us, m. (intangibility).
intaminatus -a -um, (unstained).
intectus (1) -a -um, partic. from intego; q.v.
intectus (2) -a -um, (uncovered, unclothed; open, frank).
integellus -a -um, (more or less pure, undamaged).
integer -gra -grum, (1) (complete, whole, entire, intact; fresh, sound, unexhausted); 'in integrum, restituere', (to restore to its former
condition). (2) in quality, (unspoilt, pure, fresh); morally, (innocent, uncorrupted, pure); in thought or feeling, (balanced, unbiased,
impartial); of matters for discussion or action, (unprejudiced, undecided); 'integrum est mihi', (I am at liberty). (3), (renewed, begun
afresh). Hence adv. integre, (wholly; honestly, uprightly, impartially); of style, (purely, correctly)
intego -tegere -texi -tectum, (to cover, protect).
integrasco -ere, (to break out afresh).
integratio -onis, f. (renewing).
integritas -atis, f. (unimpaired condition, soundness, health; uprightness, integrity); of, style, (purity, correctness).
integro -are, (to make whole, heal, refresh; to renew, begin afresh).
integumentum -i, n. (a covering, cloak, disguise).
intellectus -us, m. (understanding, comprehension).
intellegentia -ae, f. (perception; understanding, knowledge, taste; capacity, for understanding, intelligence).
intellego -legere -lexi -lectum, (to discern, perceive; to understand, grasp; to understand character, judge, appreciate; to understand
a term, take as its meaning). Hence partic., intellegens -entis, (intelligent, understanding; having good sense or taste)., Adv.
intemeratus -a -um, (unspotted, undefiled).
intemperans -antis, (extravagant, unrestrained, intemperate); adv. intemperanter.
intemperantia -ae, f. (want of restraint, extravagance, excess).
intemperatus -a -um, (intemperate, immoderate); adv. intemperate.
intemperies -ei, f. (wildness, lack of restraint, excess).
intempestivus -a -um, (unseasonable, untimely; immoderate). Adv. intempestive, (unseasonably).
intempestus -a -um, (unwholesome, unhealthy); 'intempesta nox', (the dead of night).
intemptatus -a -um, (untried).
intendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, (1) (to stretch, strain); abstr., (to maintain, try to prove). (2) (to extend, aim, direct); esp. (to direct
one's course; to apply the mind, direct the, thoughts; to intend, aim at). Hence partic. intentus -a -um, (stretched, tense, taut); of
thought or feeling, (anxious, intent); of speech, (earnest);, in gen. (thorough, strict, rigorous). Adv. intente, (earnestly, attentively).
intentatus, (1); see intemptatus.
intentatus, (2) -a -um, partic. from intento; q.v.
intentio -onis, f. (stretching, straining); of the mind, (effort, exertion, attention; an, attack, accusation).
intento -are, (to stretch towards or against, esp. threateningly).
intentus (1) -a -um, partic. from intendo; q.v.
intentus (2) -us, m. (stretching out).
intepesco -tepescere -tepui, (to become lukewarm).
inter, prep. with acc. (between, among, amid; during, in the course of); with, pronouns, 'inter se, inter nos', etc., (between one
another, mutually).

interamenta -orum, n. pl. (woodwork of a ship).
interaresco -ere, (to become dry, decay).
intercalaris -e, (inserted, intercalary).
intercalarius -a -um, (inserted, intercalary).
intercalo -are, (to insert); esp. (to intercalate a day or month in the calendar).
intercapedo -inis, f. (interval, pause, respite).
intercedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (to go between, come between, intervene); legal, (to interpose, stand surety;, to step between,
withstand, protest against).
interceptio -onis, f. (taking away).
interceptor -oris, m. (one who takes away, an embezzler).
intercessio -onis, f. legal, (becoming surety, going bail); polit., (an exercise by the tribunes, of their veto).
intercessor -oris, m. legal, (surety, bail); polit., (one who opposes, an obstructor).
intercido (1) -cidere -cidi, (1) (to fall between, intervene). (2) (to drop out, be lost, be forgotten, perish).
intercido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to cut asunder, to demolish). Hence adv. intercise, (piecemeal).
intercino -ere, (to sing between).
intercipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, (to take by the way, intercept; to embezzle, appropriate); through death, (to, cut off, carry off
prematurely); of roads (to block).
intercludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, (to shut off, block, hinder; to enclose, shut in).
interclusio -onis, f. (stopping or blocking up; parenthesis).
intercolumnium -i, n. (the space between two columns).
intercurro -currere -cucurri -cursum, (to run between, to run through; to intercede; to be among, mingle with; to, hasten in the
intercurso -are, (to run between, run among).
intercursu, abl. sing. m. (by running between, by the interposition).
intercus -cutis, (under the skin); 'aqua', (the dropsy).
interdico -dicere -dixi -dictum, (1) (to stop by interposition, forbid, prohibit); 'interdicere aqua et igni', with dat., (to outlaw). (2) (to
make an injunction, to order).
interdictio -onis, f. (forbidding, prohibition); 'aquae et ignis', (outlawing).
interdictum -i, n. (a prohibition; a praetor's interdict or provisional order).
interdiu (interdius), (in the daytime, by day).
interdo -dare -datum, (to put between or among, distribute).
interductus -us, m. (interpunctuation).
interdum, (sometimes, now and then).
interduo, see interdo.
interea, (meanwhile); sometimes (nevertheless, notwithstanding).
interemptor -oris, m. (a murderer).
intereo -ire -ii -itum, (to be lost, to perish).
interequito -are, (to ride between).
interfatio -onis, f. (speaking between, interruption).
interfatur -fari -fatus, dep. forms, (to speak between, interrupt).
interfectio -onis, f. (slaying).
interfector -oris, m. (murderer).
interfectrix -tricis, f. (murderess).
interficio -ficere -feci -fectum, (to do away with, destroy, put an end to, kill).
interfio -fieri, (to perish).
interfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluctum, (to flow between).
interfodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, (to dig into, pierce).
interfor, see interfatur.
interfugio -fugere, (to flee between).
interfulgens -entis, (shining or gleaming among).
interfusus -a -um, (poured between, flowing between); 'maculis interfusa', (stained here and, there).
interiaceo -ere, (to lie between or among).
interibi, (meanwhile, in the meantime).
intericio -icere -ieci -iectum, (to throw, cast, put among or between); 'anno interiecto', (after an interval,

of a year).
interiectio -onis, f. (interjection or parenthesis).
interiectus -us, m. (throwing between); of time, (an interval).
interim, (meanwhile); sometimes (however).
interimo -imere -emi -emptum, (to take away, destroy, make an end of; to put out of the way, kill).
interior -ius, genit. -oris, (inner, interior; remote from the sea, inland, nearer); in, racing, (on the inside). Transf., (more secret, more
intimate). Superl., intimus -a -um; q.v. Adv. interius, (more inwardly, short, not far enough).
interitio -onis, f. (destruction, ruin).
interitus -us, m. (destruction, ruin).
interiungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, (to join together, connect); also (to unyoke).
interius, see interior.
interlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (to glide, flow between).
interlego -ere, (to pluck here and there).
interlino -linere -levi -litum, (to daub between; to erase, falsify by erasure).
interloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. (to interrupt a person speaking).
interluceo -lucere -luxi, (to shine or gleam between; to be transparent, let light through gaps).
interlunium -i, n. (change of moon, time of new moon).
interluo -luere, (to wash between).
intermenstruus -a -um, (between two months); n. as subst. (the time of the new moon).
interminatus (1) -a -um, (unbounded, boundless).
interminatus (2) -a -um, partic. from interminor; q.v.
interminor -ari, dep. (to threaten, forbid with threats); perf. partic. in pass. sense, (forbidden with threats).
intermisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, (to mix with, intermix).
intermissio -onis, f. (leaving off, interruption).
intermitto -mittere -misi -missum, transit. (to leave a space between, leave free); in space, (to separate, break, off); in time, (to let
pass); in gen., (to discontinue, interrupt); 'vento, intermisso', (the wind having dropped); intransit. (to cease, leave off).
intermorior -mori -mortuus, dep. (to die off, perish suddenly); partic. intermortuus -a -um, (swooning, half-dead); fig., (lifeless).
intermundia -orum, n. pl. (spaces between the worlds).
intermuralis -e, (between walls).
internascor -nasci -natus, dep. (to grow between or among).
internecio -onis, f. (extermination, massacre).
internecivus (-necinus), (murderous, deadly).
interneco -are, (to exterminate).
internecto -ere, (to bind together, bind up).
internodium -i, n. (the space between two knots or joints).
internosco -noscere -novi -notum, (to distinguish between).
internuntia -ae, f. (a female messenger or go-between).
internuntio -are, (to send messengers between parties).
internuntius -i, m. (a messenger, mediator, go-between).
internus -a -um, (inward, internal; domestic, civil).
intero -terere -trivi -tritum, (to rub, crumble, pound in).
interpellatio -onis, f. (interruption).
interpellator -oris, m. (interrupter, disturber).
interpello -are, (to interrupt, disturb, impede, obstruct).
interpolo -are, (to furbish, vamp up; to falsify).
interpono -ponere -posui -positum, (to place between or among, interpose); 'spatio interposito', (after an, interval); 'fidem', (to
pledge one's word); rarely, (to falsify); with, reflex., (to engage in, interfere with).
interpositio -onis, f. (putting in, insertion, introduction); rhet., (parenthesis).
interpositu, abl. sing. m. (by putting between, by interposition).
interpres -pretis, c. (1) (a negotiator, mediator, messenger). (2) (an expounder, explainer;, prophet,

prophetess; interpreter; translator).
interpretatio -onis, f. (explanation, interpretation, translation). Transf., (meaning, signification).
interpretor -ari, dep. (1) (to put an interpretation upon, understand in a certain sense). (2), (to translate).
interpunctio -onis, f. (punctuation).
interpungo -pungere -punxi -punctum, (to punctuate); partic. interpunctus -a -um, (well-divided).
interquiesco -quiescere -quievi -quietum, (to pause between).
interregnum -i, n. (a period between two reigns, interregnum).
interrex -regis, m. (a regent, temporary king or chief magistrate).
interritus -a -um, (undaunted).
interrogatio -onis, f. (questioning, interrogation); esp. legal, (examination of witnesses); in, logic, (an argument, syllogism); gram.,
interrogo -are, (to ask, question, interrogate); esp. (to examine a witness, or to accuse, bring an action against).
interrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, (to break in the middle, sever, interrupt, disturb). Adv. from partic., interrupte, (interruptedly,
intersaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum, (to enclose, hem in, block up).
interscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, (to cut open, cut off, tear apart).
interscribo -ere, (to write between).
intersero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, (to sow or plant between).
intersero (2) -serere -serui, (to put or place between).
interspiratio -onis, f. (breathing between, taking breath).
interstinctus -a -um, (spotted, speckled).
interstinguo -ere, (to extinguish).
interstringo -ere, (to squeeze tight).
intersum -esse -fui, (to be between; to be among, be present at, take part in (with dat.)); in, time, (to intervene); abstr., (to be
between as a difference); rarely (to, differ, be different). Hence impers. interest, (it makes a difference, it, concerns); 'magni (or
multum) mea interest', (it makes a great difference to, me).
intertextus -a -um, (interwoven).
intertrimentum -i, n. (loss, damage).
interturbatio -onis, f. (disturbance, disquiet).
intervallum -i, n. (distance between, interval (of time or space); difference, unlikeness).
intervenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come between, intervene; to interrupt (with dat.); to delay (with acc.)).
interventor -oris, m. (an interrupting visitor).
interventus -us, m. (intervention, interference).
interverto (-vorto) -vertere -verti -versum, (to intercept; to embezzle, purloin; to cheat, rob).
interviso -visere -visi -visum, (to look in at, visit from time to time).
intestabilis -e, (disqualified, dishonored, infamous).
intestatus -a -um, (having made no will, intestate); n. abl. as adv., intestato, (intestate).
intestinus -a -um, (inward, internal); n. as subst., sing. and plur. (the intestines).
intexo -texere -texui -textum, (to weave in, plait in, interweave; to weave around, wind around).
intibum -i, n. (endive, succory).
intimus (intumus) -a -um, superl. (compar. interior; q.v.), (innermost, inmost; most profound, most, secret, intimate); m. as subst. (an
intimate friend). Adv. intime, (intimately; cordially, strongly).
intingo (-tinguo) -tingere -tinxi -tinctum, (to dip in).
intolerabilis -e, (unbearable, intolerable).
intolerandus -a -um, (unbearable, unendurable).
intolerans -antis, act. (impatient, unable to bear); pass. (unbearable, intolerable). Adv., intoleranter, (immoderately, impatiently).
intolerantia -ae, f. (insufferable conduct, insolence).
intono -tonare -tonui, (to thunder, thunder forth) (esp. of speakers).
intonsus -a -um, (unshorn, with long hair or beard); hence of persons, (rude, rough); of, country, (wooded, not cleared).

intorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, (to twist or turn round); of weapons, (to hurl); partic. intortus -a -um, (twisted, tangled).
intra, adv., (inside); prep. with acc., (inside, within, less than, short of).
intrabilis -e, (that can be entered, accessible).
intractabilis -e, (unmanageable, intractable).
intractatus -a -um, (not handled, unattempted).
intremisco -tremiscere -tremui, (to begin to tremble).
intremo -ere, (to tremble, quake).
intrepidus -a -um, (unconfused, calm); adv. intrepide, (calmly).
intrico -are, (to confuse, entangle).
intrinsecus, (inside, inwardly, inwards).
intritus (1) -a -um, (not worn away, unexhausted).
intritus (2)-a -um, partic. from intero; q.v.
intro (1), (inwards, within).
intro (2) -are, (to go in, enter).
introduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (to introduce, bring in, bring forward, present, suggest).
introductio -onis, f. (bringing in, introduction).
introeo -ire -ii -itum, (to go into, enter).
introfero -ferre -tuli -latum, (to carry in).
introgredior -gredi -gressus, dep. (to enter).
introitus -us, m. (an entrance; means of entrance; passage); in gen., (beginning, introduction).
intromitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to send in, allow to enter).
introrsus (-orsum), (inwards, inwardly, internally).
introrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, (to break in, enter by force).
introspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, (to look into, look inside, observe, examine).
intubum, see intibum.
intueor -tueri -tutus, dep. (to look at attentively, gaze at; to consider, contemplate, look to).
intumesco -tumescere -tumui, (to swell, swell up; to increase; to swell with anger).
intumulatus -a -um, (unburied).
intuor, see intueor.
inturbidus -a -um, (undisturbed, quiet).
intus, adv. (within, inside; to or from the inside; inwardly).
intutus -a -um, (1) (unprotected). (2) (unsafe, dangerous).
inula -ae, f. (the plant elecampane).
inultus -a -um, (1) (unavenged). (2) (unpunished).
inumbro -are, (to shade, overshadow).
inundatio -onis, f. (inundation, flood).
inundo -are, transit. (to overflow, inundate, stream over); intransit. (to overflow with).
inungo -ungere -unxi -unctum, (to anoint).
inurbanus -a -um, (rude, unpolished); adv. inurbane.
inurgeo -urgere -ursi, (to push, thrust against).
inuro -urere -ussi -ustum, (to burn in or on, brand, imprint; to inflict; to crimp, curl, adorn).
inusitatus -a -um, (unusual, strange, uncommon); adv. inusitate.
inutilis -e, (useless, unserviceable, unprofitable; injurious, harmful). Adv. inutiliter.
inutilitas -atis, f. (uselessness, unprofitableness; harmfulness).
invado -vadere -vasi -vasum, (1) (to go in, enter, get in; to undertake). (2) (to attack, fall upon, assail, usurp, seize).
invalesco -valescere -valui, (to gather strength, become strong).
invalidus -a -um, (weak, powerless).
invectio -onis, f. (1) (importation). (2) (invective).
inveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, (to carry in, introduce); pass., or with reflex., (to drive, ride or travel), esp. (to advance against, attack);
of verbal attack, (to inveigh).
invenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come upon, find, meet with, discover; to invent, devise; to procure, get, earn); pass., or with
reflex., (to show oneself). Hence partic. inventus -a, -um, (discovered); n.

as subst. (an invention, discovery).
inventio -onis, f. (inventing, invention; the inventive faculty).
inventor -oris, m. (inventor).
inventrix -tricis, f. (inventor).
invenustus -a -um, (not charming, unattractive; unhappy in love).
inverecundus -a -um, (shameless, impudent).
invergo -ere, (to tip or pour upon).
inversio -onis, f. (irony; transposition; allegory).
inverto -vertere -verti -versum, (to turn over, turn about; to transpose, alter, pervert). Hence partic., inversus -a -um, (overturned,
upside down).
invesperascit -ere, impers. (it grows dark).
investigatio -onis, f. (inquiry, investigation).
investigator -oris, m. (inquirer, investigator).
investigo -are, (to search out, track out).
inveterasco -ascere -avi, (to become old; to become obsolete; to become established, fixed, rooted).
inveteratio -onis, f. (inveterateness, permanence).
inveteratus -a -um, (of long standing, established).
invicem, (in turn, alternately; mutually, reciprocally).
invictus -a -um, (unconquered, unsubdued; unconquerable, invincible).
invidentia -ae, f. (envying, envy).
invideo -videre -vidi -visum, (to envy, grudge, be envious of). Hence partic. invisus -a -um: pass. (hated);, act. (hostile).
invidia -ae, f.: act. (envy, jealously, ill-will); pass. (odium, unpopularity). Transf. (a, source of ill-will).
invidiosus -a -um, (envious; causing envy, envied; hateful). Adv. invidiose. (jealously, bitterly).
invidus -a -um, (envious, grudging).
invigilo -are, (to watch over) (with dat.).
inviolabilis -e, (unassailable).
inviolatus -a -um, (uninjured, unhurt; inviolable). Adv. inviolate, (inviolately).
invisitatus -a -um, (not seen; unusual, strange).
inviso -visere -visi -visum, (to go to see, visit; to inspect, look at).
invisus (1) -a -um, partic. from invideo; q.v.
invisus (2) -a -um, (unseen, secret).
invitamentum -i, n. (invitation, attraction).
invitatio -onis, f. (invitation, inducement).
invitatu, abl. sing. m. (by invitation).
invito -are, (to invite, summon; to receive, entertain; to induce, allure); with reflex., (to treat oneself).
invitus -a -um, (unwilling, against one's will); abl. absol., 'me invito', (against my will)., Adv. invite, (unwillingly, against one's will).
invius -a -um, (impassable, impenetrable); n. pl. as subst. (trackless places).
invocatio -onis, f. (calling upon, invocation).
invocatus (1) -a -um, (uncalled, uninvited).
invocatus (2) -a -um, partic. from invoco; q.v.
invoco -are, (to call in, call upon for help, invoke).
involatu, abl. sing. m. (by the flight).
involito -are, (to float or wave over).
involo -are, (to fly at, seize or pounce upon).
involucrum -i, n. (a wrap, cover).
involvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, (to roll in or on; to envelop, wrap up, cover). Hence partic. involutus -a, -um, (rolled up; involved).
invulgo -are, (to give information).
invulneratus -a -um, (unwounded).
io, interj. (hurrah! hi!).
Io (Ion) -us, f. (an Argive girl, loved by Jupiter and changed into a cow); adj. Ionius -a, -um, (Ionian, of the sea between Italy and
Greece, across which Io swam).

iocatio -onis, f. (joke, jest).
ioco -are and iocor -ari, dep. (to joke, jest).
iocosus -a -um, (humorous, merry, facetious); adv. iocose.
iocularis -e, (jocular, laughable); adv. ioculariter.
iocularius -a -um, (laughable, droll).
ioculator -oris, m. (joker).
ioculor -ari, dep. (to joke, jest).
iocus -i, m. (plur. ioci and ioca), (a joke, jest).
Iones -um, m. (the Ionians); Ionia -ae, f. (their country in Asia Minor); adj. Ioniacus, and Ionicus -a -um, (Ionian).
Iphigenia -ae, f. (daughter of Agamemnon).
ipse -a -um, (self); 'ego ipse', (I myself); (the very, actual); with numbers, et., (just, exactly); of action, (by oneself, of one's own
ira -ae, f. (wrath, anger, rage); meton., (cause of anger).
iracundia -ae, f. (1) (angry disposition, irascibility). (2) (state of anger, fury, wrath).
iracundus -a -um, (inclined to anger, irascible); adv. iracunde, (wrathfully).
irascor -i, dep. (to grow angry) (with dat.); partic. iratus -a -um, (angry).
Iris -ridis, f. (messenger of the gods, and goddess of the rainbow).
ironia -ae, f. (irony).
irr-, see inr-.
is ea id, (he, she, it; this or that (person or thing)); with qui (or ut), (one (of, those) who, such...as); with et, -que, etc., (and that too,
and what is more);, n. sing. id, (on that account); 'id temporis', (at that time); 'in eo est', (the position is such), or, (it depends on
this); 'id est', (that is), in, explanation.
Isis -is and -idis, f. (the Egyptian goddess Isis).
istac, (by that way, in that direction).
iste ista istud, demonstr. pron. or adj. (that of yours, that beside you); in speeches, referring to parties opposed to the speaker (opp.
to hic, 'my client'); often, contemptuous.
Ister, see Hister.
Isthmus (-os) -i, m. (the Isthmus of Corinth).
istic (1) istaec istoc or istuc, (that of yours).
istic (2), adv. (over there, there by you; therein, in that).
istinc, (from over there, thence).
istiusmodi or istius modi or istimodi, (of that kind, such).
isto, adv. (thither, to that place or thing).
istoc and istuc, (thither).
Istri, see Histri.
ita, (so, thus); interrog., 'itane?', (really?); in answers, (certainly); in, narration, (and so); with adj. or adv., (so, so very); ita...ut, with
subj., (in such a way that, only on condition that).
Itali -orum and -um, m. (the Italians); Italia -ae, f. (Italy); adj. Italicus and Italus -a -um, (Italian); f. adj. Italis -idis.
itaque, (and so; therefore, for that reason).
item, adv. (also, likewise).
iter itineris, n. (going, way, direction; journey, march; right of way, permission to march);, concr., (way, road); fig., (way, course,
iteratio -onis, f. (repetition, iteration).
itero -are, (to do a second time, repeat, renew).
iterum, (again, a second time); 'iterum atque iterum', (again and again).
Ithaca -ae and Ithace -es, f. (an island in the Ionian Sea, home of Ulysses).
itidem, adv. (likewise, also).
itio -onis, f. (going, travelling).
ito -are, (to go, move, travel).
itus -us, m. (movement, going, departure).
iuba -ae, f. (mane, crest).
Iuba -ae, m. (name of two Numidian kings).

iubar -aris, n. (beaming light, radiance; a heavenly body, esp. the sun).
iubatus -a -um, (having a mane, crest).
iubeo iubere iussi iussum, (to order, command, bid); 'salvere iubere', (to greet); polit. (to ratify) an, order. Hence, from perf. partic.
iussum -i, n. (an order, command).
iucunditas -atis, f. (pleasantness, delightfulness, pleasure).
iucundus -a -um, (pleasant, agreeable, delightful); adv. iucunde.
Iudaea -ae, f. (Judea or Palestine); adj. and subst. Iudaeus -a -um, (Jewish or a Jew).
iudex -icis, m. (a judge); in plur., (a panel of jurors).
iudicatio -onis, f. (judicial investigation; judgment, opinion).
iudicatus -us, m. (the office of business of judge).
iudicialis -e, (of a court of justice, judicial).
iudiciarius -a -um, (of a court of justice, judicial).
iudicium -i, n. (a trial, legal investigation; a law-court; jurisdiction, judgment, considered opinion, decision; power of judging,
discernment, understanding, good judgment).
iudico -are, (to be a judge, judge, decide, declare); perf. partic., iudicatus -a -um, of, persons, (condemned); of things, (decided).
iugalis -e, (yoked together); m. pl. as subst. (a team of horses). Transf., (matrimonial, nuptial).
iugatio -onis, f. (the training of vines on a trellis).
iugerum -i, n. (a measure of land), about two thirds of an English acre.
iugis -e, (perpetual, continuous), esp. of water.
iuglans -glandis, f. (a walnut or walnut tree).
iugo -are, (to bind together, connect, couple).
iugosus -a -um, (mountainous).
iugulo -are, (to cut the throat of, to butcher; to ruin, destroy).
iugulum -i, n. and iugulus -i, m. (the throat).
iugum -i, n. (1) (a yoke or collar). Transf., (a team of oxen or horses; a pair, couple;, a chariot; any bond, union; the bond of love,
marriage-tie; the yoke of, slavery). (2) (a cross-bar; esp. the yoke under which the vanquished were, sent; the beam of a pair of
scales; a ridge between mountains); plur., poet., (mountain heights).
Iugurtha -ae, m. (a king of Numidia); adj. Iugurthinus -a -um.
Iulius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens); including the family of the Caesars; 'mensis Iulius', or 'Iulius', (the month of July).
Iulus -i, m. (son of Aeneas).
iumentum -i, n. (a beast of burden).
iunceus -a -um, (made of rushes; like a rush).
iuncosus -a -um, (full of rushes, rushy).
iunctio -onis, f. (joining, connection).
iunctura -ae, f. (a joining, joint; relationship; combination, putting together).
iuncus -i, m. (a rush, reed).
iungo iungere iunxi iunctum, (to join, unite, connect; to yoke, harness; to mate); 'amicitiam', (to form)., Hence partic. iunctus -a -um,
(connected, united, associated).
iunior, see iuvenis.
iuniperus -i, f. (the juniper tree).
Iunius -a -um, (the name of a Roman gens); 'mensis Iunius' or 'Iunius', (the month of June).
Iuno -onis, f. (the goddess Juno, Greek Hera, sister and wife of Jupiter); adj. Iunonius, -a -um, (Junonian).
Iuppiter Iovis, m. (Jupiter, the Roman supreme god); 'sub Iove', (in the open air).
iurator -oris, m. (a sworn assessor).
iureiuro -are, (to swear an oath).
iureperitus, = iurisperitus; q.v.
iurgium -i, n. (altercation, quarrel, brawl).
iurgo -are, intransit. (to quarrel, brawl); transit. (to scold).
iuridicialis -e, (relating to right or justice).
iurisconsultus -i, m. (one learned in law, a lawyer).
iurisdictio -onis, f. (the administration of justice; judicial authority).

iurisperitus or iureperitus -i, m. (skilled or experienced in the law).
iuro -are, (to swear, take an oath); 'in verba', (to swear after a prescribed formula);, perf. partic. in act. sense, iuratus -a -um, (having
sworn, under oath); also, (having been sworn).
ius (1) iuris, n. (broth, soup).
ius (2) iuris, n. (right, law; a court of justice; jurisdiction; right as conferred by law);, 'iure', (rightly).
iusiurandum iurisiurandi (or in two words), n. (an oath).
iussu, abl. sing. m. (by order, by command).
iussum -i, n. subst. from iubeo; q.v.
iustitia -ae, f. (justice, fairness, equity).
iustitium -i, n. (a suspension of legal business); in gen. (pause, cessation).
iustus -a -um, (just, equitable, fair; lawful, justified, proper; regular, perfect, complete, suitable). N. as subst., sing. iustum -i, (justice,
what is right); plur., iusta -orum, (due forms and observances, esp. funeral rites). Adv. iuste, (justly, rightly).
iuvenalis -e, (youthful).
Iuvenalis -is, m. D. Iunius, (a Roman writer of satires).
iuvencus -a -um, (young); m. as subst., iuvencus -i, (a young man, or young bullock); f., iuvenca -ae, (a young woman, or young cow,
iuvenesco iuvenescere iuvenui, (to come (or come back) to the prime of life).
iuvenilis -e, (youthful); adv. iuveniliter, (youthfully).
iuvenis -is, adj. (young, youthful); as subst. (a young man, young woman).
iuvenor -ari, dep. (to act like a youth, be impetuous).
iuventa -ae, f. (youth).
iuventas -atis, f. (youth).
iuventus -utis, f. (youth, the prime of life)(between the ages of 20 and 45); meton., (young, men).
iuvo iuvare iuvi iutum, (1) (to help, assist, aid). (2) (to delight, please, gratify).
iuxta, adv. (close by, near; in like manner, equally); prep. with acc., (close to, near to); in time, (just before); in gen. (near to, just
short of).
iuxtim, (near, close by; equally).
Ixion -onis, m. (king of the Lapithae in Thessaly, bound to a perpetually revolving wheel, in Tartarus).
j, Unknown in classical Latin; invented by Italian humanists to represent the, consonantal 'i', but now rarely used in classical texts.
k, The letter 'k', corresponding to Greek kappa, belonged to the Latin alphabet, but in some words was replaced by 'c'.
Kalendae -arum, f. (the first day of a Roman month).
Karthago, = Carthago; q.v.
labasco -ere, (to totter; to give way).
labecula -ae, f. (a little stain, slight disgrace).
labefacio -facere -feci -factum, pass. labefio -fieri -factus sum, (to shake, loosen, impair).
labefacto -are, (to shake violently, weaken, disturb).
labellum (1) -i, n. (a little lip).
labellum (2) -i, n. (a small washing-vessel).
labes -is, f. (a stain, blemish; infamy, disgrace).
labia -ae, f. and labium -i, n. (a lip).
Labienus -i, m., T., (an officer of Julius Caesar, who went over to Pompey).
labiosus -a -um, (with large lips).
labium -i, n. = labia; q.v.
labo -are, (to totter, waver, be about to fall, begin to sink).
labor (1) labi lapsus, dep. (to glide, slide, flow; to slip, fall down, fall away, decline; to make a, mistake).
labor (2) (labos) -oris, m. (1) (work, toil, effort, industry, capacity for work; feat, work, result of, labor). (2) (hardship, fatigue, distress);
'labores solis', (eclipse of the, sun).
laborifer -fera -ferum, (bearing labor).
laboriosus -a -um: of things, (toilsome, laborious); of persons, (industrious, toiling). Adv. laboriose, (laboriously, with toil).
laboro -are, intransit. (to work, toil, strive; to be troubled or anxious, to care; to, suffer, be distressed or

afflicted); 'luna laborat', (is eclipsed); transit., (to work out, elaborate, prepare, form).
labos -oris, m. = labor; q.v.
labrum (1) -i, n. (lip; edge, rim).
labrum (2) -i, n. (basin, tub; a bathing-place).
labrusca -ae, f. (the wild vine).
labruscum -i, n. (the wild grape).
labyrinthus -i, m. (a labyrinth).
lac lactis, n. (milk; milky sap; milk-white color).
Lacaena -ae, f. adj. (a female Spartan).
Lacedaemon -onis, f. (the city Lacedaemon or Sparta); adj. Lacedeamonius -a -um, (Lacedaemonian).
lacer -cera -cerum, (torn, mangled); act., (tearing to pieces).
laceratio -onis, f. (tearing, mangling).
lacerna -ae, f. (a mantle worn over the toga).
lacero -are, (to tear to pieces, maim, mangle; to squander money; to slander, pull to, pieces a character).
lacerta -ae, f. (a lizard); also (a sea-fish).
lacertosus -a -um, (muscular, powerful).
lacertus (1) -i, m. (the upper arm) with its muscles; in gen., (vigor).
lacertus (2) -i, m. = lacerta; q.v.
lacesso -ere -ivi and -ii -itum, (to provoke, exasperate, excite, induce).
Lachesis -is, f. (one of the three Parcae or Fates).
lacinia -ae, f. (the flap of a garment).
Laco (Lacon) -onis, m. (a Spartan, Lacedaemonian); adj. Laconicus -a -um and f. adj. Laconis, -idis, (Spartan).
lacrima (lacruma) -ae, f. (a tear; exudation from certain plants); 'Heliadum', (amber).
lacrimabilis -e, (deplorable, woeful).
lacrimabundus -a -um, (breaking into tears, weeping).
lacrimo (lacrumo) -are, (to weep, shed tears; to exude, to drip).
lacrimosus -a -um, (tearful, shedding tears; causing tears, mournful, piteous).
lacrimula -ae, f. (a little tear).
lacruma, etc.; see lacrima, etc.
lactans -antis, (giving milk).
lactatio -onis, f. (enticement).
lactens -entis, (1) (sucking milk); plur. as subst., (sucklings, unweaned animals). (2), (milky, juicy, full of sap).
lactesco -ere, (to be changed into milk).
lacteus -a -um, (milky, of milk; milk-white).
lacto -are, (to allure, wheedle).
lactuca -ae, f. (lettuce).
lacuna -ae, f. (a cavity, hollow, dip); esp. (a pool, pond). Transf., (gap, deficiency, loss).
lacunar -aris, n. (a panelled ceiling).
lacuno -are, (to work in panels, to panel).
lacunosus -a -um, (full of hollows or gaps).
lacus -us, m. (a hollow); hence (a lake, pool, trough, tank, tub).
laedo laedere laesi laesum, (to strike, knock); hence (to hurt, injure, damage; to offend, annoy; to, violate, outrage).
laena -ae, f. (cloak, wrap).
Laertes -ae, m. (father of Ulysses).
laesio -onis, f. (an oratorical attack).
laetabilis -e, (joyful, glad).
laetatio -onis, f. (rejoicing, joy).
laetifico -are, (to fertilize; to cheer, gladden, delight).
laetificus -a -um, (gladdening, joyous).
laetitia -ae, f. (1) (fertility); hence (richness, grace). (2) (joy, delight).
laetor -ari, dep. (to rejoice, be joyful).

laetus -a -um, (fat, rich, fertile; glad, joyful, happy); of style, (rich, copious, fluent)., Adv. laete.
laevus -a -um, (left); f. as subst. (the left hand, the left); n. as subst. (the left side)., Transf., (left-handed, foolish, silly; unlucky,
unpropitious); but in augury, (favorable). Adv. laeve, (on the left hand; awkwardly).
laganum -i, n. (a cake).
lageos -ei, f. (a Greek kind of vine).
lagoena -ae, f. (a large earthen jar with handles).
lagois -idis, f. (a bird, perhaps heathcock or grouse).
laguncula -ae, f. (a little bottle).
Laius -i, m. (father of Oedipus).
lama -ae, f. (a bog, slough).
lambo lambere lambi, (to lick); of rivers, (to wash).
lamenta -orum, n. pl. (wailing, weeping).
lamentabilis -e, (lamentable, deplorable; expressing sorrow, mournful).
lamentatio -onis, f. (weeping, wailing).
lamentor -ari, dep. (to weep, wail, lament); transit. (to bewail).
lamia -ae, f. (a witch, vampire).
lamina, lammina, and lamna -ae, f. (a plate or thin piece of metal, marble, etc.;, knife-blade; coin; nutshell).
lampas -padis, f. (a torch); hence (brightness), esp. of the sun; also (a meteor).
lana -ae, f. (wool); also (the down on leaves, fruit, etc.).
lanatus -a -um, (wool-bearing, wooly).
lancea -ae, f. (a light spear or lance).
lancino -are, (to tear to pieces; to squander).
laneus -a -um, (of wool, woollen; soft as wool).
languefacio -facere, (to make weak or faint).
langueo -ere, (to be faint, weak, weary; to droop, flag); partic. languens -entis, (faint, languid).
languesco languescere langui, (to become faint, soft or listless).
languidulus -a -um, (somewhat faint, limp).
languidus -a -um, (faint, weak, limp); of wine, (mild, mellow); adv. languide.
languor -oris, m. (faintness, weariness, inactivity).
laniatus -us, m. (mangling, tearing).
laniena -ae, f. (a butcher's shop).
lanificus -a -um, (working in wool).
laniger -gera -gerum, (wool-bearing; woollen); m. as subst. (a ram); f., (a sheep).
lanio -are, (to tear to pieces, mangle, lacerate).
lanista -ae, m. (a trainer of gladiators; an instigator to violence, inciter).
lanitium -i, n. (wool).
lanius -i, m. (butcher).
lanterna -ae, f. (lantern, lamp).
lanternarius -i, m. (lantern-bearer).
lanugo -inis, f. (down, of plants or on the cheeks).
Lanuvium -i, n. (a town in Latium).
lanx lancis, f. (a plate, platter; the scale of a balance).
Laocoon -ontis, m. (a Trojan priest).
Laomedon -ontis, m. (a king of Troy, father of Priam).
lapathum -i, n. and lapathus -i, f. (sorrel).
lapicidinae -arum, f. (stone quarries).
lapidatio -onis, f. (throwing of stones).
lapidator -oris, m. (thrower of stones).
lapideus -a -um, (of stone).
lapido -are, (to throw stones at); impers. lapidat, (it rains stones).
lapidosus -a -um, (full of stones, stony).
lapillus -i, m. (a little stone, pebble; a precious stone, gem).

lapis -idis, m. (a stone).
Lapithae -arum, m. pl. (the Lapithae, a mountain race in Thessaly, famous for their fight with, the Centaurs).
lappa -ae, f. (a burr).
lapsio -onis, f. (gliding; inclination, tendency).
lapso -are, (to slip, stumble).
lapsus -us, m. (gradual movement; gliding, sliding, fall; a fault, error).
laqueare -is, n., esp. plur., (a panelled ceiling).
laqueatus -a -um, (with a panelled ceiling).
laqueus -i, m. (a noose, halter, snare, trap).
Lar Laris, m., usually plur. Lares, (Roman tutelary deities, esp. household deities);, meton., (hearth, dwelling, home).
lardum (laridum) -i, n. (bacon fat, lard).
Larentia -ae, f. or Acca Larentia, (the wife of Faustulus, who brought up Romulus and, Remus).
Lares, see Lar.
largificus -a -um, (bountiful, liberal).
largifluus -a -um, (flowing freely).
largior -iri, dep. (to give abundantly, lavish, bestow, grant; to condone).
largitas -atis, f. (liberality).
largitio -onis, f. (free giving or spending, lavishing; granting, bestowing).
largitor -oris, m. (a liberal giver or spender; a briber; a waster).
largus -a -um, of things, (abundant, plentiful, numerous); with genit., (rich in); of, persons, (liberal, bountiful). Adv. large, (plentifully,
liberally); largiter, (abundantly, much).
laridum, = lardum. q.v.
larva (larua) -ae, f. (a ghost, specter; a mask).
lascivia -ae, f. (playfulness, sportiveness; wantonness, licentiousness, insolence).
lascivio -ire, (to sport, play; to wanton, run riot).
lascivus -a -um, (playful, wanton, licentious, insolent). Adv. lascive.
laserpicium -i, n. (a plant from which asafoetida was obtained).
lassitudo -inis, f. (weariness, exhaustion).
lasso -are, (to make weary, exhaust).
lassulus -a -um, (rather tired).
lassus -a -um, (weary, tired, exhausted).
latebra -ae, f. (a hiding-place, retreat; a subterfuge, loophole).
latebrosus -a -um, (full of hiding-places, secret); 'pumex', (porous). Adv. latebrose, (secretly).
lateo -ere, (to lie hid, be concealed; to live in obscurity or safety; to be unknown)., Hence partic. latens -entis, (concealed, hidden);
adv. latenter, (secretly).
later -teris, m. (a brick, tile).
lateramen -inis, n. (pottery).
laterculus -i, m. (a small brick or tile; a biscuit).
latericius -a -um, (built of brick).
laterna, see lanterna.
latesco -ere, (to hide oneself).
latex -ticis, m. (fluid, liquid).
latibulum -i, n. (a hiding-place).
laticlavius -a -um, (having a broad purple stripe (as a distinction)).
latifundium -i, n. (a large landed estate).
Latinitas -atis, f. (pure Latin style; Latin rights).
Latinus, (1) -a -um; see Latium.
Latinus, (2) -i, m. (king of the Laurentians, host of Aeneas).
latio -onis, f. (bringing); 'legis', (proposing, bringing forward).
latito -are, (to lie hid, be concealed).
latitudo -onis, f. (breadth, extent); 'verborum', (broad pronunciation, brogue).
Latium -i, n. (a district of Italy, in which Rome was situated); adj. Latius and Latinus, -a -um, (Latin);

adv. Latine, (in Latin).
Lato -us, f. and Latona -ae, f. (the mother of Apollo and Diana).
lator -oris, m. (the proposer of a law).
latrator -oris, m. (a barker).
latratus -us, m. (barking).
latro (1) -are, (to bark, bay; to rant, rumble, roar); transit, (to bark at or for).
latro (2) -onis, m. (a hired servant or mercenary soldier; a robber, bandit, brigand; a hunter;, a piece on a draught-board).
latrocinium -i, n. (mercenary service; highway robbery, brigandage, villainy, roguery);, meton., (a band of robbers).
latrocinor -ari, dep. (to serve as a mercenary; to practice robbery).
latrunculus -i, m. (a highwayman, bandit; a piece on a draught-board).
latus (1) -a -um, (broad, wide, extensive); of style, (diffuse, full, rich). Hence adv. late, (broadly, widely, extensively); 'longe lateque',
(far and wide).
latus (2) -eris, n. (the side, flank); of persons, in pl., (the lungs); milit., 'in latere', (on the flank).
latus (3) -a -um, partic. from fero; q.v.
latusculum -i, n. (a little side).
laudabilis -e, (praiseworthy, laudable); adv. laudabiliter.
laudatio -onis, f. (praise, commendation; a testimonial, a funeral oration).
laudator -oris, m. (a praiser); esp. (one who delivers a testimonial or funeral oration).
laudatrix -icis, f. (a female praiser).
laudo -are, (to praise, extol, commend; to name, mention, cite, quote); partic. laudatus, -a -um, (praiseworthy, esteemed).
laureatus -a -um, (crowned with laurel); 'litterae', (bringing news of victory).
laureola -ae, f. (a laurel branch, laurel crown); meton., (a triumph, victory).
laureus -a -um, (of laurel); f. as subst., laurea, (laurel tree or crown).
lauricomus -a -um, (covered with laurel trees).
laurifer -fera -ferum, (crowned with laurel).
lauriger -gera -gerum, (crowned with laurel).
laurus -i, f. (the laurel or bay tree); meton., (triumph, victory).
laus laudis, f. (praise, fame, glory, commendation). Transf., (a praiseworthy action or, quality).
lautia -orum, n. pl. (entertainment given to foreign ambassadors at Rome).
lautitia -ae, f. (splendor, elegance, sumptuous living).
lautumiae (latomiae) -arum, f. pl. (a stone-quarry).
lautus -a -um, partic. from lavo; q.v.
lavabrum -i, n. (a bath).
lavatio -onis, f. (washing, bathing; bathing apparatus).
Lavinia -ae, f. (daughter of Latinus, wife of Aeneas).
lavo lavare or lavere lavi lautum or lotum or lavatum, (to wash, bathe; to moisten, wet; to wash away). Hence partic. lautus -a -um,
(washed); hence (fine, elegant, sumptuous, refined); adv. laute.
laxamentum -i, n. (widening, extending; relaxing, mitigation, respite).
laxitas -atis, f. (wideness, roominess).
laxo -are, (to widen, loosen, extend, enlarge; to undo, slacken, relax, relieve; to, release, set free).
laxus -a -um, (wide, loose, spacious); of time, (later, postponed; loose, lax, relaxed)., Adv. laxe, (widely, loosely, without restraint).
lea -ae, f. (a lioness).
leaena -ae, f. (a lioness).
Leander -dri, m. (a youth who swam nightly across the Hellespont to visit Hero, till drowned, in a storm).
lebes -etis, m. (a bronze pan, cauldron, or basin).
lectica -ae, f. (a litter; bier).
lecticarius -i, m. (a litter-bearer).
lecticula -ae, f. (a small litter or bier; a settee).
lectio -onis, f. (a picking out, selection, reading, perusal); 'lectio senatus', (a calling, over of the names

of the senators).
lectisternium -i, n. (a feast offered to the gods).
lectito -are, (to read often or eagerly).
lector -oris, m. (a reader).
lectulus -i, m. (a small bed, couch).
lectus (1) -a -um, partic. from lego; q.v.
lectus (2) -i, m. (a bed, couch).
Leda -ae and Lede -es, f. (mother of Castor and Pollux, Helen, and Clytemnestra).
legatarius -i, m. (a legatee).
legatio -onis, f. (delegated authority); polit., (the office of an ambassador, an embassy, legation); milit., (the post of subordinate
commander); esp. (the command of a, legion).
legator -oris, m. (testator).
legatum -i, n. and legatus -i, m. from lego; q.v.
legifer -fera -ferum, (law-giver).
legio -onis, f. (a choosing; a chosen body); esp. (a legion, a division of the Roman, army).
legionarius -a -um, (belonging to a legion).
legitimus (legitumus) -a -um, (lawful, legitimate; right, proper, appropriate). Adv. legitime, (lawfully, properly).
legiuncula -ae, f. (a small legion).
lego (1) -are, (to ordain, appoint); of persons, (to make a deputy, delegate authority to);, of property, (to bequeath, leave as a
legacy).M. of partic. legatus -i, (a, deputy); polit., (an ambassador, envoy, or the deputy of a magistrate);, milit., (a subordinate
commander), esp. (a commander of a legion). N. legatum, -i, (a legacy, bequest).
lego (2) legere legi lectum, (to collect, gather, pick, pick up); 'fila', (to wind up, spin); 'vela', (to, furl); of places, (to pass through,
traverse, coast along); with the eyes, (to, survey, scan, read, peruse); out of a number, (to pick out, choose, select)., Hence partic.
lectus -a -um, (chosen, selected; choice, excellent).
leguleius -i, m. (a pettifogging lawyer).
legumen -inis, n. (pulse; the bean).
Lemannus -i, m. (the Lake of Geneva).
lembus -i, m. (a boat, cutter, pinnace).
lemma -atis, n. (theme, title; an epigram).
lemniscatus -a -um, (ribboned).
lemniscus -i, m. (a ribbon).
Lemnos (-us) -i, f. (the island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea); adj. Lemnius -a -um, (Lemnian).
lemures -um, m. pl. (ghosts, specters); Lemuria -orum, n. pl. (a festival held in May to, expel ghosts).
lena -ae, f. (a procuress, bawd).
Lenaeus -a -um, (Bacchic).
lenimen -inis, n. (means of alleviation).
lenimentum -i, n. (mitigation, alleviation).
lenio -ire, (to make mild, mitigate, relieve).
lenis -e, (smooth, mild, gentle); 'vinum', (mellow); n. acc. as adv. lene, (gently);, adv. leniter, (smoothly, gently, mildly).
lenitas -atis, f. (gentleness, mildness, smoothness).
lenitudo -inis, f. (gentleness, mildness, smoothness).
leno -onis, m. (a procurer, go-between).
lenocinium -i, n. (the trade of a procurer; enticement, allurement); of dress, (finery); of, style, ('purple patch').
lenocinor -ari, dep. (to work as a procurer; to make up to, to flatter; to advance, promote).
lens lentis, f. (lentil).
lentesco -ere, (to become soft, pliant, sticky; to weaken, slacken).
lentiscus -i, f. and lentiscum -i, n. (the mastic-tree).
lentitudo -inis, f. (slowness, sluggishness, apathy).
lento -are, (to bend).

lentulus -a -um, (somewhat slow).
Lentulus -i, m. (the name of a family in the patrician gens Cornelia).
lentus -a -um, (tough, resistant, inert; sticky, tenacious; supple, pliant; inactive, apathetic; slow, lingering); 'in dicendo', (drawling).
Adv. lente, (slowly, calmly, coolly, deliberately).
lenunculus (1) -i, m. (a little procurer).
lenunculus (2) -i, m. (a small boat or skiff).
leo -onis, m. (lion).
leoninus -a -um, (of a lion, leonine).
Leontini -orum, m. (a town on the east coast of Sicily).
lepas -adis, f. (a limpet).
lepidus -a -um, (pleasant, charming, elegant, witty); adv. lepide.
Lepidus -i, m. (name of a family in the patrician gens Aemilia).
lepor and lepos -oris, m. (pleasantness, charm, wit).
lepus -oris, m. (hare).
lepusculus -i, m. (a young hare).
Lesbos (-us) -i, f. (an island in the Aegean Sea, birthplace of Alcaeus and Sappho).
letalis -e, (deadly, mortal).
lethargicus -i, m. (a drowsy, lethargic person).
lethargus -i, m. (drowsiness, lethargy, coma).
Lethe -es, f. (the river of forgetfulness in the underworld).
letifer -fera -ferum, (deadly).
leto -are, (to kill, slay).
letum -i, n. (death; ruin, annihilation).
leucaspis -idis, f. (having white shields).
levamen -inis, n. (alleviation, mitigation, solace).
levamentum -i, n. (alleviation, mitigation, solace).
levatio -onis, f. (alleviation, mitigation; diminution).
leviculus -a -um, (rather vain, light-headed).
levidensis -e, (thin, slight, poor).
levis (1) -e, (light); milit. (light-armed); in movement, (rapid, swift); in value, (light, trifling, unimportant); in character, (fickle,
capricious, unstable). Adv., leviter, (lightly, softly, slightly).
levis (2) -e, (smooth, polished, slippery; beardless, bald).
levisomnus -a -um, (lightly sleeping).
levitas (1) -atis, f. (lightness; levity, fickleness, inconstancy; groundlessness).
levitas (2) -atis, f. (smoothness, polish).
levo (1) -are, (to raise, lift up; to make light, relieve, ease; to diminish, weaken, impair).
levo (2) -are, (to make smooth, polish).
levor -oris, m. (smoothness).
lex legis, f. (a set form of words, contract, covenant, agreement); 'leges pacis', (conditions of peace); esp. (a law, proposed by a
magistrate as a bill, or, passed and statutory); 'legem iubere', (to accept or pass a bill); in gen., (a, precept, rule).
libamen -inis, n. (a libation, offering to the gods; a sample, specimen).
libamentum -i, n. (a libation, offering to the gods).
libatio -onis, f. (a libation).
libella -ae, f. (1) (a small coin, a tenth of a denarius; a farthing, mite). (2) (a, carpenter's level, plummet-line).
libellus -i, m. (a little book, a notebook, diary; a memorial, petition; programme, placard; letter).
libens and lubens -entis, partic. from libet; q.v.
liber (1) -era -erum, (free, independent, unrestrained; free from, exempt). Adv. libere, (freely, without restraint, frankly, openly,
liber (2) -bri, m. (the inner bark of a tree); from the use of this in writing, (a book, volume, catalogue, letter).
Liber -eri, m. (an Italian deity, identified with Bacchus).
liberalis -e, (of freedom; worthy of a free man, gentlemanlike, courteous, generous); adv., liberaliter.

liberalitas -atis, f. (courtesy, kindness, generosity).
liberatio -onis, f. (setting free, release, acquittal).
liberator -oris, m. (a liberator).
liberi -erorum and -erum, m. pl. (children).
libero -are, (to set free, liberate, release, exempt); of obstacles, (to lift, raise).
liberta -ae, f.; see libertus.
libertas -atis, f. (freedom, liberty, independence; freedom of speech, frankness, candor).
libertinus -a -um, (of the class of freedmen); as subst. m. libertinus, (a freedman), f., libertina, (a freedwoman).
libertus -i, m. (a freedman); liberta, ae, f. (a freedwoman).
libet (lubet) -bere -buit or -bitum est, impers., (it pleases, is agreeable), (with dat of person). Hence partic., libens (lubens) -entis,
(willing, with pleasure, pleased); 'me libente', (with, my good-will); adv. libenter, (willingly, with pleasure).
libidinosus -a -um, (wilful, arbitrary, capricious; passionate, lustful). Adv. libidinose, (wilfully, arbitrarily).
libido (lubido) -inis, f. (violent desire, longing); esp. (irrational whim, caprice), or (immoderate, passion, lust).
Libitina -ae, f. (goddess of the dead).
libo -are, (to take away from, remove, derive; to taste, touch, impair, diminish; to give, a taste of, offer to the gods).
libra -ae, f. (1) (a balance, pair of scales); 'aes et libra', (a fictitious form of, sale). (2) (the Roman pound of 12 oz.).
libramentum -i, n. (1) (weight as a source of power or for balancing). (2) (a horizontal, plane).
libraria -ae, f. (a female who weighed out wool to slaves).
librarius -a -um, (of books); m. as subst., (a transcriber of books, a copyist, or a, bookseller); n. as subst., (a bookcase).
librilis -e, (of a pound weight).
libritor -oris, m. (an artilleryman).
libro -are, (to balance, hold up, poise); of weapons, (to swing, level, brandish); hence, (to hurl).
libum -i, n. (a cake, offered to the gods).
Liburni -orum, m. (the Liburnians, a people of Illyria); f. of adj. as subst. Liburna -ae, (a, light vessel, galley).
Libya -ae and Libye -es, f. (Libya).
licens -centis and licenter, from licet; q.v.
licentia -ae, f. (freedom, leave, liberty; licentiousness).
liceo -ere -ui -itum, (to be on sale, be valued at).
liceor -eri, dep. (to bid or bid for, offer a price).
licet licere licuit or licitum est, impers., (it is allowed, one can or may); as conjunction, (granted that, although). Hence pres. partic.
licens -entis (free, unrestrained, unbridled);, adv. licenter; perf. partic. licitus -a -um, (allowed, permitted).
Licinius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
licitatio -onis, f. (bidding at a sale or auction).
licitus -a -um, partic. from licet; q.v.
licium -i, n.: in weaving, (the thrum or perhaps a leash); in gen., (a thread).
lictor -oris, m. (a lictor, attending the chief Roman magistrates).
ligamen -inis, n. (string, tie, bandage).
ligamentum -i, n. (bandage).
Liger -geris, m. (a river in Gaul) (now the Loire).
lignarius -i, m. (a carpenter).
lignatio -onis, f. (wood-cutting).
lignator -oris, m. (wood-cutter).
ligneolus -a -um, (wooden).
ligneus -a -um, (made of wood, wooden).
lignor -ari, dep. (to cut or get wood).
lignum -i, n. (wood, timber); esp. (firewood).

ligo (1) -are, (to bind, bandage, harness; to bind together, connect, unite).
ligo (2) -onis, m. (a mattock).
ligula (lingula) -ae, f. (a tongue of land, promontory; a shoe-strap).
Ligures -um, m. pl. (the Ligurians, a people on the northwest coast of Italy).
ligurio (ligurrio) -ire, (to lick, lick up; to gloat over; long for).
liguritio (ligurr-) -onis, f. (daintiness).
ligustrum -i, n. (privet).
lilium -i, n. (a lily); milit., (a fortification consisting of pits and stakes).
Lilybaeon (-baeum) -i, n. (a promontory and town at the western end of Sicily).
lima -ae, f. (a file; polishing, revision of a composition).
limatulus -a -um, (rather polished, refined).
limbus -i, m. (a border, hem, fringe).
limen -inis, n. (threshold, doorway, entrance; home, house, dwelling; any entrance or, border or beginning); esp. (the starting-point
in a race-course).
limes -itis, m. (a by-way, path; a course, track); esp. (a boundary-path, a boundary-line;, a distinction, difference).
limo -are, (to file, polish, finish off; to investigate accurately; to file down, pare, down, to diminish). Partic. limatus -a -um, (refined,
elegant); compar. adv., limatius.
limosus -a -um, (slimy, miry, muddy).
limpidus -a -um, (clear, liquid).
limus (1) -i, m. (slime, mud, mire).
limus (2) -a -um, of the eyes, (sidelong, looking sideways).
limus (3) -i, m. (a priest's apron).
linea -ae, f. (a linen thread, string; a fishing-line, plumb-line); 'ad lineam', (perpendicularly). Transf., (a geometrical line; a boundary-
line, goal).
lineamentum -i, n. (a line drawn with pen or pencil); plur., (drawing, sketch, outline); in, gen., (a feature, lineament).
lineo -are, (to make straight).
lineus -a -um, (made of flax or linen).
lingo lingere linxi linctum, (to lick).
lingua -ae, f. (a tongue; speech, language; a tongue of land, promontory).
lingulaca -ae, f. (a chatterbox).
liniger -gera -gerum, (clothed in linen).
lino linere livi and levi litum, (to smear) one thing upon another; or (to besmear) one thing with another; (to, rub out) writing; (to
befoul, dirty).
linquo linquere liqui, (to leave, abandon, forsake); pass., linqui, (to faint).
linteatus -a -um, (clothed in linen).
linteo -onis, m. (a linen-weaver).
linter -tris, f. (a boat, skiff; a trough, tub, vat).
linteus -a -um, (of linen); n. as subst. (linen cloth, linen, esp. a sail).
linum -i, n. (flax, linen; a thread, line; a rope, cable).
lippio -ire, (to have sore eyes, be bleary-eyed).
lippitudo -inis, f. (inflammation of the eyes).
lippus -a -um, (bleary-eyed; half-blind).
liquefacio -facere -feci -factum, pass. liquefio -fieri -factus sum, (to melt, dissolve; to decompose; to make, weak, enervate).
liquesco -ere -licui, (to become fluid, melt, melt away; to putrefy; to become effeminate).
liquidus -a -um, (1) (fluid, flowing, liquid); n. as subst. (a liquid). (2) (clear, bright, serene, calm, pure, evident, certain); n. as subst.
(certainty); abl. sing., liquido and adv. liquide, (clearly, plainly).
liquo -are, (to make liquid, melt; to strain, clarify).
liquor (1) -i, dep. (to be fluid, flow, melt; to melt away); partic. liquens -entis, (flowing).
liquor (2) -oris, m. (fluidity; a liquid, fluid).
lis litis, f. (a legal controversy, action, suit); in gen., (contention, strife, quarrel).
litatio -onis, f. (successful sacrifice).

litigator -oris, m. (a party in a law-suit, litigant).
litigiosus -a -um, of persons, (fond of dispute, litigious); of things, (full of dispute, contested at law).
litigo -are, (to go to law); in gen., (to quarrel, dispute).
lito -are, intransit. (to bring an acceptable offering); and so (to obtain favorable, omens); transit. (to sacrifice successfully).
litoralis -e, (of the shore).
litoreus -a -um, (of the shore).
littera (litera) -ae, f. (a letter of the alphabet; a letter, dispatch, epistle); plur., (written, records, documents, deeds; literature,
letters, scholarship).
litterarius -a -um, (of reading and writing).
litterator -oris, m. (a philologist, grammarian, critic).
litteratura -ae, f. (the alphabet, grammar).
litteratus -a -um, (lettered, inscribed with letters; learned, liberally educated). Adv., litterate, (in clear letters, legibly; literally, word
for word; learnedly).
litterula -ae, f. (a letter of the alphabet written small); plur., (a little letter, a note, a smattering of literature).
littus, etc.; see litus, etc.
litura -ae, f. (an erasure, correction; a passage erased; a blot).
litus -oris, n. (sea-shore, beach, strand, coast; the shore of a lake or river).
lituus -i, m. (an augur's curved staff; a curved cavalry trumpet, clarion).
liveo -ere, (to be bluish in color; to be envious, envy); partic. livens -entis, (bluish, livid; envious)
livesco -ere, (to become bluish).
lividulus -a -um, (rather envious).
lividus -a -um, (bluish, livid, black and blue; envious, spiteful).
Livius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
livor -oris, m. (bluish color, a livid spot; envy, spite).
lixa -ae, m. (a sutler, camp-follower).
locatio -onis, f. (placing); hence (a leasing, contract, lease).
locatorius -a -um, (concerned with leases).
loco -are, (to place, put, set); esp. (to give in marriage); commerc., (to let out on, hire, farm out, lease, invest; to contract for work
to be done). N. of partic., as subst. locatum -i, (a lease, contract).
loculus -i, m. (a little place); plur., loculi, (a money-box, a school satchel).
locuples -pletis, (with landed property, wealthy, rich); also (trusty, sufficient, satisfactory).
locupleto -are, (to enrich).
locus -i, m. (plur., loci, (single places); loca, (region)), (a place); milit., (position, ground, post); in time, (a period, or moment);
(position, situation, rank; occasion, cause; passage in a book).
locusta -ae, f. (a locust; a kind of lobster).
Locusta -ae, f. (a notorious poisoner, accomplice of Nero).
locutio -onis, f. (speech; pronunciation).
lodix -dicis, f. (blanket, rug).
logicus -a -um, (logical); n. pl. as subst. (logic).
logos (-us) -i, m. (a word; a joke, jest, bon mot).
lolium -i, n. (darnel).
lolligo -iginis, f. (cuttle-fish).
lomentum -i, n. (face-cream).
Londinium -i, n. (London).
longaevus -a -um, (aged, old).
longinquitas -atis, f. (length, distance); of time, (duration).
longinquus -a -um, (long, distant, far, remote, foreign); of time, (long, distant).
longitudo -inis, f. (length).
longulus -a -um, (rather long); adv. longule, (rather far, at a little distance).
longurius -i, m. (a pole, rod, rail).
longus -a -um, (long); 'navis', (a man-of-war); poet., (spacious); of time, (long, of long, duration); esp. (too long, tedious); of persons,
(prolix, tedious). Adv., longe, (a long way off, far, at a distance; by far);

in time, (long, at, length); adv. longiter, (far).
loquacitas -atis, f. (talkativeness).
loquaculus -a -um, (rather talkative).
loquax -quacis, (talkative, garrulous; babbling, noisy); adv. loquaciter.
loquella (loquela) -ae, f. (speech, language).
loquor loqui locutus, dep. (to speak (in conversation); to tell, say, talk of).
loratus -a -um, (bound with thongs).
lorica -ae, f. (cuirass, corselet, breastplate; breastwork, parapet).
loricatus -a -um, (wearing a cuirass).
loripes -pedis, (bandy-legged).
lorum -i, n. (a strap or thong of leather); plur., (reins, bridle; scourge, whip).
lotos (-us) -i, f. (the name of several plants); esp. (of an African tree and its fruit).
lotus (1) -a -um, partic. from lavo; q.v.
lotus (2) -i, f. = lotos; q.v.
lubet, lubido, etc. = libet, libido, etc.; q.v.
lubrico -are, (to make slippery).
lubricus -a -um, (slippery, smooth; quickly moving, uncertain, insecure, perilous, deceitful).
Lucani -orum, m. pl. (a people in southern Italy).
Lucanus -i, m., M. Annaeus (author of the poem Pharsalia).
lucar -aris, n. (a forest-tax), used for paying actors.
lucellum -i, n. (little profit, small gain).
luceo lucere luxi, (to be bright, shine, glitter; to be clear, evident); impers., lucet, (it is, light, it is day).
Luceres -um, m. (one of the three patrician tribes).
lucerna -ae, f. (lamp).
lucesco (lucisco) lucescere luxi, (to begin to shine); impers., lucescit, (it grows light, day is breaking).
lucidus -a -um, (shining, bright; clear, lucid); adv. lucide.
lucifer -fera -ferum, (light-bearing, light-bringing); m. as subst. (the morning star).
lucifugus -a -um, (shunning the light).
Lucilius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
Lucina -ae, f. (the goddess of births).
Lucius -i, m. (Roman praenomen) (abbreviated to L.).
Lucretius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
lucrifacio -facere, (to gain, receive as profit).
Lucrinus -i, m. (a lake on the coast of Campania, near Baiae, famous for oysters).
lucror -ari, dep. (to gain, profit, win).
lucrosus -a -um, (gainful, profitable).
lucrum -i, n. (gain, profit advantage; love of gain, avarice).
luctamen -inis, n. (effort, toil).
luctatio -onis, f. (wrestling; a struggle, contest).
luctificus -a -um, (causing grief, baleful).
luctisonus -a -um, (sad-sounding).
luctor -ari, dep. (and lucto -are), (to wrestle, struggle, strive, contend).
luctuosus -a -um, (1) (causing sorrow, doleful). (2) (feeling or showing sorrow, mourning)., Compar. adv. luctuosius.
luctus -us, m. (sorrow expressed, lamentation, mourning; mourning clothes).
lucubratio -onis, f. (work done by night or lamp-light, nocturnal study).
lucubro -are, (to work by night); in perf. partic. lucubratus -a -um, (done at night or, spent in work).
luculentus -a -um, (shining, bright, brilliant, splendid); adv. luculente and luculenter, (splendidly).
Lucullus -i, m. (name of a family in the gens Licinia).
Lucumo (Lucomo, Lucmo) -onis, m. (title given to Etruscan princes and priests).
lucus -i, m. (a (sacred) grove or wood).
ludia -ae, f. (an actress or female gladiator).
ludibrium -i, n. (derision, mockery; an object of derision, laughing-stock, plaything).
ludibundus -a -um, (playful, sportive).

ludicer -cra -crum, (sportive, done for sport; esp. of the stage). N. as subst. ludicrum -i, (a, trifle, plaything; a theatrical performance).
ludificatio -onis, f. (deriding, deceiving).
ludifico -are and ludificor -ari, dep. (to make game of, deride, delude, cheat, frustrate).
ludio -onis, m. (an actor).
ludius -i, m. (an actor).
ludo ludere lusi lusum, (to play, sport; to play at or with; to imitate, banter; deceive, delude).
ludus -i, m. (play, game, sport, pastime); plur., ludi, (public games or spectacles)., Transf., (a trifle, jest, joke); 'ludum dare', (to give
free play to); (a, training establishment, school).
luella -ae, f. (expiation).
lues -is, f. (plague, pestilence, calamity).
Lugdunum -i, n. (a city in Gaul) (now Lyons). Adj. Lugdunensis -e.
lugeo lugere luxi, intransit. (to mourn, be in mourning); transit. (to bewail, lament, wear, mourning for).
lugubris -e, (of mourning, mournful; plaintive, grievous). N. pl. as subst., (mourning, clothes).
lumbus -i, m. (loin).
lumen -inis, n. (light; a light, lamp; the light of day, day; the light of life; the light, of the eye, the eye; an opening, a light in a
building); fig., (clearness, insight; a shining light, glory, ornament).
luminare -aris, n. (a window-shutter, window).
luminosus -a -um, (bright).
luna -ae, f. (the moon; night, a month; a crescent-shaped ornament).
lunaris -e, (of the moon, lunar).
luno -are, (to bend into a crescent); perf. partic. lunatus -a -um, (crescent-shaped).
luo luere lui luiturus, (to loose; to expiate, atone for, make good); 'luere poenam', (to pay a, penalty); of trouble, (to avert).
lupa -ae, f. (a she-wolf; a prostitute).
lupatus -a -um, (provided with iron spikes); m. or n. pl. as subst., (a curb with jagged, spikes).
Lupercus -i, m. (an Italian pastoral deity, or one of his priests); subst. Lupercal -calis, n. (a grotto, sacred to Lupercus); Lupercalia -ium
and -iorum, n. pl., (the, festival of Lupercus, celebrated in February).
lupinus (1) -a -um, (of a wolf, wolfish).
lupinus (2) -i, m. and lupinum -i, n. (the lupin).
lupus -i, m. (a wolf; a voracious fish, the pike; a horse's bit with jagged points; a, hook).
luridus -a -um, (pale yellow, lurid, ghastly).
luror -oris, m. (ghastliness, paleness).
luscinia -ae, f. (nightingale).
lusciosus -a -um, (purblind, dim-sighted).
luscitiosus -a -um, (purblind, dim-sighted).
luscus -a -um, (one-eyed).
lusio -onis, f. (play, game).
Lusitania -ae, f. (the modern Portugal, with part of Spain).
lusor -oris, m. (a player; a playful writer; a mocker).
lustralis -e, (relating to expiation or to a period of five years).
lustratio -onis, f. (purification by sacrifice; a going round, traversing).
lustro (1) -are, (to brighten, illumine).
lustro (2) -are, (to purify, cleanse by sacrifices; to go round, go over, traverse; to review, observe, examine).
lustrum (1) -i, n., usually pl., (the den of a wild beast, woodlands; brothels, debauchery).
lustrum (2) -i, n. (an expiatory sacrifice; a period of five years).
lusus -us, m. (playing, game, sport; dalliance).
luteolus -a -um, (yellow).
Lutetia -ae, f. (a town in Gallia) (now Paris).
luteus (1) -a -um, (saffron-colored).
luteus (2) -a -um, (of mud or clay; dirty).
luto -are, (to smear with mud).
lutulentus -a -um, (muddy, dirty, filthy, impure).

lutum (1) -i, n. (a plant used for dyeing yellow; yellow color).
lutum (2) -i, n. (mud, mire, dirt; clay).
lux lucis, f. (light); (esp. daylight, day; a day; the light of life or of day; the eye, eyesight; illustration, elucidation; hope,
encouragement; ornament).
luxuria -ae, f. (rankness, exuberant growth; excess, dissipation, extravagance).
luxuries -ei, f. (rankness, exuberant growth; excess, dissipation, extravagance).
luxurio -are and luxurior -ari, dep. (to be luxuriant, rank, grow fast; to frisk, sport, run riot).
luxuriosus -a -um, (luxuriant, rank; immoderate, excessive; luxurious, dissolute, extravagant)., Adv. luxuriose, (luxuriously).
luxus -us, m. (luxury, excess, extravagance).
Lyaeus -i, m. (a surname of Bacchus; wine).
lychnuchus -i, m. (lamp-stand, candelabrum).
lychnus -i, m. (lamp).
Lycia -ae, f. (a country of Asia Minor).
Lydia -ae, f. (a country of Asia Minor); adj. Lydius and Lydus -a -um, (Lydian).
lympha -ae, f. (water, esp. clear spring or river water).
lymphaticus -a -um, (raving, mad, frantic).
lymphatus -a -um, (raving, mad, frantic).
lynx -cis, c. (lynx).
lyra -ae, f. (the lyre or lute, a stringed instrument; lyric poetry, song).
lyricus -a -um, (of the lyre, lyric).
Macedo (-on) -onis, m. (a Macedonian); subst. Macedonia -ae, f.; adj. Macedonicus, Macedonius -a, -um.
macellum -i, n. (a provision-market).
macer -cra -crum, (lean; thin, poor).
maceria -ae, f. (a wall, esp. garden-wall).
macero -are, (to soften, make weak, reduce; to torment, tease, vex).
machaera -ae, f. (a sword).
machina -ae, f. (a machine, contrivance; a crane, windlass, catapult, ballista). Transf., (fabric; a device, trick, stratagem).
machinamentum -i, n. (machine, instrument).
machinatio -onis, f. (contrivance, machinery, mechanism; device, machination).
machinator -oris, m. (a maker of machines, engineer; a deviser, contriver).
machinor -ari, dep. (to contrive, invent, devise).
macies -ei, f. (leanness, thinness, poverty, barrenness).
macresco -ere, (to grow lean, become thin).
macrocollum -i, n. (paper of the largest size).
mactabilis -e, (deadly).
mactatu, abl. sing. m. (by a sacrificial stroke).
macte, see mactus.
macto (1) -are, (to magnify, honor, glorify).
macto (2) -are, (to slay, smite; to afflict, punish).
mactus (1) -a -um, (glorified, honored); used only in voc. m. macte, (well done! bravo! good, luck!).
mactus (2) -a -um, (smitten).
macula -ae, f. (a spot, mark, stain); sometimes (the mesh of a net; a moral stain, blemish).
maculo -are, (to spot, stain, defile, pollute).
maculosus -a -um, (spotted, speckled, stained, polluted).
madefacio -facere -feci -factum, and pass. madefio -fieri, (to make wet, moisten, soak).
madeo -ere, (to be wet, to stream; to be drunk; to be boiled). Transf., (to be steeped in, abound in).
madesco madescere madui, (to become wet).
madidus -a -um, (moist, wet; drunk; boiled soft; dyed, steeped). Adv. madide, (drunkenly).
mador -oris, m. (moisture, wetness).
Maeander and Maeandros (-us) -dri, m. (a river in Asia Minor, proverbial for its winding course; a winding).
Maecenas -atis, m. C. Cilnius, (the patron of Horace and Vergil).

maena (mena) -ae, f. (a small sea-fish).
Maenas -adis, f. (a bacchante; a prophetess).
maereo -ere, intransit. (to grieve, mourn, lament); transit. (to lament, bewail).
maeror -oris, m. (mourning, grief, sorrow).
maestitia -ae, f. (sadness, dejection, gloom).
maestus -a -um, (sad, dejected, gloomy); adv. maestiter.
magalia -ium, n. pl. (huts).
mage, see magis.
magicus -a -um, (magical).
magis (or mage), (more, to a greater extent; rather, for preference); 'non magis..quam', (not, more..than, just as much..as); 'quo
magis..eo magis', (the more..the more)., Superl. maxime (maxume), (in the highest degree, most of all, especially, very, much so);
'quam maxime', (as much as possible); with tum, cum, (just, precisely).
magister -tri, m. (master, chief, head, director); 'populi', (dictator); 'equitum', (master, of the horse, the dictator's lieutenant);
'magister ludi', (a schoolmaster, teacher); 'societatis', (director of a company); 'elephanti', (driver);, 'navis', (master or helmsman).
Transf., (instigator, adviser, guide).
magisterium -i, n. (directorship, magistracy; direction, guidance).
magistra -ae, f. (a mistress, directress).
magistratus -us, m. (a magistracy, official dignity, office). Transf., (a magistrate, state, official).
magnanimitas -atis, f. (greatness of soul, magnanimity).
magnanimus -a -um, (high-minded, magnanimous).
magnificentia -ae, f. (loftiness of thought or action; grandeur, magnificence, splendor); in bad, sense, (boasting, pomposity).
magnifico -are, (to prize highly, esteem).
magnificus -a -um, compar. magnificentior; superl. magnificentissimus; (grand, splendid, fine);, in bad sense, (boastful, pompous). Adv.
magniloquentia -ae, f. (lofty or elevated language; pompous or boastful).
magniloquus -a -um, (lofty or elevated in language; pompous or boastful).
magnitudo -inis, f. (greatness); 'animi', (magnanimity).
magnopere and separately magno opere, (greatly, very much).
magnus -a -um, compar. maior, maius; superl. maximus (maxumus) -a -um; (great, large); of, sound, (loud); of price or value, (high);
magno, and magni, (at a high price, dear, highly). Transf., of time, (long, old); of standing, (great, mighty, powerful, important); m. pl.
of compar. as subst., maiores, (ancestors); 'in, maius', (to a higher degree); magno opere, see magnopere; for maxime, see, magis.
Mago (-on) -onis, m. (brother of Hannibal).
magus (1) -i, m. (a learned Persian; a magician).
magus (2) -a -um, (magical).
Maia -ae, f. (the daughter of Atlas, mother of Mercury); adj. Maius -a -um, (of Maia);, '(mensis) Maia', (the month of May).
maiestas -atis, f. (greatness, grandeur, dignity, majesty); 'crimen maiestatis', (treason).
maior, maiores; see magnus.
Maius -a -um, adj. from Maia; q.v.
maiusculus -a -um, (somewhat greater or older).
mala -ae, f. (cheekbone, jawbone; jaw, cheek).
malacia -ae, f. (a calm at sea).
malacus -a -um, (soft, pliable; effeminate, delicate).
maledico -dicere -dixi -dictum (sometimes separately, male dico), (to speak ill, abuse); pres. partic. maledicens -entis, (abusive);, n. of
perf. partic. as subst. maledictum -i, (cursing, abusive language).
maledictio -onis, f. (reviling, abuse).
maledicus -a -um, (abusive, scurrilous); adv. maledice.
malefacio -facere -feci -factum (sometimes separately, male facio), (to injure); n. of perf. partic. as subst. malefactum -i, (an ill, deed,
malefactor -oris, m. (an evil-doer).
maleficium -i, n. (wrongdoing; mischief).

maleficus -a -um, (evil-doing, mischievous); adv. malefice.
malesuadus -a -um, (ill-advising, seductive).
malevolens -entis, (spiteful, ill-disposed).
malevolentia -ae, f. (ill-will, spite, malice).
malevolus -a -um, (ill-disposed, spiteful, malicious).
malifer -fera -ferum, (apple-bearing).
malignitas -atis, f. (ill-nature, malignity, spite; stinginess).
malignus -a -um, (ill-disposed, wicked); esp. (stingy, niggardly; barren, unfruitful; stinted, scanty). Adv. maligne.
malitia -ae, f. (badness, wickedness, vice); esp. (craft, cunning, malice).
malitiosus -a -um, (wicked; crafty, roguish, knavish); adv. malitiose.
malleolus -i, m. (a little hammer; a kind of fire-dart).
malleus -i, m. (a hammer, mallet, poleaxe).
malo malle malui, (to wish rather, prefer); with dative of person, (to be more favorable to).
malobathrum -i, n. (a plant, from which ointment was prepared).
malum (1) -i, n.; see malus(1).
malum (2) -i, n. (an apple, or other similar fruit).
malus (1) -a -um: comp. peior -us; superl. pessimus -a -um, (bad, evil (physically or morally); unfavorable, unsuccessful, ugly). N. as,
subst. malum -i, (an evil; harm, disaster; punishment); as a term of abuse, (scoundrel). Adv. male; compar. peius; superl. pessime,
(badly, ill); 'male, audire', (to be ill spoken of); (unsuccessfully, unfortunately); with words, bad in sense, (bitterly, excessively); with
words of favorable sense, with, negative force, e.g. 'male gratus', (unthankful).
malus (2) -i, f. (an apple tree).
malus (3) -i, m. (the mast of a ship; an upright, pole).
malva -ae, f. (the mallow).
Mamers -mertis, m. (the Oscan name of Mars); hence Mamertini -orum, m. pl., (the name assumed, by certain mercenary troops).
mamilla -ae, f. (breast, teat).
mamma -ae, f. (breast).
manabilis -e, (flowing, penetrating).
manceps -cipis, m. (a purchaser, farmer, contractor).
mancipium (mancupium) -i, n. (a formal purchasing of anything). Transf. (a slave acquired by, mancipium).
mancipo (mancupo) -are, (to sell formally; give up).
mancus -a -um, (maimed, crippled, imperfect, defective).
mandatu, abl. sing. m. (by order).
mandatum -i, n. subst. from mando; q.v.
mando (2) -are, (to commit, entrust); of actions, (to order, command, commission). N. of, partic. as subst., mandatum -i, (a
commission, charge, order).
mando (1) mandere mandi mansum, (to chew, masticate; to eat, consume).
mandra -ae, f. (a stall, cattle pen; a herd of cattle; a draughtboard).
mane, indecl. n.: as subst. (morning); as adv. (in the morning, early).
maneo manere mansi mansum, intransit. (to remain, stay; to stay the night; to endure, last); 'promissis', (to abide by); transit., in
gen., (to wait for, to await).
manes -ium, m. pl. (the shades of the departed, spirits of the dead); poet., (the lower, world, infernal regions; corpse, ashes,
mango -onis, m. (a salesman, esp. a slave dealer).
manica -ae, f. (a sleeve, serving as a glove; handcuffs, manacles).
manicatus -a -um, (having long sleeves).
manicula -ae, f. (a little hand).
manifesto -are, (to show clearly, reveal).
manifestus -a -um, (palpable, clear, visible, evident; caught out, detected). Abl. sing. n. as, adv. manifesto, (clearly); compar.
Manilius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).

manipularis (maniplaris) -e, (belonging to a maniple); m. as subst. (a private soldier, a fellow-soldier).
manipulatim, (in bundles; in maniples).
manipulus (poet. maniplus) -i, m. (a handful, bundle); milit. (a company of infantry, a division of the Roman, army).
Manlius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
mannulus -i, m. (a pony).
mannus -i, m. (a pony, cob).
mano -are, (to flow, drip, spread); with abl., (to drip with); with acc., (to exude).
mansio -onis, f. (stay, sojourn; station, stage).
mansito -are, (to abide, stay).
mansuefacio -facere -feci -factum, pass. mansuefio -fieri -factus sum, (to tame; to soften, pacify, civilize).
mansues -is or -etis, (tame).
mansuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum, transit. (to tame); intransit. (to grow tame or soft). Hence partic. mansuetus, -a -um, (tame,
mild, soft); adv. mansuete.
mansuetudo -inis, f. (tameness; mildness, gentleness).
mantele -is, n. (towel, napkin).
mantelum -i, n. (covering, cloak).
mantica -ae, f. (wallet, knapsack).
manto -are, (to remain, wait, wait for).
Mantua -ae, f. (a town in north Italy).
manualis -e, (fitted to the hand).
manubiae -arum, f. pl. (money from the sale of booty, esp. the general's share; spoils, profit).
manubrium -i, n. (haft, handle).
manuf-, see manif-.
manuleus -i, m. and manulea -ae, f. (a long sleeve).
manumissio -onis, f. (the emancipation of a slave).
manumitto -mittere -misi -missum (or as two words, manu mitto), (to manumit, emancipate a slave).
manupretium (manipr-) -i, n. (wages, hire, reward).
manus -us, f. (hand); 'manus dare', (to surrender); 'in manibus', (on hand, in, preparation); 'servus ad manum', (a secretary); abl.
'manu', (by hand, artificially). Transf., (the strong arm, fist, force, effort; power, jurisdiction; the hand or touch of artist or craftsman; a
band or body of men;, an elephant's trunk); 'manus ferrea', (grappling iron).
mapalia -ium, n. pl. (huts, hovels).
mappa -ae, f. (a table napkin).
Marcellus -i, m. (the cognomen of a family of the gens Claudia).
marceo -ere, (to wither, droop, be feeble).
marcesco -ere, (to begin to droop, grow feeble).
marcidus -a -um, (withering, drooping, enfeebled).
marcor -oris, m. (rottenness, decay).
marculus -i, m. (a small hammer).
Marcus -i, (a Roman praenomen), abbreviated M.
mare -is, n. (the sea); 'mare nostrum', (the Mediterranean); 'superum', (the Adriatic);, 'inferum', (the Tyrrhenian Sea).
margarita -ae, f. (a pearl).
margaritum -i, n. (a pearl).
margino -are, (to border).
margo -inis, m. and f. (a border, edge, boundary).
marinus -a -um, (of the sea, marine); 'ros', (rosemary).
maritalis -e, (conjugal, matrimonial).
maritimus (maritumus) -a -um, (of or on the sea, marine); 'praedo', (a pirate); n. pl. as subst. (the sea, coast).
marito -are, (to marry, give in marriage); of vines, (to bind to a tree, to train).
maritus -a -um, (matrimonial, nuptial); of plants, (tied or trained together). As subst., maritus -i, m. (husband, lover, suitor); marita -
ae, f. (wife).

Marius -a -um, (the name of a Roman gens).
marmor -oris, n. (marble; marble statue; stone; the white foamy surface of the sea).
marmoreus -a -um, (of marble, like marble).
Maro -onis, m. (the cognomen of the poet P. Vergilius).
marra -ae, f. (a hoe).
Mars Martis, m. (old form, Mavors), (Mars, god of agriculture and of war). Transf., (war, battle, fight). Adj. Martius and poet. Mavortius
-a -um, (of Mars); 'Martius, (mensis)', (the month of March); (warlike). Adj. Martialis -e, (of Mars); m., as subst. (a priest of Mars or
soldier of the Legio Martia).
Marsi -orum, m. (an ancient people of Latium); adj. Marsicus and Marsus -a -um; 'Marsicum, bellum', (the Social War).
marsuppium -i, n. (a purse, pouch).
Martialis (1) -e, adj. from Mars; q.v.
Martialis (2) -is, m. M. Valerius, (Martial, the writer of epigrams).
Martigena -ae, m. (offspring of Mars).
Martius -a -um, adj. from Mars; q.v.
mas maris, m. (the male; manly, vigorous).
masculus -a -um, (male; manly, bold).
Masinissa -ae, m. (king of Numidia).
massa -ae, f. (a lump, mass).
massicum -i, n. (Massic wine).
Massilia -ae, f. (a town in Gallia Narbonensis) (now Marseilles); adj. Massiliensis -e.
mastigia -ae, m. (a scoundrel).
mastruca -ae, f. (a sheepskin).
matara -ae and mataris -is, f. (a pike, lance).
matellio -onis, m. (a small pot, vessel).
mater matris, f. (mother; source, origin).
matercula -ae, f. (little mother).
materia -ae, f. (matter, material, stuff; timber). Transf., (subject matter; occasion, cause; natural disposition).
materies -ei, f. (matter, material, stuff; timber). Transf., (subject matter; occasion, cause; natural disposition).
materio -are, (to construct of wood).
materis, = matara; q.v.
maternus -a -um, (of a mother, maternal).
matertera -ae, f. (maternal aunt).
mathematicus -a -um, (mathematical); m. as subst. (a mathematician or astrologer); f. mathematica, -ae, (mathematics or astrology).
matricida -ae, c. (a matricide).
matricidium -i, n. (slaying of a mother, matricide).
matrimonium -i, n. (marriage).
matrimus -a -um, (having a mother still living).
matrona -ae, f. (a married woman, matron).
Matrona -ae, m. (a river in Gaul) (now the Marne).
matronalis -e, (of a married woman, matronly); n. pl. as subst. Matronalia -ium, (a festival, held by Roman matrons).
matta -ae, f. (a mat of rushes).
mattea (mattya) -ae, f. (a dainty dish).
maturesco maturescere maturui, (to ripen, become ripe).
maturitas -atis, f. (ripeness, maturity; the right moment, fullness of time).
maturo -are, transit. (to make ripe, ripen; to quicken, hasten, accelerate; to anticipate, do too soon); intransit. (to hasten, make
maturus -a -um, (ripe, mature, grown up, developed, perfect; timely, quick, speedy, early)., Adv. mature, (at the right time,
seasonably, opportunely; in good time, betimes, early; too soon, prematurely).

matutinus -a -um, (early in the morning, of morning).
Mauri -orum, m. (the Moors); adj. Maurus -a -um; subst. Mauritania -ae, f. (Mauritania).
mavolo, see malo.
Mavors -vortis, m. archaic and poet. for Mars; adj. Mavortius -a -um.
maxilla -ae, f. (jawbone, jaw).
maximitas -atis, f. (greatness, size).
maximus, superl. of magnus; q.v.
mazonomus -i, m. or mazonomon -i, n. (a charger, large dish).
meatus -us, m. (a going, motion; a way, path).
mecastor, see Castor.
meddix -icis, m. (an Oscan magistrate).
Medea -ae, f. (an enchantress, who helped Jason to obtain the golden fleece).
medeor -eri, dep. (to heal, to cure, assist, alleviate); pres. partic. as subst. medens, -entis, m. (a physician).
Medi -orum, m. (the Medes); poet. = (the Persians).
mediastinus -i, m. (a drudge).
medica -ae, f. (lucerne, clover).
medicabilis -e, (curable).
medicamen -inis, n. (a drug, medicine, remedy; poison; dye, rouge).
medicamentum -i, n. (a drug, medicine, remedy; a magic potion; poison; embellishment).
medicatus -us, m. (means of enchantment, charm).
medicinus -a -um, (of the art of healing); f. as subst. medicina -ae, (the art of healing;, medicine; cure).
medico -are, (to drug; to dye); partic. medicatus -a -um, (steeped, drugged).
medicor -ari, dep. (to heal, cure).
medicus -a -um, (healing, medicinal); m. as subst. medicus -i, (a doctor, physician).
medimnum -i, n. and medimnus -i, m. (a Greek measure of capacity).
mediocris -e, (moderate, middling, ordinary); adv. mediocriter, (moderately, tolerably; with, moderation).
mediocritas -atis, f. (moderation, medium, the mean; mediocrity, insignificance).
Mediolanum and -lanium -i, n. (a town in Cisalpine Gaul) (now Milan).
meditamentum -i, n. (preparation, practice).
meditatio -onis, f. (1) (a thinking over, contemplation). (2) (practice, exercise, preparation).
mediterraneus -a -um, (inland); n. pl. as subst. (inland country).
meditor -ari, dep. (1) (to think over, consider); esp. (to think about doing, to meditate, intend). (2) (to practice). Perf. partic. in pass.
sense, meditatus -a -um, (meditated, considered, prepared); adv. meditate, (thoughtfully, thoroughly).
medius -a -um, (middle, midmost, mid; intervening, central, neutral, intermediate). N. as, subst. medium -i, (the middle; the public
eye, everyday life; the community, common good). Adv. medie, (moderately).
mediusfidius, see Fidius.
medulla -ae, f. (the marrow of the bones).
Medus, see Medi.
Medusa -ae, f. (one of the Gorgons, slain by Perseus).
Megara -ae, f. (and -orum, n. pl.). (1) (a town in Greece). (2) (a town in Sicily).
megistanes -um, m. pl. (grandees, magnates).
mehercule, see Hercules.
mel mellis, n. (honey; sweetness, pleasantness).
melancholicus -a -um, (having black bile, melancholy).
melanurus -i, m. (small edible sea-fish).
melicus -a -um, (musical; lyrical, lyric).
melilotos -i, f. (a species of clover).
melimela -orum, n. pl. (honey apples).
melior -us, compar. of bonus; q.v.
melisphyllum and melissophyllon -i, n. (balm).
Melita -ae, f. (the island of Malta); adj. Melitensis -e, (of Malta).
meliusculus -a -um, (somewhat better); adv. meliuscule, (somewhat better, pretty well (in, health)).

mellifer -fera -ferum, (producing honey).
mellitus -a -um, (honeyed; sweet as honey).
melos -i, n. (a tune, song).
Melos -i, f. (an island in the Aegean Sea).
Melpomene -es, f. (the Muse of tragic poetry).
membrana -ae, f. (a thin skin, film, membrane; prepared skin, parchment).
membratim, (limb by limb; piecemeal, singly; in short sentences).
membrum -i, n. (a limb, member, part of the body; a clause in a sentence).
memini -nisse, perf. with sense of present, (to remember, recollect). Transf. (to make, mention of, to mention).
memor -oris, (mindful, remembering; with a good memory; grateful, thoughtful, prudent;, reminiscent, reminding).
memorabilis -e, (remarkable, worthy of mention, memorable).
memorandus -a -um, gerundive from memoro; q.v.
memorator -oris, m. (a narrator).
memoratus -us, m. (mention).
memoria -ae, f. (memory, the capacity for remembering, remembrance; record of the past, tradition, history).
memoriola -ae, f. (memory).
memoriter, (by heart, from memory).
memoro -are, (to mention, call to mind, relate); gerundive memorandus -a -um, (notable, memorable).
Memphis -is and -idos, f. (a city of Egypt).
Menander -dri, m. (a Greek comic poet).
menda -ae, f.; see mendum.
mendacium -i, n. (lie, falsehood).
mendax -acis, (lying, mendacious, false).
mendicitas -atis, f. (beggary).
mendico -are and mendicor -ari, dep. (to beg, go begging; beg for).
mendicus -a -um, (poor as a beggar, beggarly; paltry, pitiful); m. as subst. mendicus -i, (a, beggar).
mendosus -a -um, (full of faults, inaccurate, making mistakes); adv. mendose, (faultily).
mendum -i, n. and menda -ae, f. (a fault, defect, blemish, mistake).
Menelaus -i, m. (brother of Agamemnon, husband of Helen).
mens mentis, f. (mind, understanding, intellect, judgment; feelings, disposition; courage;, opinion, thoughts; intention, resolve).
mensa -ae, f. (a table, counter, altar; a course at a meal).
mensarius -i, m. (a financial commissioner).
mensio -onis, f. (measuring).
mensis -is, m. (a month).
mensor -oris, m. (a measurer, surveyor; an architect).
menstruus -a -um, (monthly, lasting a month); n. as subst. (rations for a month; a month in, office).
mensura -ae, f. (measuring; measure, standard, capacity; amount, proportion).
menta (mentha) -ae, f. (the herb mint).
mentio -onis, f. (mention).
mentior -iri, dep. (to lie; to deceive, mislead, disappoint; to say falsely, invent;, fabricate; to counterfeit, put on, assume). Hence
pres. partic. mentiens, -entis, (lying); m. as subst. (a fallacy, sophism); perf. partic. mentitus -a, -um, (lying, fictitious).
mentum -i, n. (the chin).
meo meare, (to go, pass).
mephitis -is, f. (a noxious exhalation, malaria); personif., (the goddess who protects, against malaria).
meracus -a -um, (pure, unmixed).
mercabilis -e, (that can be bought).
mercator -oris, m. (a merchant, wholesale trader).
mercatorius -a -um, (relating to trade).
mercatura -ae, f. (trade, traffic; merchandise).

mercatus -us, m. (trade, traffic, business; a market, fair, place of business).
mercedula -ae, f. (low wages or rent).
mercennarius (m%rcenarius) -a -um, (hired, paid); m. as subst. (a hired servant).
merces -edis, f. (hire, pay, wages; a bribe; cost, punishment; interest, rent, income).
mercimonium -i, n. (goods, merchandise).
mercor -ari, dep. (to carry on trade, to traffic; to buy).
Mercurius -i, m. (Mercury, messenger of the gods); adj. Mercurialis -e, (of Mercury); m. pl., as subst. (a corporation of traders at
merda -ae, f. (excrement).
merenda -ae, f. (a luncheon).
mereo -ere -ui -itum, and mereor -eri -itus, dep. (to deserve, earn, obtain); esp. (to earn pay as a, soldier, serve as a soldier). Hence
perf. partic. meritus -a -um, (deserving);, in pass. sense, (deserved). N. as subst., meritum -i, (desert, merit; a good, action, benefit,
service; blame, fault, grounds, reason). Abl. as adv. merito, (deservedly, rightly).
meretricius -a -um, (of a harlot); adv. meretricie.
meretricula -ae, f. (a little harlot).
meretrix -icis, f. (a harlot).
mergae -arum, f. pl. (a two-pronged fork).
merges -gitis, f. (a sheaf of corn).
mergo mergere mersi mersum, (to dip, plunge into liquid, immerse, sink, overwhelm).
mergus -i, m. (a sea-bird, esp. a gull).
meridianus -a -um, (of midday, meridian; southern).
meridiatio -onis, f. (midday sleep, siesta).
meridies -ei, m. (midday, noon; the south).
meridio -are, (to take a siesta).
merito (1), adv. from mereo; q.v.
merito (2) -are, (to earn regularly).
meritorius -a -um, (hired); n. pl. as subst., (lodgings).
meritum -i, n., subst. from mereo; q.v.
merops -opis, f. (a bird, the bee-eater).
merso -are, (to dip in, immerse).
merula -ae, f. (a blackbird; a fish, the sea-carp).
merus -a -um, (pure, unmixed; complete, sheer); esp. of wine, (undiluted); n. as subst., merum -i, (wine unmixed with water).
merx (mers) mercis, f. (merchandise, goods, wares).
Mesopotamia -ae, f. (the country between the Euphrates and the Tigris).
Messana -ae, f.(a town in Sicily on the straits between Italy and Sicily).
messis -is, f. (harvest, crop; time of harvest, harvest-tide).
messor -oris, m. (a reaper, mower).
messorius -a -um, (of a reaper).
meta -ae, f. (a pyramidal column) used as a turning-post or winning-post; (any turning, point; a goal, end, boundary).
metallum -i, n. (a metal; a mine, quarry (esp. pl.)).
metamorphosis -is, f. (transformation); plur. Metamorphoses -eon, (the title of a poem by Ovid).
metaphora -ae, f. (metaphor).
metator -oris, m. (a measurer, one who marks out).
Metaurus -i, m. (a river in Umbria).
metior metiri mensus, dep. (to measure; to traverse, pass over; to estimate, judge).
meto metere messui messum, (to reap, mow, gather, harvest; to mow down, cut off).
metor -ari, dep. and meto -are, (to measure off, lay out).
metreta -ae, f. (a Greek liquid measure).
metrum -i, n. (a measure; meter).
metuculosus -a -um, (timid; frightful).
metuo -uere -ui -utum, (to fear, be afraid).

metus -us, m. (fear, dread; reverence, awe).
meus -a -um, (my, mine); 'Nero meus', (my friend Nero).
mica -ae, f. (a crumb, morsel, grain).
mico -are -ui, (to move rapidly to and fro, vibrate, flicker; to shine, glitter, sparkle).
Midas (Mida) -ae, m. (a king of Phrygia, who turned to gold everything that he touched).
migratio -onis, f. (removal, change of home).
migratu, abl. sing. m. (in transport).
migro -are, intransit. (to migrate, depart; to change); transit. (to move, transport; to, transgress).
miles -itis, c. (a soldier; a private soldier, infantryman); coll. (soldiery).
militaris -e, (of a soldier, military); m. as subst. (a soldier); adv. militariter, (in a, soldierly manner).
militia -ae, f. (military service, warfare); 'domi militiaeque', (at home and abroad, at, peace and in war); meton., (the military,
milito -are, (to serve as a soldier, be a soldier).
milium -i, n. (millet).
mille, (a thousand); plur. milia (millia) -ium, (thousands); 'mille passuum', (a, thousand paces, a Roman mile).
millensimus (millesimus) -a -um, (thousandth).
milliarium (miliarium) -i, n. (a milestone).
milliarius (miliarius) -a -um, (containing a thousand).
millies (milliens), (a thousand times).
milvinus (miluinus) -a -um, (of a kite).
milvus (miluus) -i, m. (a kite; a fish, the gunard).
mima -ae, f. (an actress).
mimicus -a -um, (farcical); adv. mimice.
mimula -ae, f. (a little actress).
mimus -i, m. (a mimic actor; a mime, farce).
mina (1), f. adj. (smooth, hairless).
mina (2) -ae, f. (a Greek weight); also (a Greek coin).
minae -arum, f. (battlements, parapets). Transf. (threats, menaces).
minatio -onis, f. (a threatening, menace).
minax -acis, (projecting, overhanging). Transf., (threatening). Adv. minaciter, (threateningly).
mineo -ere, (to project, overhang).
Minerva -ae, f. (goddess of wisdom and patroness of arts and sciences). Transf., (wit, art, skill); esp. (working in wool).
miniatus -a -um, (colored with red lead, painted vermilion).
minime, see parvus.
minimus, see parvus.
minister -tri, m. (servant, attendant, assistant).
ministerium -i, n. (service, attendance, employment); in plur., (attendants, retinue).
ministra -ae, f. (servant, attendant, assistant).
ministrator -oris, m. (a servant, attendant, assistant).
ministratrix -icis, f. (a servant, attendant, assistant).
ministro -are, (to serve, wait, esp. at table; to attend to, take care of, direct; to serve, supply, provide).
minitabundus -a -um, (threatening).
minito -are and minitor -ari, dep. (to threaten).
minium -i, n. (native cinnabar; red lead, vermilion).
minor (1) -ari, dep. (to jut out, project). Transf., (to threaten, menace) (with dat.). Adv., from partic. minanter, (threateningly).
minor (2) -oris, compar. from parvus; q.v.
Minos -ois and -onis, m. (king of Crete; after his death, a judge in Tartarus).
Minotaurus -i, m. (a monster, half-bull, half-man, slain by Theseus).
minume, see mimime.
minumus, see minimus.
minuo -uere -ui -utum, (to make smaller, lessen, diminish; to cut to pieces). Hence partic. minutus, -a -um,

(small, petty, insignificant); adv. minute.
minus, see parvus, parum.
minusculus -a -um, (rather small).
minutal -alis, n. (a dish of minced meat).
minutatim, (bit by bit, gradually).
minutia -ae, f. (smallness).
minutus -a -um, partic. from minuo; q.v.
mirabilis -e, (wonderful, extraordinary, unusual); adv. mirabiliter.
mirabundus -a -um, (wondering).
miraculum -i, n. (a wonderful thing, prodigy, miracle; wonder, surprise).
miratio -onis, f. (wonder, astonishment).
mirator -oris, m. (an admirer).
miratrix -icis, f. adj. (wondering).
mirificus -a -um, (causing wonder, wonderful, astonishing); adv. mirifice.
mirmillo (murm-) -onis, m. (a kind of gladiator).
miror -ari, dep. (to wonder, be astonished at; to admire, look on with admiration);, gerundive mirandus -a -um, (wonderful).
mirus -a -um, (wonderful, astonishing, extraordinary); adv. mire.
miscellanea -orum, n. pl. (a hash, hotchpotch).
misceo miscere miscui mixtum, (to mix, mingle; to combine, unite; to prepare by mixing; to confuse, confound).
misellus -a -um, (miserable, wretched, little).
Misenus -i, m. (the trumpeter of Aeneas); Misenum -i, n. (a promontory and town in, Campania).
miser -era -erum, (wretched, unhappy, sad); adv. misere.
miserabilis -e, (sad, wretched, mournful, plaintive); adv. miserabiliter.
miseratio -onis, f. (pity, compassion; a pathetic speech or tone).
misereo -ere and misereor -eri, dep. (to pity) (with genit.); impers., miseret and dep. miseretur, (it excites, pity, one pities).
miseresco -ere, (to pity, have compassion on) (with genit.).
miseria -ae, f. (wretchedness, unhappiness, distress).
misericordia -ae, f. (pity, compassion, mercy; an appeal to pity).
misericors -cordis, f. (pitiful, compassionate).
miseror -ari, dep. (to bewail, deplore; to pity, have compassion on); gerundive miserandus, -a -um, (pitiable, lamentable).
missicius -a -um, (discharged from military service).
missilis -e, (that can be thrown); n. as subst. (a missile).
missio -onis, f. (a sending off, letting go, releasing, discharge; cessation, termination).
missito -are, (to send repeatedly).
missus (1) -us, m. (a letting go, sending, throwing; a shot, the distance shot); in races, (a, course or heat).
missus (2) -a -um, partic. from mitto; q.v.
mitesco -ere, (to become mild, soft, or ripe; to be allayed, to subside).
Mithridates -is, m. (name of several kings of Pontus).
mitigatio -onis, f. (assuaging, appeasing).
mitigo -are, (to make mild, or ripe; to soothe, appease, pacify).
mitis -e, (mild, soft, ripe; gentle); of style, (mellow); compar. adv. mitius; superl., mitissime.
mitra -ae, f. (a headdress, turban).
mitratus -a -um, (wearing the mitra).
mitto mittere misi missum, (to send, dispatch; to send as a gift; to fling; to shed; to utter; to let go, release, give up; to dismiss,
discharge; to pass over) a subject.
mitulus (mytulus, mutulus) -i, m. (an edible mussel).
mixtura -ae, f. (a mixing, mixture).
mna, = mina; q.v.
Mnemonides -um, f. pl. (the Muses).
Mnemosyne -es, f. (Mnemosyne, mother of the Muses).

mnemosynum -i, n. (a souvenir, memorial).
mobilis -e, (moveable, easy to move; pliable, flexible; active, rapid; changeable, inconstant). Adv. mobiliter, (quickly, easily).
mobilitas -atis, f. (mobility; inconstancy, changeableness).
mobilito -are, (to set in motion).
moderabilis -e, (moderate, restrained).
moderamen -inis, n. (a means of guiding); 'rerum', (management, government).
moderatim, (moderately, gradually).
moderatio -onis, f. (moderating, restraining; moderation, restraint).
moderator -oris, m. (a governor, controller, manager); 'equorum', (a driver).
moderatrix -icis, f. (she that governs or controls).
moderor -ari, dep. (and modero -are), (to keep within bounds; to regulate, restrain; to, control, govern, direct). Hence, from pres.
partic. adv. moderanter, (with, controlling force); perf. partic. moderatus -a -um, (restrained, controlled);, adv. moderate, (with
modestia -ae, f. (moderation; restraint, propriety, orderliness; respect, obedience to, authority).
modestus -a -um, (moderate, within bounds; orderly, restrained);adv. modeste.
modicus -a -um, (moderate, within bounds, limited; temperate; ordinary, undistinguished). Adv., modice, (moderately; to a limited
extent; temperately, with restraint).
modificatus -a -um, (measured).
modius -i, m. (a Roman grain measure); 'pleno modio', (in full measure, abundantly).
modo, (by measure); hence (only, merely, but, just); 'si modo, modo si', or 'modo', alone with subj., (provided that, if only); 'modo
ne', (provided that...not);, 'modo non', (all but, nearly); 'non modo...sed etiam', (not only...but also)., Of time, (just, lately; soon,
directly); 'modo... modo', (at one time...at, another...).
modulatio -onis, f. (rhythmical measure).
modulator -oris, m. (a musician).
modulor -ari, dep. (to measure); in music, (to modulate, to sing to the accompaniment of an, instrument; to play an instrument).
Adv. from partic. modulate, (in time (of, music)).
modulus -i, m. (a little measure).
modus -i, m. (a measure, standard of measurement); in music, (rhythm, measure, time); in, plur., (strains, numbers). Transf., (limit,
boundary; rule; manner, mode, way, method); 'servorum modo', (after the manner of slaves); 'eius modi', (in that, manner, of that
moecha -ae, f. (an adulteress).
moechor -ari, dep. (to commit adultery).
moechus -i, m. (an adulterer).
moenera, = munera; see munus.
moenia -ium, n. pl. (the walls or fortifications of a city, ramparts, bulwarks); poet., (castle, dwelling).
Moesi -orum, m. pl. (a people between Thrace and the Danube); Moesia -ae, f. (their, country).
mola -ae, f. (a millstone); plur., (a mill). Transf., (grits, coarse meal or flour).
molaris -e, (of a mill; to do with grinding); m. as subst. (a millstone; a molar tooth, grinder).
moles -is, f. (a shapeless mass, e.g. of rock; a massive construction, e.g. dam, mole, large building); 'moles belli', (large military
machines). Transf., (a mass of, men; greatness, might, power; trouble, difficulty).
molestia -ae, f. (annoyance, troublesomeness); of style, (affectation, stiffness).
molestus -a -um, (burdensome, troublesome, irksome); of style, (affected, labored). Adv., moleste, (with annoyance); 'moleste fero', (I
take it badly, am annoyed); of, style, (affectedly).
molimen -inis, n. (great effort, exertion, endeavor).
molimentum -i, n. (great effort, exertion, endeavor).
molior -iri, dep.: transit. (to stir, displace, work at; to construct laboriously, build, erect, contrive; to strive after; to destroy
laboriously, undermine);, intransit. (to toil, struggle, exert oneself).
molitio -onis, f. (effort, laborious undertaking; demolition).
molitor -oris, m. (a builder, contriver).
mollesco -ere, (to become soft or gentle).
molliculus -a -um, (soft, tender; effeminate).

mollio -ire, (to make soft, pliable, supple; to make gentle or effeminate; to alleviate, trouble; to ease a gradient).
mollipes -pedis, (soft-footed).
mollis -e, (soft, tender, pliant, supple); of weather, (mild); of gradients, (easy); of, character, (tender, gentle, sensitive, or
effeminate); of circumstances, (easy, mild, pleasant); of speech, (tender, moving). Adv. molliter, (softly, easily, gently, mildly;
mollitia -ae, f. (softness, flexibility; tenderness, mildness, sensibility; effeminacy).
mollities -ei, f. (softness, flexibility; tenderness, mildness, sensibility; effeminacy).
mollitudo -inis, f. (softness, pliability; tenderness, sensibility).
molo -ere -ui -itum, (to grind in a mill).
Molossi -orum, m. (a people in Epirus). Adj. Molossus -a -um, 'pes', (a metrical foot, consisting of three long syllables); m. as subst. (a
Molossian hound).
moly -yos, n. (the herb moly).
momen -inis, n. (movement; a moving mass; momentum, impulse).
momentum -i, n. (movement, motion; change, alteration; a cause of motion, impulse; mental, impulse, influence; weight,
importance); of time, (a turning point, minute, moment).
Mona -ae, f. (the isle of Man); also (the isle of Anglesey).
monedula -ae, f. (jackdaw).
moneo -ere, (to remind, admonish, warn, advise, instruct). N. pl. of partic. as subst., monita -orum, (warnings; prophecies).
moneris -is, f. (a vessel with one bank of oars).
Moneta -ae, f. (1) (the mother of the Muses). (2) (a surname of Jove). (3) (the mint;, money).
monetalis -e, (of the mint).
monile -is, n. (necklace, collar).
monimentum, = monumentum; q.v.
monitio -onis, f. (reminding, warning).
monitor -oris, m. (one who reminds or prompts; an adviser, instructor).
monitus -us, m. (warning, admonition).
monogrammos or -us -i, m. adj. (sketched, shadowy).
monopodium -i, n. (a table with one foot).
mons montis, m. (a mountain; a mass; a great rock).
monstrator -oris, m. (a pointer-out; an inventor).
monstro -are, (to show, point out; to ordain, appoint; to inform against, denounce).
monstrum -i, n. (a wonder, portent).
monstruosus (monstrosus) -a -um, (strange, wonderful); adv. monstruose.
montanus -a -um, (of a mountain, or mountainous); m. as subst. (a mountaineer); n. pl. as, subst. (mountainous country).
monticola -ae, c. (a highlander).
montivagus -a -um, (wandering over the mountains).
montuosus (montosus) -a -um, (mountainous).
monumentum (monimentum) -i, n. (a memorial, monument; a commemorative building; written memorials, annals, memoirs).
mora (1) -ae, f. (delay, hindrance; any space of time).
mora (2) -ae, f. (a division of the Spartan army).
moralis -e, (moral, ethical).
morator -oris, m. (a delayer; an advocate who talks against time).
moratus (1), partic. from moror; q.v.
moratus (2) -a -um, (having certain manners or morals; adapted to a character, in character, characteristic).
morbidus -a -um, (sickly, diseased, unwholesome).
morbus -i, m. (disease, sickness).
mordax -acis, (biting, snappish; stinging, pungent; satirical). Compar. adv. mordacius, (more bitingly).
mordeo mordere momordi morsum, (to bite; to cut into; to nip, sting; to vex, hurt, pain).
mordicus, (with the teeth, by biting).
moretum -i, n. (a salad).

moribundus -a -um, (dying, expiring; subject to death, mortal; causing death, deadly).
morigeror -ari, dep. (and morigero -are), (to comply with, gratify).
morigerus -a -um, (compliant, accommodating).
morior mori mortuus moriturus, dep. (to die; to die away, wither away, decay). Hence partic. mortuus -a -um, (dead; decayed,
extinct; half-dead); m. as subst. (a corpse).
morologus -a -um, (talking like a fool).
moror (1) -ari, dep. (to delay); intransit. (to linger, loiter, stay); transit. (to retard, detain, hinder); 'nihil (nil) morari', (to care nothing
moror (2) -ari, dep. (to be foolish).
morositas -atis, f. (peevishness, fretfulness).
morosus -a -um, (peevish, captious, fretful); adv. morose.
Morpheus -eos, m. (god of dreams).
mors mortis, f. (death, a corpse; a cause of death or destruction).
morsus -us, m. (a bite, biting; pungency; a verbal attack); in gen. (pain, vexation).
mortalis -e, (subject to death, mortal; transitory, perishable; human, earthly); m. as, subst. (a mortal man).
mortalitas -atis, f. (liability to death).
mortifer or mortiferus -fera -ferum, (causing death, fatal, deadly); adv. mortifere.
mortualia -ium, n. pl. (funeral songs, dirges).
mortuus -a -um, partic. from morior; q.v.
morum -i, n. (a mulberry; a blackberry).
morus (1) -a -um, (silly, foolish).
morus (2) -i, f. (a mulberry tree).
mos moris, m. (the will, inclination); 'morem homini gerere', (to humor a person);, (custom, usage, wont, rule); in plur. (ways,
conduct, character, morals).
Mosa -ae, f. (a river in Gaul) (now Meuse).
Mosella -ae, f. (a river in Gaul) (now Moselle).
motio -onis, f. (movement).
moto -are, (to move about).
motus (1) -a -um, partic. from moveo; q.v.
motus (2) -us, m. (motion, movement); 'terrae', (an earthquake; mental activity, emotion;, political movement, rebellion, rising,
moveo movere movi motum, (to move, set in motion, stir; to remove, dispossess, dislodge); 'se movere', and in middle sense,
'moveri', (to move oneself); milit. 'movere signa, movere, castra', (to march away); (to move mentally, influence, affect, excite; to,
cause a result; to change, shake); politically, (to arouse, disturb).
mox, (soon, presently; then, thereupon).
mucidus -a -um, (snivelling; moldy, musty).
Mucius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens); adj. Mucianus -a -um.
mucro -onis, m. (a sharp point or edge; a sword).
mucus -i, m. (mucous matter).
mugil (mugilis) -is, m. (a fish, perhaps mullet).
muginor -ari, dep. (to loiter, dally).
mugio -ire, (to bellow, roar, low, rumble, groan).
mugitus -us, m. (lowing, bellowing, rumbling, groaning).
mula -ae, f. (a female mule).
mulceo mulcere mulsi mulsum, (to stroke; to soothe, appease, charm).
Mulciber -eris and -eri, m. (surname of Vulcan); meton., (fire).
mulco -are, (to thrash; to handle roughly).
mulctra -ae, f. (milk pail).
mulctrarium -i, n. (milk pail).
mulctrum -i, n. (milk pail).
mulgeo mulgere mulsi, (to milk).
muliebris -e, (of a woman, feminine; effeminate); adv. muliebriter.
mulier -eris, f. (a woman; a wife, matron).

mulierarius -a -um, (womanish).
muliercula -ae, f. (a little woman).
mulierositas -atis, f. (love of women).
mulierosus -a -um, (fond of women).
mulinus -a -um, (of a mule, mulish).
mulio -onis, m. (a mule-keeper, mule-driver).
mulionius -a -um, (of a muleteer).
mullus -i, m. (the red mullet).
mulsus -a -um, (honeyed; as sweet as honey); n. as subst. (wine sweetened with honey, mead).
multa -ae, f. (a fine, mulct).
multangulus -a -um, (many-cornered).
multaticius -a -um, (relating to a fine).
multatio -onis, f. (fining).
multesimus -a -um, (very small).
multicavus -a -um, (porous).
multicia -orum, n. pl. (finely woven garments).
multifariam, (on many sides, in many places).
multifidus -a -um, (cloven into many parts).
multiformis -e, (having many shapes).
multiforus -a -um, (pierced with many holes).
multigeneris -e, (of many kinds).
multigenus -a -um, (of many kinds).
multiiugus -a -um, (yoked many together; manifold, of many sorts).
multiiugis -e, (yoked many together; manifold, of many sorts).
multiloquax -acis, (talkative).
multimodis, (in many ways, variously).
multiplex -plicis, (having many folds, winds or turnings; having many parts, manifold, many-, sided, versatile; many times as large).
multiplico -are, (to increase many times, multiply).
multitudo -inis, f. (a large number, multitude, crowd; common people, mob).
multo -are, (to punish).
multus -a -um, sing., (much, great); plur., (many, numerous); multi, (the common herd); 'ne, multa', (briefly, in brief); 'ad multum
diem', (till late in the day); 'in re, multus', (prolix on a subject, busy in a matter); occ., in sing., (many a); n., acc. sing. as adv. multum,
(much, greatly); abl. multo, (by much, by far)., Compar. plus: in sing. n. only, (more); genit. of value pluris, (at a higher, price, of more
value); in plur. plures plura, (more numerous, several, many)., Superl. plurimus, (most, very many); in sing., of a large number, like
the, English (full many a); of energy, etc., (strong); genit. of value plurimi, (at, the highest price or value).
mulus -i, m. (a mule).
Mulvius pons, (a bridge across the Tiber).
Mummius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
Munda -ae, f. (town in Hispania Baetica).
mundanus -i, m. (a citizen of the world).
munditia -ae, f. (cleanness, neatness, spruceness, elegance).
mundities -ei, f. (cleanness, neatness, spruceness, elegance).
mundus (1) -a -um, (clean, neat, elegant).
mundus (2) -i, m. (1) (toilet things, adornment). (2) (the universe, world; mankind).
munero -are and muneror -ari, dep. (to give, present).
munia -iorum, n. pl. (duties, functions; esp. official).
municeps -cipis, c. (the citizen of a municipium; a fellow citizen, fellow countryman).
municipalis -e, (belonging to a municipium, municipal);
municipium -i, n. (a borough, free town, municipal town).
munificentia -ae, f. (generosity).
munifico -are, (to present generously).

munificus -a -um, (generous, liberal); of wealth, (splendid); adv. munifice.
munimen -inis, n. (a protection, defence).
munimentum -i, n. (a fortification, defence, protection).
munio (moenio) -ire, (to build, esp., to build a wall); also (to surround with a wall; to fortify;, to secure, defend, protect). Hence
partic. munitus -a -um, (fortified, secured).
munitio -onis, f. (fortifying, building up, paving, bridging); concr., (a fortification).
munito -are, (to pave, make passable).
munitor -oris, m. (a builder of fortifications, sapper, engineer).
munus (moenus) -eris, n. (an office, function, duty; a charge, tax; a service, favor, gift; a public, show, esp. of gladiators; a public
munusculum -i, n. (a small gift).
muralis -e, (of a wall, mural); 'corona', (the crown given to the first man over the wall, of a besieged city).
murena (muraena) -ae, f. (a sea-fish, the murry or lamprey).
Murena -ae, m. (a cognomen in the gens Licinia).
murex -icis, m. (the purple-fish; purple dye; a sharp stone, projecting rock).
muria -ae, f. (brine, pickle).
murmillo, see mirmillo.
murmur -uris, n. (a murmur, humming, roaring, rumbling, crashing).
murmuro -are, (to murmur, roar, crash).
murra (1) (myrrha) -ae, f. (the myrrh tree; myrrh).
murra (2) (myrrha) -ae, f. (a mineral, perhaps flourspar).
murreus (1) (myrrheus) -a -um, (perfumed with myrrh; myrrh-colored).
murreus (2) (myrrheus) -a -um, (made of flourspar).
murus -i, m. (a wall, bank or dike); fig., (protection, defence).
mus muris, c. (a mouse or rat).
Musa -ae, f. (a muse; a goddess of music, literature and the arts).
musaeus -a -um, (poetical, musical).
musca -ae, f. (a fly).
muscarium -i, n. (a fly trap).
muscipula -ae, f. (a mouse trap).
muscipulum -i, n. (a mouse trap).
muscosus -a -um, (mossy).
musculus -i, m. (a little mouse; a sea-mussel); milit., (a shed, mantelet).
muscus -i, m. (moss).
museus, = musaeus; q.v.
musicus -a -um, (belonging to poetry or music, musical); m. as subst. (a musician); f. sing., musica -ae and musice -es, (music, poetry,
learned studies); adv. musice.
mussito -are, intransit. (to grumble, mutter); transit. (to keep quiet about a thing).
musso -are, (to murmur, mutter, whisper; to keep quiet about a thing; to be at a loss).
mustaceum -i, n. and mustaceus -i, m. (a must-cake, a sort of wedding cake).
mustela (mustella) -ae, f. (a weasel).
mustus -a -um, (young, new, fresh); n. as subst. (new wine, must).
mutabilis -e, (changeable, variable, inconstant).
mutatio -onis, f. (changing, change, alteration; mutual change, exchange).
mutilo -are, (to maim, mutilate, cut off; to curtail, diminish).
mutilus -a -um, (maimed, mutilated).
Mutina -ae, f. (town in Cisalpine Gaul) (now Modena).
mutio (muttio) -ire, (to mutter, mumble).
muto -are, transit. (to move, shift; to change, alter; to exchange, barter); with abl., (to give or to get one thing in exchange for
another); intrans. (to change, alter).
mutuatio -onis, f. (borrowing).
mutuor -ari, dep. (to borrow).
mutus -a -um, (inarticulate, dumb, mute, silent, still, quiet).

mutuus -a -um, (1) (interchanged, mutual, reciprocal); n. as subst. (reciprocity, equal, return); abl. as adv. mutuo, (mutually,
reciprocally). (2) (borrowed, lent);, 'pecuniam dare mutuam', (to lend); n. as subst. (a loan).
myoparo -onis, m. (a small piratical galley).
myrice -es, f. and myrica -ae, f. (the tamarisk).
myrtetum (murtetum) -i, n. (a grove of myrtle trees).
myrteus (murteus) -a -um, (of myrtle; adorned with myrtle).
myrtum -i, n. (myrtle berry).
myrtus -i and -us, f. (the myrtle tree); also (a myrtle shaft).
mystagogus -i, m. (a priest who showed sacred places to strangers).
mysteria -orum, n. pl. (mysteries, secrets), esp. of worship.
mystes or mysta -ae, m. (a priest at the mysteries).
mysticus -a -um, (secret, mystic).
nablium -i, n. (a kind of harp or lyre).
nae, = ne (1); q.v.
naenia, = nenia; q.v.
Naevius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens; esp. of Cn. Naevius, a poet of the third century, B.C.).
naevus -i, m. (a mole on the body).
Naias -adis and Nais -idis (-idos), f. (a water nymph, Naiad); adj. Naicus -a -um.
nam, conj. (for).
namque, conj. (for).
nanciscor nancisci nactus and nanctus, dep. (to light upon, obtain, meet).
nanus -i, m. (a dwarf).
Narbo -onis, m. (town in southern Gaul) (now Narbonne).
Narcissus -i, m. (Narcissus, a beautiful young man changed into the flower of the same, name).
nardum -i, n. (nard).
nardus -i, f. (nard).
naris -is, f. usually plur. nares -ium, (the nostrils, nose).
narrabilis -e, (able to be told).
narratio -onis, f. (telling, relating; a narrative).
narratiuncula -ae, f. (a short narrative).
narrator -oris, m. (narration, narrative).
narratus -us, m. (narration, narrative).
narro -are, (to make known; to say, speak).
narthecium -i, n. (a box for perfumes and medicines).
narus, = gnarus; q.v.
nascor nasci natus (and gnatus), dep. (to be born; to come into existence, arise, be produced). Hence partic., natus -a -um, (born,
naturally fitted or constituted); 'pro re nata', (under, present circumstances); 'annos prope xc natus', (almost ninety years old). As,
subst., m. (a son); f. (a daughter).
Nasica -ae, m. (name of a family of the Scipios).
Naso -onis, m. (cognomen of the poet Ovid).
nassa -ae, f. (a basket for catching fish; a trap, snare).
nasturcium -i, n. (a kind of cress).
nasus -i, m. (the nose); 'naso suspendere adunco', (to turn up the nose at, ridicule, mock).
nasutus -a -um, (having a large nose; acute, sagacious, satirical).
natalicius -a -um, (relating to birth); n. pl. as subst. (a birthday party).
natalis -e, (relating to birth, natal); m. as subst. (a birthday); plur. (birth, origin).
natatio -onis, f. (swimming).
natator -oris, m. (swimmer).
natio -onis, f. (being born, birth; a tribe, race, people, esp. uncivilized; a species, stock, class).
natis -is, f., usually plur. nates -ium, (the rump, buttocks).
nativus -a -um, (born; native, natural; inborn, innate).
nato -are, (to swim, float; to stream, flow; to swim with, be full of (with abl.)); f., pl. of partic. as subst. natantes, (fishes).

natrix -icis, f. (a water snake).
natu, abl. sing. m. (by birth); 'maior natu', (older).
natura -ae, f. (birth; nature, natural qualities or disposition, character; an element, substance, essence); 'rerum natura', (nature, the
world or universe).
naturalis -e, (natural, relating to nature); naturaliter, (naturally, by nature).
natus -a -um, partic. from nascor; q.v.
nauarchus -i, m. (captain of a ship).
nauclerus -i, m. (the master of a ship).
naucum -i, n. (a trifle); in genit. 'non nauci habere', (to think nothing of).
naufragium -i, n. (shipwreck; wreckage; ruin, loss); 'naufragium facere', (to suffer, shipwreck).
naufragus -a -um, pass. (shipwrecked); act. (causing shipwreck).
naulum -i, n. (fare, passage money).
naumachia -ae, f. (a naval battle performed as a show).
nausea -ae, f. (seasickness, nausea).
nauseo -are, (to be seasick; to cause disgust, nauseate).
nauseola -ae, f. (squeamishness).
nauta and navita -ae, m. (sailor, mariner).
nauticus -a -um, (of a sailor, nautical); m. pl. as subst. (sailors).
navalis -e, (of ships, naval, nautical); n. as subst. (a station for ships); plur. (a, dockyard, or materials for ship-building).
navicula -ae, f. (a little ship, boat).
navicularius -a -um, (of (small) ships); f. as subst. (the business of a ship-owner); m. as subst., (a ship-owner).
navifragus -a -um, (causing shipwreck).
navigabilis -e, (navigable).
navigatio -onis, f. (sailing, voyage).
naviger -gera -gerum, (ship-bearing, navigable).
navigium -i, n. (a vessel, ship).
navigo -are, intransit. (to sail, voyage, go by sea; to swim); transit. (to sail over, sail, through, navigate).
navis -is, f. (a ship, vessel); 'navis longa', (a man-of-war); 'oneraria', (a transport);, 'praetoria', (flagship).
navita, see nauta.
navitas (gnavitas) -atis, f. (energy, zeal).
navo -are, (to do energetically).
navus (gnavus) -a -um, (zealous, energetic). Adv. naviter (gnaviter), (energetically, completely).
ne (1), (not, that not, lest); 'ne..quidem', (not even, not..either).
ne (2) (nae), used before pronouns, (indeed, truly).
-ne (3) (sometimes n'), interrogative enclitic particle.
Neapolis -is, f. (1) (part of Syracuse). (2) (a seaport) (now Naples).
nebula -ae, f. (vapor, fog, mist, cloud).
nebulo -onis, m. (a good-for-nothing fellow).
nebulosus -a -um, (misty, foggy).
nec and neque, (not; and not, nor); rarely (not even); 'neque enim', (for...not); 'nec non', (and also); 'nec tamen', (and yet...not);
'nec...nec, neque...neque', (neither...nor).
necdum (neque dum), (and not yet).
necessarius -a -um, (necessary, unavoidable, inevitable; pressing, urgent; closely connected); as, subst. (an intimate friend or
relative); n. abl. necessario, and adv., necessarie, (necessarily, unavoidably).
necesse, indecl. adj. n., used with esse and habere; (necessary, unavoidable, inevitable, indispensable).
necessitas -atis, f. (inevitability, necessity, urgency); plur. (requirements, necessary, expenses). Transf. (intimate connection,
friendship, relationship).
necessitudo -inis, f. (necessity, inevitableness; need, want). Transf., (close connection, intimate friendship); plur., (intimate friends,
near relations).
necessum, = necesse; q.v.
necne, (or not), generally in the second half of alternative questions.
necnon, see nec.

neco -are, (to kill, slay, put to death).
necopinans -antis, (not expecting, unaware).
necopinatus -a -um, (unexpected); adv. necopinato.
necopinus -a -um, pass. (unexpected); act. (not expecting).
nectar -aris, n. (nectar, the drink of the gods; honey, milk, wine).
nectareus -a -um, (of nectar).
necto nectere nexui and nexi nexum, (to tie, bind, fasten; to fetter, enslave; to affix, attach; to put together, devise).
necubi, (lest anywhere, that nowhere).
necunde, (lest from any quarter, that from no direction).
nedum, (not to say); after (implied) negative, (much less, still less); after, affirmative, (much more).
nefandus -a -um, (not to be spoken of; abominable).
nefarius -a -um, (impious, abominable); adv. nefarie.
nefas, n. indecl., (what is contrary to divine command; sin, crime, abomination);, 'per fas et nefas', (by fair means or foul); as interj.
(monstrous!, dreadful!).
nefastus -a -um, (forbidden, unholy; unlucky; sinful); 'dies nefasti', (days on which no public, business could be transacted).
negatio -onis, f. (denying).
negito -are, (to persist in denying).
neglectio -onis, f. (neglect).
neglectus -us, m. (neglect, disregard).
neglegentia -ae, f. (carelessness, negligence).
neglego -legere -lexi -lectum, (to neglect, disregard; to make light of, overlook, omit). Hence partic., neglegens -entis, (careless); adv.
nego -are, (to say no; to deny, say that...not; to deny a request, refuse to give or, do).
negotialis -e, (relating to business).
negotiatio -onis, f. (banker's business).
negotiator -oris, m. (a businessman; esp. a banker).
negotiolum -i, n. (a little business).
negotior -ari, dep. (to carry on business; esp. as a banker); m. of partic. as subst., negotians -antis, (a businessman).
negotiosus -a -um, (full of business, busy).
negotium -i, n. (business, occupation, employment, task; pains, trouble, difficulty; a, matter, piece of business).
Nemea -ae and Nemee -es, f. (a valley in Argolis); adj. Nemeaeus -a -um, subst. Nemea -orum, n. pl., (the Nemean games).
nemo -inis, c. (no one, nobody); 'nemo non', (everyone); 'non nemo', (some or many).
nemoralis -e, (of woods or groves; sylvan).
nemorensis -e, (of woods or groves; sylvan).
nemorosus -a -um, (full of groves; thickly leaved, full of foliage).
nempe, (truly, certainly, to be sure).
nemus -oris, n. (a wood, grove).
nenia -ae, f. (a funeral song, dirge; an incantation; nursery ditty, lullaby).
neo nere nevi netum, (to spin; to interweave).
nepa -ae, f. (a scorpion; a crab).
nepos -otis, m. (a grandson, a nephew; a descendant; a spendthrift).
Nepos -potis, m. C. Cornelius, (a Roman historian, friend of Cicero).
neptis -is, f. (a granddaughter).
Neptunus -i, m. (Neptune, god of the sea); adj. Neptunius -a -um.
nequam, indecl. adj.; compar. nequior, superl. nequissimus; (worthless, good for, nothing, bad); adv. nequiter.
nequaquam, (by no means, not at all).
neque, see nec.
nequedum, see necdum.

nequeo -ire -ivi and -ii -itum, (to be unable).
nequiquam (nequicquam), (in vain, to no purpose; without good reason).
nequitia -ae, f. (worthlessness, badness; esp. extravagance).
nequities -ei, f. (worthlessness, badness; esp. extravagance).
Nereus -eos and -ei, m. (a sea god).
Nero -onis, m. (a cognomen in the gens Claudia); esp. C. Claudius Nero, (fifth Roman, emperor (54-68)).
nervosus -a -um, (sinewy, nervous, strong, vigorous); adv. nervose.
nervulus -i, m. (nerve, strength).
nervus -i, m. (usually plur.), (sinew, tendon); fig. (strength, vigor, energy; a string, esp. of an instrument; a strap, thong, fetter).
nescio -ire -ivi and -ii -itum, (not to know, be ignorant; to fail to recognize); with infin. (to be unable to, do); nescio quis, quid, etc., (I
know not who or what, somebody, something).
nescius -a -um, act. (not knowing, ignorant, unaware; not knowing how, unable (with infin.));, pass. (unknown).
Nestor -oris, m. (the most experienced of the Greek heros at Troy).
neu, see neve.
neuter -tra -trum, (neither). Transf., (of neither sex, neuter). Adv. neutro, (in neither, direction, towards neither side).
neutiquam (ne utiquam), (by no means, not at all).
neve or neu, (and not, or not, nor) (esp. followed by ut or ne).
nevis, see nolo.
nevult, see nolo.
nex necis, f. (death; usually violent death, murder).
nexilis -e, (tied together, plaited).
nexum -i, n. (an arrangement by which a debtor pledged his liberty as security for, debt).
nexus -us, m. (a tying together, connecting, restraining); also in the sense of nexum, q.v.
ni (nei) and nive, (if not, unless); also in the sense of ne, q.v.; 'quid ni?', (why not?).
niceterium -i, n. (reward of victory, prize).
nicto -are, (to wink).
nidor -oris, m. (vapor, reek).
nidulus -i, m. (a little nest).
nidus -i, m. (a nest).
niger -gra -grum, (black, dark-colored; blackening; bad, unlucky); n. as subst. (a black spot).
nigresco nigrescere nigrui, (to become black, grow dark).
nigro -are, (to be black); partic. nigrans -antis, (black, dark).
nigror -oris, m. (blackness).
nihil, and contr., (nothing); 'nihil non', (everything); 'non nihil', (something); nihil, as, internal acc., or adv., (not at all).
nihildum, (nothing as yet).
nihilum (nilum) -i, n. (nothing); as adv., (not at all); 'nihilominus', (nevertheless).
nil, = nihil; q.v.
Nilus -i, m. (the river Nile); adj. Niliacus -a -um.
nimbifer -fera -ferum, (stormy).
nimbosus -a -um, (rainy, stormy).
nimbus -i, m. (cloud, mist); esp. (a black rain-cloud; a storm, shower).
nimirum, (undoubtedly, certainly, of course) (often ironical).
nimis, (very much; too much, excessively).
nimius -a -um, (very great; too great, excessive; intemperate, immoderate). N. as subst. (a, great deal, much); also (excess, too much).
ningo (ninguo) ningere ninxi, (to snow); impers., ningit, (it snows).
ningues -ium, f. pl. (snow).
Niobe -es, f. and Nioba -ae, f. (daughter of Tantalus, wife of Amphion).
nisi, (if not, unless); after negatives and questions, (except); 'nisi quod', (except that).
nisus (1) (nixus) -us, m. (pressing, straining, effort).

nisus (2) -a -um, partic. from nitor; q.v.
nitedula -ae, f. (dormouse).
niteo -ere, (to shine, glitter, be bright; to glow, be sleek, flourish). Hence partic., nitens -entis, (shining, bright, sleek, blooming).
nitesco -ere, (to begin to shine; to grow sleek).
nitidus -a -um, (bright, shining; sleek, fat; flourishing, blooming). Transf. (spruce, elegant; refined, polished). Adv. nitide.
nitor (1) niti nisus or nixus, dep. (1) (to rest, lean, support oneself on; to trust in, depend on). (2) (to, strive, exert oneself, make an
effort); of movement, (to press on, climb up).
nitor (2) -oris, m. (brilliance, brightness, splendor, glow, elegance).
nivalis -e, (of snow, snowy).
nive, see ni, or neve.
niveus -a -um, (of snow, snowy).
nivosus -a -um, (snowy).
nix nivis, f. (snow).
nixor -ari, dep. (to lean upon; to strive, strain).
nixus, (1); = nisus (1); q.v.
nixus, (2); see nitor (1).
no nare navi, (to swim). Transf. (to sail, flow, fly).
nobilis -e, (known; celebrated, renowned, infamous, notorious; of noble birth, highly, bred); of things, (fine).
nobilitas -atis, f. (fame, celebrity; noble birth, nobility); meton. (the aristocrats, the, nobility); in gen. (excellence, worth).
nobilito -are, (to make known, make famous or notorious).
noceo -ere, (to hurt, injure, harm) (with dat.); partic. nocens -entis, (hurtful, injurious, guilty, wicked); as subst. (a guilty person).
noctiluca -ae, f. (the moon).
noctivagus -a -um, (wandering by night).
noctu, abl. from nox; q.v.
noctua -ae, f. (owl).
noctuabundus -a -um, (travelling by night).
nocturnus -a -um, (by night, nightly, nocturnal).
nocuus -a -um, (hurtful, injurious).
nodo -are, (to knot, tie in a knot).
nodosus -a -um, (full of knots, knotty).
nodus -i, m. (a knot; a girdle; any tie, bond, connection, obligation; a knotty point, difficulty).
nolo nolle nolui, (to be unwilling, wish not to, refuse).
nomas -adis, c. (a nomad, esp. a Numidian).
nomen -inis, n. (a name); 'nomen dare', (to go for a soldier, enlist); 'nomen (hominis), deferre', (to give information against, to
accuse); 'nomina solvere', (to pay, debts); 'nomen Romanum', (the Roman power); 'nomine meo', (in my name, on my, behalf).
nomenclator -oris, m. (a slave who reminded his master of names).
nominatim, (by name, expressly).
nominatio -onis, f. (nomination to a public office).
nominito -are, (to call regularly by name).
nomino -are, (to name, give a name to, call; to mention, speak about; to make famous; to, appoint, nominate to an office; to
denounce, give information against). Hence, partic. nominatus -a -um, (well-known, celebrated).
nomisma -matis, n. (a coin).
non (old forms noenum, noenu), (not); 'non nihil', (something); 'nihil non', (everything); 'non quod, non quo', (not that, not because);
'non ita', (not very, not particularly); in, questions = 'nonne?' q.v.; in commands = 'ne'; in answers, (no).
Nonae -arum, f. (the nones; the fifth day in all months, except March, May, July and, October, when it was the seventh).

nonagesimus (-ensimus) -a -um, (ninetieth).
nonagies (-iens), (ninety times).
nonaginta, (ninety).
nonanus -a -um, (belonging to the ninth legion).
nondum, adv. (not yet).
nongenti -ae -a, (nine hundred).
nonne, interrog. adv. asks a question to which an affirmative answer is expected.
nonnemo, see nemo.
nonnihil, see nihil.
nonnullus (non nullus) -a -um, (some); in plur. (several).
nonnumquam (non numquam), (sometimes).
nonus -a -um, (ninth); f. as subst. (the ninth hour) (roughly 3 P.M.).
nonusdecimus -a -um, (nineteenth).
Noricum -i, n. (Noricum, a country between the Alps and the Danube); adj. Noricus -a -um.
norma -ae, f. (a rule, standard).
nos, plur. of ego; q.v.
noscito -are, (to get to know, investigate, observe, perceive; to recognize).
nosco noscere novi notum, (to become acquainted with, get to know); hence, in perfect tenses, (to be, acquainted with, know).
Transf. (to inquire into, investigate; to recognize;, to approve, acknowledge). Hence partic. notus -a -um, (known; famous;, notorious,
familiar, customary); m. pl. as subst. (friends, acquaintances).
noster -tra -trum, (our, ours; of us, to us, for us); m. pl. nostri, (our people).
nostras -atis, adj. (of our country, native).
nota -ae, f. (a mark, token, note, sign); in writing, (a letter, character; a, distinguishing mark, brand); hence (sort, quality); also (mark
of disgrace, stigma (esp. as imposed by the censor)).
notabilis -e, (remarkable, striking); adv. notabiliter.
notarius -i, m. (secretary or shorthand writer).
notatio -onis, f. (marking, noting, choice; the stigma of the censor).
notesco notescere notui, (to become known).
nothus -a -um, (illegitimate, bastard; hybrid, mongrel); in gen.(spurious).
notio -onis, f. (an examination, investigation; an idea, conception).
notitia -ae, f.: pass. (being known, fame, celebrity); act. (knowledge, acquaintance);, hence (idea, notion, conception).
notities -ei, f. (idea, notion, conception).
noto -are, (to mark, mark out, distinguish, denote; to observe; to write; to stigmatize, (esp. of the censors)).
notus (1) -a -um, partic. from nosco; q.v.
notus (2) (-os) -i, m. (the south wind).
novacula -ae, f. (a sharp knife or razor).
novalis -is, f. and novale -is, n. (fallow land; a cultivated field; crops).
novatrix -icis, f. (she that renews).
novellus -a -um, (new, young; fresh, unfamiliar).
novem, indecl. numer., (nine).
November and Novembris -bris, m. (of the ninth month of the Roman year, of November); m. as subst., (November).
novendecim, novemdecim, (nineteen).
novendialis -e, (of nine days; happening on the ninth day; lasting nine days).
noveni -ae -a, (nine each, nine at a time); poet. (nine).
Novensiles divi, (gods whose worship had been introduced from foreign countries).
noverca -ae, f. (stepmother).
novercalis -e, (of or like a stepmother).
novicius -a -um, (new, fresh; esp. of persons new to slavery).
novies (-iens), (nine times).
novitas -atis, f. (newness, novelty, strangeness; the condition of a 'novus homo' (see, novus), newness of

nobility); in pl. (new acquaintances).
novo -are, (to make new, renew, revive; to change, alter; to invent); 'novare res', (to, make a revolution).
novus -a -um, (new, fresh, young; fresh, inexperienced; revived, refreshed; novel, unusual, extraordinary); 'novus homo', (the first of
a family to hold curule office);, 'novae res', (political changes, a revolution); 'novae tabulae', (new account, books (i.e. a cancellation
of debts)); N. as subst., (a new thing, news, a, novelty). Adv. nove, (in a new or unusual way). Superl. novissimus -a -um, (latest, last,
extreme); 'agmen', (the rear); adv. novissime, (lately, lastly, in the last place).
nox noctis, f. (night); meton., (sleep, darkness, gloom, death). Abl. form as adv. noctu, (by night).
noxa -ae, f. (harm, injury, damage; a fault, offence; punishment).
noxia -ae, f. (a fault, offence, crime).
noxius -a -um, (hurtful, injurious; culpable, guilty).
nubecula -ae, f. (a little cloud; a troubled expression).
nubes -is, f. (a cloud); fig. (any dense mass; gloom; veil, concealment).
nubifer -fera -ferum, (cloud-bearing).
nubigena -ae, c. (born of a cloud).
nubilis -e, (marriageable).
nubilus -a -um, (cloudy, overcast; dark, gloomy); n. sing. as subst., (cloudy weather); n., pl., (clouds).
nubo nubere nupsi nuptum, (to cover, veil); of a bride, (to be married to, to marry) (with dat.); f. of, partic. nupta, (married), or as
subst., (a bride).
nucleus -i, m. (the kernel of a nut, the stone of fruits).
nudius, (it is now the...day since) (always with ordinal numerals); 'nudius tertius', (the day before yesterday).
nudo -are, (to make bare, strip, uncover); milit. (to leave undefended); (to strip, spoil, divest, deprive).
nudus -a -um, (naked, bare, uncovered; defenseless, deprived; unadorned, plain; bare, mere, alone, only).
nugae -arum, f. pl. (trifles, nonsense, stuff).
nugator -oris, m. (a trifler, humbug).
nugatorius -a -um, (trifling, frivolous, futile).
nugax -acis, (trifling, frivolous).
nugor -ari, dep. (to trifle, talk nonsense; to trick, cheat).
nullus -a -um, (no, none, not any; nonexistent, ruined); 'nullo modo, nullo pacto', (by no, means); as a strong negative, (not at all); as
subst., esp. genit. and abl., (no one).
num, interrog. particle, introducing a direct question to which a negative answer, is expected, or an indirect question, in the sense
Numa -ae, m. Pompilius, (the second king of Rome).
Numantia -ae, f. (a town in Spain).
numen -inis, n. (nodding, a nod; as an expression of will, command, consent); of a deity, (divine will, divine command); hence, in
gen. (divine majesty, divinity, deity).
numerabilis -e, (able to be counted).
numero -are, (to count); esp. (to count out money, to pay); (to count over possessions, i.e. to own; to reckon, consider). Hence
partic. numeratus -a -um, (counted, out; in hard cash, in ready money); n. as subst. (hard cash, money down).
numerosus -a -um, (1) (numerous). (2) (rhythmical, metrical, melodious). Adv. numerose.
numerus -i, m. (1) (a number, reckoning, total; a mass; a mere number, cipher; a category, band, class; rank, position, regard,
consideration). (2) (measure, part, respect); in music, (meter, number, time). Abl. sing. as adv. numero, (exactly, at the right time;
too quickly, too soon).
Numida -ae, m. (a Numidian).
Numitor -oris, m. (king of Alba, grandfather of Romulus and Remus).
nummarius -a -um, (belonging to money; bribed with money, venal).
nummatus -a -um, (provided with money, rich).
nummularius -i, m. (a money-changer).
nummulus -i, m. (a little piece or sum of money).
nummus -i, m. (a piece of money, coin; esp. the sesterce, a coin of small value).
numquam, = nunquam; q.v.
nunc, (now, at present, as things are); of past or future time, (then, already).

nuncupatio -onis, f. (naming, pronouncement).
nuncupo -are, (to name, call by name, to pronounce solemnly).
nundinae -arum, f. pl. (market-day; the market-place; traffic, trade, business).
nundinatio -onis, f. (the holding of a market, trade, business).
nundinor -ari, dep. (to transact business, trade, traffic; to buy, esp. corruptly; to be, present in great numbers).
nundinum -i, n. (market-time).
nunquam (numquam), (never); 'nunquam non', (always); 'non nunquam', (sometimes).
nuntiatio -onis, f. (a declaration made by the augur).
nuntio -are, (to announce, give notice).
nuntius -a -um, (announcing, bringing news). M. as subst. nuntius -i: (1) (a messenger). (2), (a message, news; esp. an official notice).
nuper, (lately, not long ago).
nupta -ae, f. subst. from nubo; q.v.
nuptiae -arum, f. pl. (marriage, a wedding).
nuptialis -e, (of marriage).
nurus -us, f. (a daughter-in-law; any young married woman).
nusquam, (nowhere, at (or to) no place; in nothing, on no occasion; to or for nothing);, 'nusquam esse', (not to exist).
nuto -are, (to nod, keep nodding; to sway, waver).
nutricius -i, m. (a tutor, guardian).
nutrico -are and nutricor -ari, dep. (to suckle, nourish; to support, sustain).
nutricula -ae, f. (nurse, nanny).
nutrimen -inis, n. (nourishment).
nutrimentum -i, n. (nourishment; support, training).
nutrio -ire and nutrior -iri, dep. (to suckle, nourish, bring up; to make good, support, sustain).
nutrix -icis, f. (a nurse, foster-mother).
nutus -us, m. (a nod; command, will; gravitation, downward movement).
nux nucis, f. (a nut; a nut tree).
nympha -ae and nymphe -es, f. (a bride); 'Nymphae', (the Nymphs).
o, interj. (O!), an excamation of joy, astonishment, etc.
ob, prep. with acc., (in front of, before; in return for; because of, on account, of); 'ob rem', (to the purpose, with advantage).
obaeratus -a -um, (in debt); as subst. (a debtor).
obambulo -are, (to walk up and down, walk about near).
obarmo -are, (to arm).
obaro -are, (to plow up).
obbrutesco -ere, (to become stupid or dull).
obc-, see occ-.
obdo -ere -didi -ditum, (to place before, put against); 'fores', (to shut the door).
obdormisco -dormiscere -dormivi, (to go to sleep).
obduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (1) (to draw over, draw in front); of persons, (to bring forward). (2) (to, cover, close over); 'venenum',
(to swallow) 'frontem', (to wrinkle); of time, (to pass, spend).
obductio -onis, f. (covering, veiling).
obduresco -ere, (to become hard, harden).
obduro -are, (to be hard (against); to stand out, hold out, persist).
obedio, = oboedio; q.v.
obeo -ire -ivi and -ii -itum, Intransit. (to go to, go to meet, go against); of heavenly bodies, (to set);, of the living, (to die). Transit. (to
go to, go over, traverse; to go over, encompass (by looking or speaking); to enter upon, engage in, perform, execute, a task); with
diem or mortem, (to die).
obequito -are, (to ride up to).
oberro -are, (to wander about, go astray).
obesus -a -um, (fat, plump; swollen; coarse).
obex -icis, m. and f. (bolt, bar, barrier, barricade).

obf-, see off-.
obg-, see ogg-.
obhaeresco -haerescere -haesi -haesum, (to stick fast to, adhere to).
obiaceo -ere, (to lie at, lie against).
obicio -icere -ieci -iectum, (to throw in the way, to expose; to inspire, cause, produce; to put before, hold before, as protection or
an obstacle; to bring up anything as a reproach, to throw in a person's teeth). Hence partic. obiectus -a -um, (lying near, opposite to;
exposed to; brought up against a person); n. pl. as subst., (charges).
obiectatio -onis, f. (a reproach).
obiecto -are, (to throw in the way, expose; to set against; to bring up anything as a, reproach, to throw in a person's teeth).
obiectus (1) -a -um, partic. from obicio; q.v.
obiectus (2) -us, m. (placing against, putting opposite).
obirascor -irasci -iratus, dep. (to grow angry at).
obiter, (on the way, by the way, in passing).
obitus -us, m. (an approach); of heavenly bodies, (setting); of the living, (death, downfall, destruction).
obiurgatio -onis, f. (scolding, reproving).
obiurgator -oris, m. (a scolder, reprover).
obiurgatorius -a -um, (reproachful, scolding).
obiurgo -are, (to scold, reprove, blame, chastise).
oblanguesco -languescere -langui, (to become weary).
oblatro -are, (to bark at; to scold).
oblectamen -inis, n. (delight, pleasure).
oblectamentum -i, n. (delight, amusement, pastime).
oblectatio -onis, f. (delighting, amusing).
oblecto -are, (to please, amuse; to pass time pleasantly, while away time).
oblido -lidere -lisi -lisum, (to crush).
obligatio -onis, f. (a bond, tie).
obligo -are, (to tie, bind up, bandage). Transf., (to bind, make liable, oblige; to make, liable to punishment, make guilty). Hence
partic. obligatus -a -um, (bound, under an obligation).
oblimo -are, (to cover with slime or mud).
oblino -linere -levi -litum, (to smear, daub, besmear; to stain, defile); perf. partic. oblitus -a -um, (overloaded).
obliquo -are, (to turn sideways, turn aside).
obliquus -a -um, (slanting, sideways, on one side); of speech, (indirect, covert); (looking, askance, envious). Adv. oblique, (sideways,
aslant; indirectly, by, implication).
oblitesco -litescere -litui, (to conceal oneself).
oblittero -are, (to cancel, blot out).
oblivio -onis, f. (forgetfulness, oblivion).
obliviosus -a -um, (oblivious, forgetful; causing forgetfulness).
obliviscor oblivisci oblitus, dep. (to forget).
oblivium -i, n., usually plur., (oblivion, forgetfulness).
oblongus -a -um, (oblong).
obloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. (to speak against, answer back, contradict, abuse, interrupt); in music, (to accompany).
obluctor -ari, dep. (to struggle against).
obmolior -iri, dep. (to build against) (as barrier or defence).
obmurmuro -are, (to roar against).
obmutesco -mutescere -mutui, (to become dumb; to cease).
obnatus -a -um, (growing on).
obnitor -niti -nixus, dep. (to press against, strive against; to take up a stand, maintain a firm, position); adv. from partic., obnixe,
(firmly, vigorously).
obnoxiosus -a -um, (submissive, compliant).
obnoxius -a -um, with dat., (liable, addicted to, guilty of; indebted, obliged, dependent on;, subject to,

exposed to).
obnubo -nubere -nupsi -nuptum, (to cover).
obnuntiatio -onis, f. (the announcement of an unfavorable omen).
obnuntio -are, (to report an unfavorable omen).
oboedientia -ae, f. (obedience, compliance).
oboedio -ire, (to obey, comply with, listen to) (with dat.); partic. oboediens -entis, (obedient, compliant); adv. oboedienter.
oborior -oriri -ortus, dep. (to arise, appear).
obrepo -repere -repsi -reptum, (to creep up to; to steal upon, come on by surprise).
obretio -ire, (to catch in a net).
obrigesco -rigescere -rigui, (to become stiff, esp. to freeze).
obrogo -are, (to amend or repeal a law by introducing another).
obruo -ruere -rui -rutum, fut partic. -ruiturus. Intransit. (to fall, collapse). Transit. (to cover, bury, swamp, drown; to overwhelm,
destroy, obliterate).
obrussa -ae, f. (assay; test).
obsaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum, (to fence in, block up, render inaccessible).
obsaturo -are, (to stuff, choke).
obscenitas (obscaen-) -atis, f. (impurity, indecency).
obscenus -a -um, (foul, filthy); morally, (impure, indecent; ill-omened). Adv. obscene.
obscuratio -onis, f. (darkening; disappearance).
obscuritas -atis, f. (darkness); of language, (obscurity); of condition, (obscurity, low, birth).
obscuro -are, (to cover, darken, obscure; to veil, conceal, suppress).
obscurus -a -um, (covered, dark, obscure); n. as subst., (darkness); of language, (obscure, unintelligible); of origin, etc. (unknown,
obscure); of character, (secret, reserved, close). Hence adv. obscure, (darkly; unintelligibly; secretly).
obsecratio -onis, f. (earnest entreaty, supplication; public prayer to the gods).
obsecro -are, (to beseech, implore, entreat).
obsecundo -are, (to comply with).
obsepio, = obsaepio; q.v.
obsequella -ae, f. (compliance).
obsequens -entis, partic. from obsequor; q.v.
obsequentia -ae, f. (complaisance).
obsequium -i, n. (compliance, submission; indulgence, pliancy).
obsequor -sequi -secutus, dep. (to comply with, yield to, obey); partic. obsequens -entis, (compliant, obedient).
obsero (1) -are, (to bolt, bar).
obsero (2) -serere -sevi -situm, (to sow thickly, cover with seeds, etc.); partic. obsitus -a -um, (full of, covered with, beset by) (with
observantia -ae, f. (respect, attention).
observatio -onis, f.(observing, watching; care, accuracy, circumspection).
observator -oris, m. (observer, watcher).
observito -are, (to watch carefully).
observo -are, (to watch, regard, attend to); of rules, (to keep, regard); of persons, (to, respect). Hence partic. observans -antis,
(attentive, respectful).
obses -sidis, c. (a hostage; a surety, security, pledge).
obsessio -onis, f. (blockade).
obsessor -oris, m. (one who besets, haunts, or besieges).
obsideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, intransit. (to sit down near); transit. (to beset, haunt, frequent); esp. (to, blockade, besiege; to watch
over, be on the look-out for).
obsidio -onis, f. (blockade, siege).
obsidium (1) -i, n. (blockade, siege).
obsidium (2) -i, n. (the condition of hostage).
obsido -sidere -sedi -sessum, (to blockade, besiege, invest).
obsignator -oris, m. (one who seals; a witness to a will).

obsigno -are, (to seal); of a witness, (to sign and seal); (to stamp, impress).
obsisto -sistere -stiti -stitum, (to place oneself before or in the way of; to oppose, withstand, resist).
obsitus, see obsero (2).
obsolefio -fieri -factus, (to become worn out; to be degraded).
obsolesco -escere -evi -etum, (to go out of use, decay, wear out); partic. obsoletus -a -um, (worn out, decayed; obsolete; threadbare,
poor); compar. adv. obsoletius, (more, shabbily).
obsonator -oris, m. (a caterer).
obsonium -i, n. (what is eaten with bread; e.g. vegetables, fruit, fish).
obsono (1) -are and obsonor -ari, dep. (to buy food, cater, provide a meal).
obsono (2) -are, (to interrupt by noise).
obsorbeo -ere -ui, (to swallow, gulp down).
obstetrix -icis, f. (midwife).
obstinatio -onis, f. (persistence, firmness, obstinacy).
obstino -are, (to persist, be resolved). Hence partic. obstinatus -a -um, (persistent, firm, obstinate); adv. obstinate.
obstipesco, = obstupesco; q.v.
obstipus -a -um, (leaning to one side; bent back or down).
obsto -stare -stiti -staturus, (to stand before or in the way; to oppose, resist, obstruct) (with dat.); n., pl. of partic. as subst. obstantia,
(hindrances, obstacles, impediments).
obstrepo -strepere -strepui -strepitum, (to make a noise, clamor at, disturb, interrupt) (with dat.); in pass. (to be, drowned by noise
or filled with noise).
obstringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, (to bind up, tie fast; to entangle, involve, put under an obligation).
obstructio -onis, f. (hindrance, obstruction).
obstrudo, = obtrudo; q.v.
obstruo -struere -struxi -structum, (to build against; to block up, close, stop).
obstupefacio -facere -feci -factus, (to astound, stupefy, render senseless).
obstupesco (obstip-) -stupescere -stupui, (to become senseless, be astounded)
obsum obesse obfui, (to be in the way, be prejudicial to) (with dat.).
obsuo -suere -sui -sutum, (to sew on; to sew up, close up).
obsurdesco -descere -dui, (to become deaf; to turn a deaf ear).
obtego -tegere -texi -tectum, (to cover up; to protect; to conceal); partic. obtegens -entis, (concealing).
obtemperatio -onis, f. (compliance, obedience).
obtempero -are, (to comply with, submit to) (with dat.).
obtendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, (1) (to stretch before, spread before). Transf. (to put forward as an excuse, to allege). (2) (to cover,
obtentus -us, m. (stretching or spreading before). Transf. (pretext, pretence, excuse).
obtentus (2) -a -um, partic. from obtineo; q.v.
obtentus (3) -a -um, partic. from obtendo; q.v.
obtero -terere -trivi -tritum, (to trample, crush).
obtestatio -onis, f. (a calling of gods to witness; an entreaty in the name of the gods).
obtestor -ari, dep. (to call as witness; to adjure, implore, entreat in the name of the, gods).
obtexo -texere -texui, (to cover).
obticeo -ere, (to be silent).
obticesco -ticescere -ticui, (to become silent).
obtineo -tinere -tinui -tentum, transit. (to hold, possess, keep, maintain); esp. (to maintain an assertion);, also (to take hold of, grasp);
intransit. (to hold, obtain, continue).
obtingo -tingere -tigi, (to happen, befall).
obtorpesco -torpescere -torpui, (to become stiff, numb, insensible).
obtorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, (to wrench, twist round).
obtrectatio -onis, f. (disparagement, detraction).
obtrectator -oris, m. (detractor, disparager).
obtrecto -are, (to disparage, detract from).
obtrudo (obstrudo) -trudere -trusi -trusum, (1) (to gulp down, swallow down). (2) (to force, obtrude).
obtrunco -are, (to cut down).

obtundo -tundere -tudi -tusum and -tunsum, (to beat upon, thump; to make blunt, dull, weaken, weary). Hence partic., obtusus and
obtunsus -a -um, (dull, blunt, blurred, insensible).
obturbo -are, (to disturb, confuse, distract, harass).
obturgesco -ere, (to swell up).
obturo -are, (to stop up).
obtusus, see obtundo.
obtutus -us, m. (gaze, contemplation).
obumbro -are, (to overshadow, obscure; to conceal, protect, cover).
obuncus -a -um, (bent inwards, hooked).
obustus -a -um, (burnt, hardened in the fire).
obvallo -are, (to surround with a wall, wall round).
obvenio -venire -veni -ventum, (to come in the way of, to meet; to occur, happen, fall to a person's lot).
obversor -ari, dep. (to move before, appear before).
obverto (-vorto) -vertere -verti -versum, (to turn towards, direct against). Partic. obversus -a -um, (turned towards);, m. pl. as subst.
obviam, (in the way, on the way); hence, with dat., (towards, against, to meet);, 'obviam ire', with dat. (to go to meet, to oppose);
also (to help, remedy).
obvius -a -um, (in the way, meeting) (with dat.); (exposed; ready at hand; affable, easy of, access).
obvolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, (to wrap up, cover all round).
occaeco -are, (to make blind, to blind, to darken; to conceal, make invisible, to make dull, or numb).
occallesco -callescere -callui, (to become thick-skinned, hard or unfeeling).
occano -canere -canui, (to sound).
occasio -onis, f. (a favorable moment, opportunity).
occasus -us, m. (the setting of heavenly bodies); hence (the west); in gen. (fall, destruction).
occatio -onis, f. (harrowing).
occedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, (to go towards, meet).
occento -are, (to sing a serenade to; to sing a lampoon against).
occepto -are, (to begin).
occidens, see occido (2).
occidio -onis, f. (slaughter, destruction, extermination).
occido (1) -cidere -cidi -cisum, (to strike down, beat to the ground; to kill, slay; to plague to death, torment).
occido (2) -cidere -cidi -casum, (to fall, fall down); of heavenly bodies, (to set); of the living, (to die, perish, be ruined). Hence pres.
partic. occidens -entis, (setting); m. as, subst. (sc. sol), (the setting sun, the west).
occiduus -a -um, (setting, sinking); hence (western, westerly).
occino -cinere -cecini and -cinui, (to sing inauspiciously).
occipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, (to begin).
occipitium -i, n. and occiput -itis, n. (the back of the head, occiput).
occisio -onis, f. (killing, slaughter).
occisor -oris, m. (slayer, murderer).
occludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, (to shut up, close up).
occo -are, (to harrow).
occubo -are, (to lie down, esp. to rest in the grave).
occulco -are, (to trample, tread down).
occulo -culere -cului -cultum, (to cover, hide). Hence partic. occultus -a -um, (hidden, concealed, private);, of persons, (close,
reserved). N. as subst. (concealment, secrecy, a secret)., Adv. occulte, (secretly, obscurely).
occultatio -onis, f. (hiding, concealment).
occultator -oris, m. (hider, concealer).
occulto -are, (to hide, conceal).
occultus, see occulo.
occumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, (to fall down, sink down; esp. to fall down dead).
occupatio -onis, f. (seizing, taking possession; anticipation; business, employment, occupation).

occupo -are, (to take possession of, seize, occupy, master; to fall upon, attack; to take, up, employ; to invest money; to anticipate,
get the start on a person, be, first to do a thing). Hence partic. occupatus -a -um, (busy, engaged, occupied).
occurro -currere -curri -cursum, (to run to meet; to fall upon, attack; to work against, oppose, counteract);, of things, (to crop up,
occur, come to mind).
occursatio -onis, f. (attention, officiousness).
occurso -are, (to run to meet; to oppose); of things, (to occur, come to mind).
occursus -us, m. (meeting, falling in).
Oceanus -i, m. (the ocean, the sea which encompasses the earth); personif., (the father of, the Nymphs).
ocellus -i, m. (a (little) eye; a darling).
ocior ocius, compar. adj., (swifter, quicker); adv. ocius, (more swiftly); 'serius, ocius', (sooner or later); sometimes = (swiftly) only.
ocrea -ae, f. (a greave).
ocreatus -a -um, (wearing greaves).
Octavius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens); esp. of C. Octavius, (the Emperor Augustus); adj., Octvavianus -a -um.
octavus -a -um, (eighth); octavum, (for the eighth time); f. as subst., octava -ae, (the, eighth hour).
octavusdecimus -a -um, (eighteenth).
octies (-iens), (eight times).
octingentesimus -a -um, (eight hundredth).
octingenti -ae -a, (eight hundred).
octipes -pedis, (having eight feet).
octo, indecl. numer., (eight).
October -bris, (belonging to the eighth month of the Roman year), reckoning from March; (of, October); m. as subst. (October).
octodecim, indecl. numer., (eighteen).
octogenarius -a -um, (consisting of eighty).
octogeni -ae -a, (eighty each, eighty at a time).
octogesimus -a -um, (eightieth).
octogies (-iens), (eighty times).
octoginta, indecl. numer., (eighty).
octoiugis -e, (yoked eight together).
octonarius -a -um, (consisting of eight together).
octoni -ae -a, (eight each, eight at a time, eight together).
octophorus -on, (borne by eight); n. as subst. octophoron -i, (a litter carried by eight, bearers).
octuplicatus -a -um, (increased eightfold).
octuplus -a -um, (eightfold); n. as subst. (an eightfold penalty).
octussis -is, m. (a sum of eight 'asses').
oculatus -a -um, (having eyes; catching the eye, conspicuous).
oculus -i, m. (the eye); 'esse in oculis', (to be visible); (an ornament, treasure; the, bud or eye of a plant).
odi odisse, fut. partic. osurus, (to hate, detest, dislike).
odiosus -a -um, (hateful, troublesome, annoying); adv. odiose.
odium -i, n. (hatred; an object of hatred); 'esse odio', with dat. (to be hated by).
odor (older odos) -oris, m. (a smell, odor, scent; a scent, suspicion, inkling, presentiment); in, plur., (perfumery, spices).
odoratio -onis, f. (smelling, smell).
odoratus (1) -a -um, partic. from odoro; q.v.
odoratus (2) -us, m. (smelling; the sense of smell).
odorifer -fera -ferum, (having a pleasant smell; producing perfume).
odoro -are, (to make odorous); partic. odoratus -a -um, (sweet-smelling).
odoror -ari, dep. (to smell; to smell out, snuff at); hence (to aim at, aspire to; to, search into, investigate; to get an inkling or
smattering of).
odorus -a -um, (1) (sweet-smelling). (2) (keen-scented, tracking by smell).

odos, = odor; q.v.
Odyssea -ae, f. (the Odyssey).
oeconomia -ae, f. (arrangement, division).
oeconomicus -a -um, (relating to domestic economy; orderly, methodical).
Oedipus -podis and -i, m. (king of Thebes, son of Laius and Jocasta, fated to kill his father and, marry his mother).
Oenone -es, f. (a Phrygian nymph, loved and deserted by Paris).
oenophorum -i, n. (a basket for wine).
oenus, = unus; q.v.
oestrus -i, m. (the gadfly, horsefly; inspiration, frenzy).
oesus, = usus; q.v.
oesypum -i, n. (a cosmetic).
ofella -ae, f. (a bit, morsel).
offa -ae, f. (a pellet, mass, lump; a swelling).
offendo -fendere -fendi -fensum, transit. (to strike against, knock; to hit upon, fall in with; to shock, offend, displease); intransit. (to
knock, strike; to run aground; to stumble, make a mistake, to give offence (with dat.)); also (to take offence). Hence, partic. offensus -
a -um, (injured, hurt; offensive).
offensa -ae, f. (a striking, knocking against; injury; displeasure, offence).
offensio -onis, f. (a striking, knocking, hitting against); 'pedis', (a stumbling). Transf. (a, misfortune, setback, indisposition; displeasure,
disfavor, aversion, offence).
offensiuncula -ae, f. (a slight displeasure or check).
offenso -are, (to strike, knock, stumble).
offensus (1) -a -um, partic. from offendo; q.v.
offensus (2) -us, m. (shock, collision; offence, dislike).
offero offerre obtuli oblatum, (to bring forward, place before, present, offer, expose; to inflict, occasion, trouble); 'se offerre', and
pass., 'offerri', (to present oneself, appear).
officina -ae, f. (a workshop, factory).
officio -ficere -feci -fectum, (to act against; to get in the way of, impede, hinder, injure) (with dat.).
officiosus -a -um, (obliging, courteous, attentive; dutiful); adv. officiose.
officium -i, n. (dutiful or respectful action; attendance, service, duty; sense of duty, respect, courtesy; submission, allegiance).
offigo -ere, (to fix in, fasten).
offirmo -are, (to make firm, to fasten); with reflex. or intransit., (to be determined, persevere); partic. offirmatus -a -um, (firm,
offucia -ae, f. (paint, rouge; deceit).
offulgeo -fulgere -fulsi, (to shine upon).
offundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, (to pour over, spread round; to overspread, cover, conceal; to overwhelm, to, bring trouble, etc.,
upon a person).
ogganio -ire, (to growl at).
oh, interj. (oh!, ah!).
ohe, interj. (ho! hi!).
oi, interj. (oh! ah!).
olea -ae, f. (olive, olive tree).
oleaginus -a -um, (of the olive tree).
olearius -a -um, (of or for oil).
oleaster -tri, m. (the wild olive tree).
oleo -ere, (to emit an odor; to smell of, smack of); partic. olens -entis, (smelling;, fragrant or stinking).
oleum -i, n. (olive oil, oil).
olfacio -facere -feci -factum, (to smell; to scent out, detect).
olidus -a -um, (smelling).
olim, (at that time); of the past, (formerly, once); of the future, (hereafter, one, day); with a present, (for a long time now; at times,
olit-, see holit-.
oliva -ae, f. (olive; olive tree; olive wreath; staff of olive wood).

olivetum -i, n. (an olive grove).
olivifer -fera -ferum, (olive-bearing).
olivum -i, n. (olive oil, olive).
olla -ae, f. (jar, pot).
olle, obsolete form of ille; q.v.
ollus, obsolete form of ille; q.v.
olo, = oleo; q.v.
olor -oris, m. (swan).
olorinus -a -um, (of a swan).
olus, see holus.
Olympia -ae, f. (a city in Elis, where the Olympic games were held).
Olympus -i, m. (a mountain range between Macedonia and Thessaly, supposed to be the abode, of the gods).
omasum -i, n. (bullock's tripe).
omen -inis, n. (an omen, sign, prognostication).
omentum -i, n. (fat; entrails, bowels).
ominor -ari, dep. (to presage, prophesy, predict).
ominosus -a -um, (foreboding, ominous).
omitto -mittere -misi -missum, (to let go, let fall; to give up, lay aside; to disregard); in speaking, (to, leave out, omit); with infin., (to
cease). Hence partic. omissus -a -um, (negligent, remiss).
omnifer -fera -ferum, (bearing everything).
omnigenus -a -um, (of all kinds).
omnimodis, (in every way, entirely).
omnino, (altogether, entirely, wholly; in general, in all; certainly, admittedly).
omniparens -entis, (all-producing).
omnipotens -entis, (almighty).
omnis -e, (all, every, whole; of all kinds); in sing. (each, or the whole of one person, or thing).
omnituens -entis, (all-seeing).
omnivagus -a -um, (wandering everywhere).
onager and onagrus -i, m. (wild ass).
onerarius -a -um, (of burden, freight); 'iumenta', (beasts of burden); '(navis) oneraria', (a, merchant or transport ship).
onero -are, (to load, burden; to fill, weigh down; to oppress, overwhelm; to make worse, aggravate).
onerosus -a -um, (heavy, burdensome, troublesome).
onus -eris, n. (a load, burden, weight; a trouble, charge; a public burden, tax).
onustus -a -um, (laden, loaded; full).
onyx -ychis, m. and f. (onyx; a casket of onyx).
opacitas -atis, f. (shadiness).
opaco -are, (to shade, overshadow).
opacus -a -um, (shaded, shady; dark, shadowy, obscure).
opella -ae, f. (a little labor or trouble).
opera -ae, f. (trouble, pains, exertion); 'operam dare', with dat., (to word hard at);, 'est operae pretium', (it is worth while); 'opera
mea', (thanks to me)., Transf. (time for work; work done); in pl. (laborers, workmen), also, (mobsters, gangsters).
operarius -a -um, (relating to work); m. operarius -i, (a laborer, workman).
operculum -i, n. (a lid, cover).
operimentum -i, n. (a cover, covering).
operio -perire -perui -pertum, (to cover, bury, conceal; to close, shut up; to overwhelm); n. of partic. as, subst., opertum -i, (a secret
place or secret).
operor -ari, dep. (to work, labor, be busy); esp. in perf. partic. operatus -a -um, (engaged, busy (esp. engaged in worship)).
operosus -a -um, act. (laborious, painstaking, industrious); pass., (toilsome, difficult). Adv., operose, (laboriously).
opertum, see operio.

opes, see ops.
Opicus -a -um, (Oscan). Transf. (stupid, philistine).
opifer -fera -ferum, (helpful).
opifex -ficis, c. (a maker, framer; a workman, artisan).
opificina, = officina; q.v.
opilio and upilio -onis, m. (shepherd).
opimus -a -um, (rich, fruitful, fertile; lucrative; wealthy; sumptuous, abundant, copious);, of speech, (overloaded); 'spolia opima',
(spoils taken by a general from the, enemy's general in single combat).
opinabilis -e, (conjectural).
opinatio -onis, f. (supposition, conjecture).
opinator -oris, m. (one who supposes or conjectures).
opinatus (1) -a -um, partic. from opinor; q.v.
opinatus (2) -us, m. (conjecture, supposition).
opinio -onis, f. (opinion, conjecture, supposition; repute, rumor, report).
opiniosus -a -um, (set in opinion).
opinor -ari, dep. and opino -are, (to be of opinion, suppose, conjecture). Partic. opinatus, -a -um, in pass. sense, (supposed, fancied).
opiparus -a -um, (splendid, rich, sumptuous). Adv. opipare.
opitulor -ari, dep. (to help, aid) (with dat.).
oportet -tere -tuit, impers. (it is proper, one should, one ought).
oppedo -ere, (to mock, insult).
opperior -periri -pertus, dep. (to wait or wait for).
oppeto -ere -ivi and -ii -itum, (to go to meet, encounter); esp. (to encounter death, to die).
oppidanus -a -um, (of a town); sometimes (provincial, 'small-town'); m. pl. as subst. (the, inhabitants of a town).
oppido, (quite, very much); in answers, (certainly).
oppidulum -i, n. (a little town).
oppidum -i, n. (a town); in Britain, (a fortified wood).
oppignero -are, (to pledge, pawn, give in pledge).
oppilo -are, (to stop up, block up).
oppleo -plere -plevi -pletum, (to fill up, block).
oppono -ponere -posui -positum, (to put opposite or before; to pledge against, mortgage for; to set against, oppose, interpose; to
allege as an objection; to contrast). Hence partic., oppositus -a -um, (standing against, opposite).
opportunitas -atis, f. (convenience, fitness; a fit time, opportunity; advantage).
opportunus -a -um, (opportune, fit, suitable, convenient); of time, (favorable); with dat., sometimes, (exposed, liable to). Adv.
opportune, (seasonably, conveniently).
oppositio -onis, f. (opposing, opposition).
oppositus (1) -a -um, partic. from oppono; q.v.
oppositus (2) -us, m. (placing against, opposing, interposition).
oppressio -onis, f. (pressing down, oppression; suppression; seizure).
oppressus (1) -us, m. (pressing down, pressure).
oppressus (2) -a -um, partic. from opprimo; q.v.
opprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, (1) (to press upon, press down; to crush, smother, stamp out). (2) (to catch, take by surprise,
occupy forcibly).
opprobrium -i, n. (reproach, scandal, disgrace; a verbal reproach, taunt; a cause of, disgrace).
opprobro -are, (to taunt, reproach).
oppugnatio -onis, f. (an assault on a town); in gen. (an attack).
oppugnator -oris, m. (an assailant, attacker).
oppugno -are, (to attack, assault).
ops opis, f.: in nom. sing., (the goddess of abundance); other cases opem, opis, ope, (might, power, esp. power to aid; help, support);
plur. opes, (resources, means, wealth).
ops-, see obs-.
optabilis -e, (desirable, to be wished for).

optatio -onis, f. (a wish).
optimas -atis, (one of the best, aristocratic); m. pl. as subst. optimates, (the aristocratic, party, the aristocrats).
optimus, see bonus.
optio (1) -onis, f. (choice, option).
optio (2) -onis, m. (a helper, assistant).
optivus -a -um, (chosen).
opto -are, (to choose, select; to wish for, desire). Hence partic. optatus -a -um, (wished for, desired, welcome); n. as subst. optatum,
(a wish); abl. optato, (according to one's wish).
opulens -entis, see opulentus.
opulentia -ae, f. (wealth, riches, opulence; the power, greatness of a state)
opulento -are, (to make wealthy, enrich).
opulentus -a -um, also opulens -entis, adj. (rich, wealthy; powerful, mighty; splendid, sumptuous; lucrative). Adv. opulente and
opulenter, (richly, splendidly).
opus -eris, n. (work, labor; work done, a finished work; a building; a literary work or a, work of art); plur. milit. (works, lines, siege-
engines). opus est (or sunt), (there is work, there is need; one needs, it is necessary) (with nom., abl., or genit. of what is needed).
opusculum -i, n. (a little work).
ora -ae, f. (edge, rim, boundary); esp. (coastline, coast); in gen., (region, clime, country; the people of a district; a hawser, cable
reaching to a shore).
oraculum (oraclum) -i, n. (a solemn utterance, oracle, divine response, prophecy); also (the place, where an oracle is given).
oratio -onis, f. (speaking, speech; language, style); esp. (a set speech; eloquence; prose;, an imperial message).
oratiuncula -ae, f. (a little speech, short oration).
orator -oris, m. (speaker; spokesman, envoy; orator).
oratorius -a -um, (of an orator, oratorical); f. as subst. (oratory); adv. oratorie.
oratrix -icis, f. (a female suppliant).
oratu, abl. sing. m. (by request).
orbator -oris, m. (one who deprives another of children or parents).
orbis -is, m. (a circle, ring, disk; orbit, coil); 'orbis signifer', (the Zodiac); 'orbis, lacteus', (the Milky Way); 'orbis terrae, terrarum', (the
world). Transf., (rotation, round); of style, (roundness).
orbita -ae, f. (a wheel rut).
orbitas -atis, f. (bereavement, loss of children or parents).
orbo -are, (to bereave, deprive of parents or children).
orbus -a -um, (deprived of children or parents); as subst. (an orphan); in gen. (deprived, destitute).
orca -ae, f. (a pot or jar with a large belly).
orchas -adis, f. (a species of olive).
orchestra -ae, f. (the part of a Roman theater reserved for senators); meton. (the senate).
Orcus -i, m. (Orcus, the infernal regions). Transf. (the god of the lower world;, death).
ordeum, = hordeum; q.v.
ordinarius -a -um, (according to order, regular, ordinary).
ordinatim, (in good order, regularly, properly).
ordinatio -onis, f. (setting in order, arrangement).
ordino -are, (to set in order, settle, arrange, appoint; to govern a country). Hence, partic. ordinatus -a -um, (arranged, orderly).
ordior ordiri orsus, dep. (to begin); esp. (to begin speaking). N. pl. of partic. as subst. orsa, -orum, (beginnings, undertakings); esp.
(words uttered, speech).
ordo -inis, m. (a series, line, row, order); milit. (a line, rank, file); 'ordinem, ducere', (to be a centurion); polit. and socially, (an order,
rank, class); in, gen. (order, arrangement); 'ordine', (in turn, in due order, regularly);, 'extra ordinem', (in an unusual, irregular
Oreas -adis, f. (a mountain nymph).
Orestes -ae and -is, m. (son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, who killed his mother to avenge his, father).

orexis -is, f. (desire, appetite).
organicus -i, m. (a musician).
organum -i, n. (an instrument; esp. a musical instrument).
orgia -orum, n. pl. (a secret festival; mysteries; orgies).
orichalcum -i, n. (yellow copper ore; brass).
oricula, = auricula; q.v.
oriens, see orior.
origo -inis, f. (origin, source, beginning; an ancestor).
Orion -onis, m. (the constellation Orion).
orior oriri ortus, dep. (to rise; to spring up, be born, proceed from a source or cause). Hence, partic. oriens -entis, (rising). M. as
subst.(the rising sun; the east; the, morning).
oriundus -a -um, (arising from, springing from).
ornamentum -i, n. (equipment, trappings, furniture; ornament, decoration; honor, distinction).
ornatrix -icis, f. (a female hairdresser).
ornatus (1) -a -um, partic. from orno; q.v.
ornatus (2) -us, m. (dress, attire, equipment; embellishment, ornament).
orno -are, (to equip, furnish, fit out); also (to adorn, decorate, embellish; to honor, distinguish). Hence partic. ornatus -a -um,
(furnished, equipped, provided;, adorned, decorated, embellished). Adv. ornate, (splendidly, elegantly).
ornus -i, f. (the mountain ash).
oro -are, (to speak); esp. (to speak as an orator); with acc., (to treat, argue, plead;, to beg, pray, entreat, beseech).
Orontes -is and -ae, m. (chief river of Syria).
Orpheus -ei and -eos, (a mythical minstrel, husband of Euridice).
orsa, see ordior.
orsus -us, m. (a beginning, undertaking).
ortus (1) -a -um, partic. from orior; q.v.
ortus (2) -us, m.: of heavenly bodies, (rising); of persons, (origin, birth). in gen., (origin, source).
oryx -ygis, m. (a wild goat or gazelle).
oryza -ae, f. (rice).
os (1) oris, n. (1) (the mouth); hence (voice, talk); 'uno ore', (unanimously); in gen., (mouth, opening, source). (2) (the face,
countenance; presence, sight;, expression; boldness of expression, impudence; a mask).
os (2) ossis, n. (a bone).
oscen -inis, m. (a bird from whose note auguries were taken) (e.g., raven, owl, crow).
Osci -orum, m. (an ancient people of Italy).
oscillum -i, n. (a little mask).
oscitatio -onis, f. (gaping, yawning).
oscito -are, (to gape, yawn); partic. oscitans -antis, (yawning, sleepy, listless); adv., oscitanter.
osculatio -onis, f. (kissing).
osculor -ari, dep. (to kiss; to caress, make much of).
osculum -i, n. (a little mouth; a kiss).
osor -oris, m. (a hater).
Ossa -ae, m. and f. (a mountain range in Thessaly).
osseus -a -um, (bony).
ossifragus -i, m. and ossifraga -ae, f. (the sea eagle, osprey).
ostendo -tendere -tendi -tentum and -tensum, (to hold out, show, reveal, present); in speech, (to make plain, declare). N., of partic.
as subst. ostentum -i, (a prodigy, portent).
ostentatio -onis, f. (showing, revealing; showing off, display; deceitful show, pretence).
ostentator -oris, m. (one who shows; esp. a boaster).
ostento -are, (to hold out, present, offer; to show, reveal; to show off, display); in, speech, (to declare, make known).
ostentui, dat. sing. m. (for a show; merely for show; as a sign or proof).
ostentum, see ostendo.

Ostia -ae, f. and Ostia -orum, n. (the harbor and port of Rome, at the mouth of the, Tiber); adj. Ostiensis -e,
ostiarium -i, n. (a door-tax).
ostiatim, (from door to door).
ostium -i, n. (door); in gen. (entrance); 'fluminis', (mouth).
ostrea -ae, f. and ostreum -i, n. (an oyster).
ostrifer -fera -ferum, (producing oysters).
ostrinus -a -um, (purple).
ostrum -i, n. (purple dye prepared from a shellfish; a purple dress).
Otho -onis, m. (a Roman cognomen).
otior -ari, dep. (to be at leisure).
otiosus -a -um, (at leisure), esp. (free from public duties; calm, quiet, undisturbed, neutral). Adv. otiose, (at leisure; quietly, easily).
otium -i, n. (free time, leisure, ease; peace, repose).
ovans -antis, partic. (rejoicing, exulting); esp. (celebrating the minor triumph (the, ovatio)).
ovatio -onis, f. (an ovation, a kind of lesser triumph).
Ovidius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens); esp. of the poet P. Ovidius Naso, (43 B.C.-17 A.D.).
ovile -is, n. (a sheepfold, an enclosure).
ovillus -a -um, (of sheep).
ovis -is, f. (a sheep).
ovum -i, n. (an egg).
pabulatio -onis, f. (procuring fodder, foraging).
pabulator -oris, m. (a forager).
pabulor -ari, dep. (to forage, seek fodder).
pabulum -i, n. (food, nourishment, fodder).
pacalis -e, (peaceful).
pacifer -fera -ferum, (peace-bringing).
pacificatio -onis, f. (making of peace, pacification).
pacificator -oris, m. (a peacemaker).
pacificatorius -a -um, (peacemaking, pacific).
pacifico -are, (to make peace; to appease, pacify).
pacificus -a -um, (peacemaking, pacific).
paciscor pacisci pactus, dep. (to make a bargain or agreement, to covenant, contract); transit. (to, stipulate for, bargain for); also (to
give in exchange). Perf. partic. in, pass. sense, pactus -a -um, (agreed upon, stipulated; betrothed). N. as subst., pactum -i, (an
agreement, treaty, pact); 'quo pacto?', (how?); 'alio pacto', (in another way).
paco -are, (to pacify, make peaceful); poet. (to make fruitful). Hence partic. pacatus -a, -um, (peaceful, quiet); n. as subst. (a peaceful
pactio -onis, f. (a bargain, contract, agreement, treaty).
pactor -oris, m. (one who makes a contract or treaty, negotiator).
pactum, see paciscor.
pactus, see paciscor.
Pacuvius -i, m. (a Roman tragic poet).
Padus -i, m. (the river Po).
paean -anis, m. (1) (the Healer, a surname of Apollo). (2) (a hymn, paean).
paedagogus -i, m. (a slave who accompanied children to and from school).
paedor -oris, m. (dirt, filth).
paelex (pellex) -licis, f. (a mistress, concubine).
paelicatus -us, m. (concubinage).
Paeligni -orum, m. pl. (an Italian tribe).
paene, (nearly, almost).
paeninsula -ae, f. (a peninsula).
paenitentia -ae, f. (repentance, regret).
paeniteo -ere, (to repent, regret, be sorry); impers. 'paenitet hominem', (a person feels, regret, is sorry);

gerundive paenitendus -a -um, (regrettable, unsatisfactory).
paenula -ae, f. (a travelling cloak, greatcoat).
paenulatus -a -um, (wearing the paenula; q.v.).
paeon -onis, m. (a metrical foot, consisting of three short syllables and one long).
Paestum -i, n. (a town in Lucania, famous for roses).
paetulus -a -um, (with a slight cast in the eyes, squinting).
paetus -a -um, (with a cast in the eyes, squinting).
paganus -a -um, (belonging to a village, rural, rustic); m. as subst. (a villager, countryman).
pagatim, (in villages, by villages).
pagella -ae, f. (a little page).
pagina -ae, f. (a page of a letter, book, etc.).
paginula -ae, f. (a little page).
pagus -i, m. (a village or country district; a canton).
pala -ae, f. (a spade; the bezel of a ring).
Palaestina -ae and Palaestine -es, f. (Palestine).
palaestra -ae, f. (a gymnasium or wrestling school; wrestling). Transf., (training in, rhetoric).
palaestricus -a -um, (of the palaestra, gymnastic); adv. palaestrice.
palaestrita -ae, m. (the superintendent of a palaestra; q.v.).
palam, adv. (openly, publicly); prep., with abl., (in the presence of).
Palatium -i, n. (the Palatine Hill in Rome); in plur. (a palace); adj. Palatinus -a -um.
palatum -i, n. and palatus -i, m. (the roof of the mouth, palate; taste; critical, judgment).
palea -ae, f. (chaff).
palear -aris, n. (the dewlap of an ox).
Pales -is, f. (tutelary goddess of herds and shepherds); adj. Palilis -e; n. pl. as, subst. Palilia -ium, (the feast of Pales on the 21st of
palimpsestus -i, m. (a palimpsest).
Palinurus -i, m. (the pilot of Aeneas; a promontory on the coast of Lucania).
paliurus -i, m. (a plant, Christ's thorn).
palla -ae, f. (a long outer garment, esp. as worn by women and actors).
Pallas -adis and -ados, f. (Athene, the Greek goddess of wisdom, identified with Minerva); adj., Palladius -a -um; n. as subst. Palladium
-i, (an image of Pallas).
palleo -ere, (to be pale or yellow); partic. pallens -entis, (pale, wan, yellow, pale, green; causing paleness; drooping, weak).
pallesco pallescere pallui, (to grow pale or yellow); with acc., (to turn pale at).
palliatus -a -um, (clad in a pallium), i.e. as a Greek (opp. togatus).
pallidulus -a -um, (somewhat pale).
pallidus -a -um, (pale, wan; causing paleness).
palliolum -i, n. (a little Greek cloak; a hood).
pallium -i, n. (a coverlet; a Greek mantle).
pallor -oris, m. (paleness, fading).
palma -ae, f. (1) (the palm of the hand; a hand; the blade of an oar). (2) (the palm, tree; a date; a palm broom; a palm branch as token
of victory); hence, (victory, honor, glory).
palmaris -e, (deserving the palm or prize, excellent).
palmarium -i, n. (a masterpiece).
palmatus -a -um, (embroidered with palm branches).
palmes -itis, m. (a young branch, esp. of a vine).
palmetum -i, n. (a palm grove).
palmifer -fera -ferum, (abounding in palm trees).
palmosus -a -um, (full of palms).
palmula -ae, f. (the blade of an oar).
palor -ari, dep. (to wander, stray).
palpebra -ae, f. (eyelid).
palpito -are, (to move quickly, tremble, throb).
palpo -are and palpor -ari, dep. (to stroke; to coax, flatter, wheedle).

paludamentum -i, n. (the military cloak).
paludatus -a -um, (clad in the military cloak).
paludosus -a -um, (marshy, boggy).
palumbes -is, m. and f. (a wood pigeon, ring dove).
palus (1) -i, m. (a pale, stake).
palus (2) -udis, f. (a swamp, marsh, bog).
paluster -tris -tre, (marshy, boggy).
pampineus -a -um, (attached to or consisting of vine tendrils).
pampinus -i, m. and f. (a vine tendril or vine leaf).
Pan Panos, m. (the god of flocks, woods, and shepherds).
panacea -ae, f. (a plant, supposed to heal all diseases; panacea, heal-all).
panaces -is, n. (a plant, supposed to heal all diseases; panacea, heal-all).
panarium -i, n. (a breadbasket).
panchrestus (panchristus) -a -um, (good for everything).
pancratium (-on) -i, n. (a gymnastic contest).
pando pandere pandi pansum and passum, (1) (to stretch out, spread out, extend); 'crines passi', (dishevelled hair)., (2) (to throw
open, lay open, reveal, disclose). Hence partic. passus -a -um, (spread out), esp. (spread out to dry); n. as subst. (raisin wine).
pandus -a -um, (bent, curved, crooked).
pango pangere panxi, (to fasten, fix, drive in). Transf. (to compose, write). In perf. pepigi and, supine pactum, (to fix, settle, agree
upon) (cf. paciscor).
panicum -i, n. (a kind of wild millet).
panis -is, m. (bread); in plur. (loaves).
panniculus -i, m. (a little garment).
Pannonia -ae, f. (Pannonia, a district on the middle Danube).
pannosus -a -um, (ragged, tattered).
pannuceus (-ius) -a -um, (ragged; wrinkled, shrivelled).
pannus -i, m. (a piece of cloth; garment, rag).
Panormus -i, f. and Panormum -i, n. (a town in Sicily) (modern Palermo).
pansa -ae, f. (splay-footed).
panthera -ae, f. (a panther or leopard).
pantomimus -i, m. and pantomima -ae, f. (a dancer, mime).
papae, interj. (wonderful! indeed!).
papas -ae and -atis, m. (a tutor).
papaver -eris, n. (poppy).
papavereus -a -um, (of the poppy).
papilio -onis, m. (butterfly).
papilla -ae, f. (nipple, teat, breast).
Papirius -a -um, (name of a Roman gens).
pappo -are, (to eat).
pappus -i, m. (the wooly seed of certain plants).
papula -ae, f. (a pimple).
papyrifer -fera -ferum, (producing papyrus).
papyrus -i, m. and f. and papyrum -i, n. (the plant papyrus; clothing or paper made from, papyrus).
par paris, (equal, like, a match); m. and f. as subst. (a companion); n. as subst. (the, like, the equivalent, or a pair); 'par impar ludere',
(to play at odd and, even); 'par est', (it is appropriate). Hence adv. pariter, (equally, alike;, together, at the same time).
parabilis -e, (easily procured).
parabola -ae and parabole -es, f. (a comparison).
parasitus -i, m. and parasita -ae, f. (a guest); in bad sense, (a toady, parasite).
paratio -onis, f. (preparing, preparation).
paratus (1) -a -um, partic. from paro; q.v.
paratus (2) -us, m. (preparation, fitting out, equipment).
Parca -ae, f. (a goddess of fate); pl. Parcae, (the three Fates).

parco parcere peperci (and parci) parsum, (to be sparing, economize; to spare, refrain from injuring (with dat.); to, refrain from, keep
oneself from); with infin. (to forbear to).
parcus -a -um, (sparing, thrifty, economical; moderate, sparing); of things, (scanty, small, meager). Adv. parce, (sparingly,
pardus -i, m. (a panther or leopard).
parens (1) -entis, partic. from pareo; q.v.
parens (2) -entis, c. (a parent); sometimes (grandfather, or ancestor; author, cause, origin).
parentalis -e, (parental, of parents (or ancestors)); n. pl. as subst., parentalia -ium, (a, festival in honer of the dead).
parento -are, (to celebrate the parentalia). Transf. (to avenge the dead).
pareo -ere, (to appear, become evident). Transf. (to obey, give way to; to be subject to, serve (with dat.)); partic. parens -entis,
paries -etis, m. (a wall, properly the wall of a house).
parietinae -arum, f. pl. (old walls, ruins).
Parilia, see Pales.
parilis -e, (similar, like, equal).
pario parere peperi partum, fut. partic. pariturus; (to bring forth, bear, produce). Transf. (to occasion, create, make, get).
Paris -idis, m. (a Trojan prince who carried off Helen).
parma -ae, f. (a small round shield, buckler).
parmatus -a -um, (armed with the parma).
parmula -ae, f. (a small round shield, buckler).
Parnasus (-os) -i, m. (a mountain in Phocis, sacred to Apollo and the Muses); f. adj. Parnasis, -idis, and adj. Parnasius -a -um.
paro -are, (to set, put; to prepare, provide, furnish, obtain; to buy). Hence partic., paratus -a -um, (prepared, ready; provided,
equipped); of persons, (skilled)., Adv. parate, (with preparation, readily).
parocha -ae, f. (a supplying of necessaries).
parochus -i, m. (an officer who looked after travelling ambassadors and magistrates)., Transf. (a host).
paropsis -idis, f. (a dessert dish).
Paros (-us) -i, f. (an island in the Aegean Sea, famous for marble); adj. Parius -a -um.
parra -ae, f. (a bird of ill omen, perhaps owl).
parricida -ae, f. (a parricide, one who murders a parent or near relative); polit. (an, assassin, traitor).
parricidium -i, n. (the murder of a parent of any near relative); polit., (assassination, treason).
pars partis, f. (a part, piece, share; a direction, region; a side, party; an actor's, role); in gen., usually plur., (office, function, duty);
'pars...pars', (some...others); 'pro (sua) parte, pro virile parte', (to the best of ones's, ability); 'magna ex parte', (to a great extent);
'multis partibus', (many, times, much). Adv. partim, (partly); used like a noun, (some).
parsimonia -ae, f. (thrift, economy).
Parthi -orum, m. pl. (the Parthians); adj. Parthicus and Parthus -a -um; subst. Parthia -ae, (Parthia).
particeps -cipis, (sharing, participating in) (with genit.); as subst., (partner, comrade).
participo -are, (to share with a person; to cause a person to share).
particula -ae, f. (a small part, particle).
partim, see pars.
partio -ire and partior -iri, dep. (to share out, distribute, divide); perf. partic. in pass. sense, partitus -a -um, (divided); adv. partite,
(with proper divisions).
partitio -onis, f. (division, sharing, distribution).
parturio -ire, (to desire to bring forth, have the pains of labor; to teem with anything, be, full of).
partus (1) -a -um, partic. from pario; q.v.
partus (2) -us, m. (bearing, bringing forth, birth). Transf. (young, offspring).
parum, (too little, not enough) (as adv. and subst.); 'parum habere', (to think too, little, be dissatisfied with). Compar. minus, (less);
sometimes (not, not at, all); 'sin minus', (but if not). Superl. minime (minume), (in the least, degree, very little, least of all);
sometimes (not at all, by no means).
Parus, = Paros; q.v.
parumper, (for a little while).

parvitas -atis, f. (littleness, smallness).
parvulus -a -um, (very small); of age, (young, little).
parvus -a -um, (little, small; slight, weak); of time, (short); of age, (young); of value, (poor, insignificant); n. as subst. (a little). Compar.
minor, (smaller, less); of time, (shorter); of age, 'minor (natu)', (younger); of value, (inferior). Superl. minimus, (smallest, least); n. as
adv. minimum, (very, little). Rare superl. parvissimus.
pasco pascere pavi pastum, (1) transit. (to feed, lead to pasture; to keep, support; to nourish); also, (to give as pasture). Transf. (to
feast, to gratify). Pass. as middle, (to, graze on); also (to feast upon, delight in). (2) intransit., of animals, (to, graze, browse).
pascuus -a -um, (for pasture or grazing); n. as subst. (a pasture).
Pasithea -ae and Pasithee -es, f. (one of the three Graces).
passer -eris, m. (a sparrow or other small bird; a sea fish, a plaice or flounder).
passerculus -i, m. (a little sparrow).
passim, (here and there, far and wide; indiscriminately).
passum -i, n. subst. from pando; q.v.
passus (1) -a -um, partic. from pando; q.v.
passus (2) -a -um, partic. from patior; q.v.
passus (3) -us, m. (a step, stride, pace); esp. as a measure of length = five Roman feet., Transf. (footstep, track).
pastillus -i, m. (a lozenge).
pastio -onis, f. (pasture, pasturing).
pastor -oris, m. (a herd); esp. (a shepherd).
pastoralis -e, (of shepherds, pastoral).
pastoricius -a -um, (of shepherds, pastoral).
pastorius -a -um, (of shepherds, pastoral).
pastus (1) -a -um, partic. from pascor; q.v.
pastus (2) -us, m. (pasture, feeding; food, sustenance).
Patavium -i, n. (a town in north Italy, birthplace of Livy) (now Padua); adj. Patavinus -a, -um.
patefacio -facere -feci -factum, pass. patefio -fieri -factus sum; (to open, throw open, open up, make, accessible; to bring to light,
disclose, reveal).
patefactio -onis, f. (throwing open, disclosing).
patella -ae, f. (a dish, platter, plate).
pateo -ere, (to be open, stand open, be accessible or exposed; to be revealed, disclosed, clear; to stretch out, extend). Hence
partic. patens -entis (open, unobstructed, accessible, exposed); also (evident). Compar. adv. patentius, (more openly).
pater -tris, m. (father, sire; founder, head); 'pater familias', or 'familiae', (head of a, household); plur., patres, (forefathers); also as a
title of the senators, 'patres', or 'patres conscripti'; 'pater patriae', (father of his country, a, national hero).
patera -ae, f. (a shallow dish, saucer).
paternus -a -um, (of a father, paternal; native).
patesco patescere patui, (to be opened, lie open; to be revealed; to spread out).
patibilis -e, pass. (endurable, bearable); act. (sensitive).
patibulum -i, n. (a yoke as an instrument of punishment, a pillory).
patientia -ae, f. (endurance, resignation); in bad sense, (want of spirit).
patina -ae, f. (a dish).
patior pati passus, dep. (to suffer, undergo, experience; to permit, allow). Hence partic. patiens, -entis, (enduring, capable of
enduring) with genit.; (patient); in bad sense, (stubborn). Adv. patienter.
patrator -oris, m. (accomplisher, achiever).
patria -ae, f. (fatherland); see patrius.
patricius -a -um, (of the patres, patrician, noble); m. as subst. (a patrician).
patrimonium -i, n. (property inherited from a father, patrimony).
patrimus -a -um, (having a father still living).
patritus -a -um, (inherited from one's father).
patrius -a -um, (of a father, fatherly, paternal; hereditary; ancestral; native). F. as subst., patria -ae, (sc.

terra), (fatherland, native land).
patro -are, (to accomplish, execute, achieve).
patrocinium -i, n. (the services of a patron); esp. (defence in a court of law); in gen., (defence, protection); n. plur. patrocinia,
patrocinor -ari, dep. (to defend, protect).
patrona -ae, f. (a protectress, patroness).
patronus -i, m. (a protector, defender, patron); esp. (an advocate in a court of law).
patruelis -e, (descended from a father's brother); as subst. (a cousin).
patruus (1) -a -um, adj. (of an uncle).
patruus (2) -i, m. (a father's brother, paternal uncle).
patulus -a -um, (open, standing open; spreading, extended).
paucitas -atis, f. (fewness, scarcity).
pauculus -a -um, (very small); plur. (very few).
paucus -a -um, oftener plur. pauci -ae -a, (a few, little); as subst., m. pl. pauci, (a few, the select few, the oligarchs); n. pl. pauca, (a
few words).
paulatim (paullatim), (gradually, little by little).
paulisper (paullisper), (for a little while).
paululus (paullulus) -a -um, (very little); n. as subst., paululum, (a very little); acc. and abl., as, adv., (a little).
paulus (paullus) -a -um, (little, small); n. as subst. paulum, (a little); acc. and abl., as adv. (a, little).
Paulus -i, m. (the name of a gens in the gens Aemilia).
pauper -eris, (poor); of things, (scanty, meager).
pauperculus -a -um, (poor).
pauperies -ei, f. (poverty).
paupero -are, (to make poor, to deprive).
paupertas -atis, f. (poverty).
pausa -ae, f. (cessation, end).
pausia -ae, f. (a species of olive).
pauxillulus -a -um, (very small, very little).
pauxillus -a -um, (small, little); n. as subst. (a little).
pavefactus -a -um, (frightened, terrified).
paveo pavere pavi, intransit. (to quake with fear, panic); transit. (to quake at).
pavesco -ere, intransit. (to begin to quake, take fright); transit. (to be alarmed by).
pavidus -a -um, (trembling, quaking, fearful; causing fear). Adv. pavide, (fearfully).
pavimento -are, (to pave).
pavimentum -i, n. (a pavement of tiles, brick, stone, etc.).
pavio -ire, (to beat).
pavito -are, intransit. (to shiver, tremble, quake with fear); transit. (to quake at).
pavo -onis, f. (peacock).
pavor -oris, m. (trembling, quaking; fear, panic).
pax pacis, f. (peace; calm, quiet); of the gods, (grace, favor); 'pace tua', (with your, good leave).
pecco -are, (to make a mistake, go wrong, err or sin); n. of partic. as subst. peccatum, -i, (an error, fault, sin).
pecorosus -a -um, (rich in cattle).
pecten -inis, m. (a comb; a weaver's comb; a rake; clasped hands; a quill, for striking the, strings of the lyre; a shellfish, the scallop).
pecto pectere pexi pexum, (to comb; to card; to thrash); partic. pexus -a -um, (with the nap on, wooly).
pectus -oris, n. (breast; heart, soul; mind).
pecu, n. plur. pecua, (sheep, flocks); also (pastures).
pecuarius -a -um, (of sheep or cattle); as subst., m. (a breeder of cattle, grazier); n. pl., (herds of sheep or cattle).
peculator -oris, m. (one who embezzles public money).
peculatus -us, m. (embezzlement of public money).
peculiaris -e, (of one's private property; one's own, special, peculiar); adv. peculiariter, (specially).

peculium -i, n. (small property, savings); esp. (the savings of slaves and sons).
pecunia -ae, f. (property, wealth); esp. (money, cash).
pecuniarius -a -um, (of money, pecuniary).
pecuniosus -a -um, (wealthy, rich; lucrative).
pecus (1) -oris, n. (cattle, herd, flock, esp. of sheep).
pecus (2) -udis, f. (a single head of cattle; a beast, animal); esp. (a sheep).
pedalis -e, (a foot long (or wide)).
pedarius -a -um, (of a foot); '(senatores) pedarii', (senators of inferior rank).
pedes -itis, m.: adj., (going on foot); subst., (a foot soldier); coll., (infantry).
pedester -tris -tre, (on foot, pedestrian); 'copiae', (infantry); sometimes, (on land). Transf., (simple, ordinary, prosaic); of style,
(written in prose).
pedetemptim, (feeling one's way; gradually, cautiously).
pedica -ae, f. (a fetter; a trap, snare).
pediculosus -a -um, (lousy).
pedis -is, c. (a louse).
pedisequus -i, m. and pedisequa -ae, f. (a follower, attendant, lackey).
peditatus -us, m. (infantry).
pedum -i, n. (a shepherd's crook).
Pegasus (-os) -i, m. (the winged horse which produced the fountain Hippocrene); adj. Pegaseius, and Pegaseus -a -um; Pegasides, (the
pegma -atis, n. (a bookcase; a stage, scaffolding).
peiero and periuro -are, (to commit perjury, forswear oneself); with acc., (to swear falsely by).
peior, see malus.
pelagus -i, n., Greek plur. pelage, (the open sea, the main).
pelamys -ydis, f. (the young tunnyfish).
Pelasgi -orum, m. pl. (the Greeks).
Peleus -ei and -eos, m. (king of Thessaly, husband of Thetis, father of Achilles); Pelides -ae, m., (son or grandson of Peleus).
Pelion -i, n. (mountain range in Thessaly); adj. Peliacus and Pelius -a -um.
pellacia -ae, f. (enticing, allurement).
pellax -acis, (deceitful, seductive).
pellego, = perlego; q.v.
pellex, = paelex; q.v.
pellicio -licere -lexi -lectum, (to entice, decoy, seduce).
pellicula -ae, f. (a little skin or hide).
pellio -onis, m. (a furrier).
pellis -is, f. (a hide, skin; dressed hide, leather, felt); milit., (a hut covered with, skins).
pellitus -a -um, (clothed in skins).
pello pellere pepuli pulsum, (to strike, knock, beat; to impel, propel, move, affect; to drive away, dislodge, banish).
pelluceo, = perluceo; q.v.
Peloponnesus -i, f. (the Peloponnese).
Pelops -opis, m. (the father of Atreus and Thyestes).
peloris -idis, f. (an edible shellfish, a clam).
pelta -ae, f. (a small shield).
peltastes or -a -ae, m. (a soldier armed with the pelta).
peltatus -a -um, (armed with the pelta).
pelvis -is, f. (a basin).
penarius -a -um, (of or for provisions).
Penates -ium, m. pl. (the Penates, Latin deities of the household and family). Transf., (home, dwelling).
penatiger -gera -gerum, (carrying the Penates).
pendeo pendere pependi, (to hang; to hang upon, depend on; to hang loose, hover; to be suspended, discontinued; be in suspense,
uncertain, undecided).
pendo pendere pependi pensum, transit. (to cause to hang down; to weigh; to pay out money; to weigh,

consider, judge, value, esteem); 'poenas, supplicia', (to pay a penalty, suffer punishment); intransit. (to weigh). Hence partic. pensus -
a -um, (weighed; esteemed, valued, prized); 'nihil pensi habere', (to put no value, upon, be indifferent about).